Weston Arthur Goodspeed.

The province and the states, a history of the province of Louisiana under France and Spain, and of the territories and states of the United States formed therefrom (Volume 4) online

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ciple of home rule, as in the case of the pcdice act of 1899 ^"<1 t''^'
one which it displaced, was assailed. The Republicans charged
that the objects of the police and the election acts was to dis-
honestly diminish the Republican vote in St. Louis and to dis-
honestly increase the Democratic vote, so as to abolish the Repub-
lican majorities in that city. Many of the Democratic leaders
and newspapers denied this. Frauds on the ballot, however, have
been slunvn to have been committed under this law. The Repub-
lican preponderance in the city was cut almost to the vanishing
point. In 1896, when I3ryan's lead in the state as a whole was
58,727, McKinley had a margin of 15,717 in St. Louis. In n/jo,
inni;. di.itcly after the Kesbit law w'vui into ojic-ration, and when
I'.r;,. ■ phn.dilv in ihr cnlir.' sl.ile h.id f.dkn to .^7,83.), McKin-
ley's maigin in Si. Loins was on!\ (>(>(>. ( )ne St. Louis coiigres-
sion.d drlriel wbidi had b. .11 (airi.-d by ibr Kei-nblicans in



several elections just before the Nesbit law went into effect was
won by tbe Democrats in ujou and tw(j were yained b\- llieni in

The act of congress of March 14, 1900, gave formal recogni-
tion to the gold standard. As the Democrats, however, in 1900
renominated l>ryan, and declared once more for the immediate
restoration of free silver coinage at the 16 to 1 ratio, " without
waiting for the aid or consent of any other nation," and as the
Republicans again put up McKinley on a gold platform, the sil-
ver issue was necessarily dominant, notwithstanding the questions
growing out of the Spanish war of 1898. Neither in Missouri,
nor in any other state, however, was the canvass so exciting as
was that of 1896, though the increase of population made the
aggregate vote greater than it was four years earlier.

The majority for McKinley and Roo.sevelt in the electoral col-
lege was 137, which was a longer lead than was obtained for any
other presidential ticket since Grant's in 1872. In Missouri Cryan
led xMcKinley in 1900 by a little less than 38,000, but this was
21,000 below Bryan's margin in the state four years earlier. The
Democrats elected all of Alissomi's congressmen exeei)t I'artholdt
and Joy.

Alexander M. Dockery, Democrat, defeated Joseph Flory,
Republican, fcjr governor by 32,1^0 \(Aes in 1900, and his party
held each branch of the legislature by a large majority. John A.
Lee, Democrat, was elected lieutenant g(,)vernor. (iovernor Dock-
ery was born near dallatin, I )a\iess county. Mo., in 1846, was
nia\or of (Kdlalin for a time, and had a much longer service in
national office (sixteen years in the popular branch of congress)
than did any of his predecessors at Jefferson City.

With Bryan's defeat in 1900 silver's long and losing battle
for restoration, which Bland began back in 1877, in Hayes's tirst
\ear in the presidency, was brought to an end.

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Missouri ot Today and Tomorrow

Til Rill': months after (".ownior Dockcry cnlcrcil oiTice, or in
April, lyoi, the Dcniucrats gained a notable victory in
St. Louis, carryinfj that Republican stroni;h()Kl for their
city ticket, headed by Kolla Wells for mayor. The election was
rendered of iiarticular importance by the tact that the officials
chosen would serve through the World's Fair periotl. The two
mayors immediately preceding — Cyrus 1'. W'albriilge, elecletl in
1893, and Henry Zeigenhein, chosen in 18(^7 — were Republicans.

Two years later, in i(/)3, .Senator Vest, then seventy-three
years of age, declining to accept :u)olher term, ex-C"ongrossnian
and e\ ( iov. Willi, 1111 J. Sl^ne was chosen to succeed him. Mr.
Vest h.id been m the sen.Ue since iS;.) conli^no^^lv, and li,i,l
won a high repiitalion for his courage, high character and elo-

In 1902 there were discovered in St. Louis the m(jst extensive
boodling operations which had been brought to light in any Ameri-
can city since the Tweed disclosures in New York a generation
earlier. These involved the doings of the St. Louis municipal
assembly and the legislature in Jefferson City. The investiga-
tions and the prosecutions, so far as they covered the transactions
in St. Louis, were pushed by the St. Louis circuit attorney,
Joseph W. I'olic. Mr. h'olk-, who was born in 'Tennessee in iSfxj,
who was graduated from Vanderbilt L'niversit), who settled in
St. Louis in lX(;3, who sui^Huted lir)aii in i.Si/i and K/X), and
who \\:is elected as circuit attorney of St. Louis in Kjoo, tlie
Cnsl piillic offKc wbi.h br evrr b.ld, (|iiicklv, Ihrou-h liis cour-
age and Miccess in uneailbing and in luniisbiii.L; the w rong -doiTs,
becaiih ,1 n.'ilicinal rirmc.



l'\)ll(nviug up clues furuishcd him in January, 1902, by a
St. Liiuis ucwspaiicr reporter, Mr. lujik soon brouL^ht to bj^'-lit
iTookedness in ooiniection with tlic j^rantiuL;- of a franchise to
a street railway conipan)-, which startled the coniuinnit)'. Said
the grand jury in its rei)ort on the matter: "Convincing ducu-
inentary evidence was unearthed pro\'ing that one hundred fcjrty-
five thousand dollars was placed in escrow in a bank in this city
to be paid to the members of the Municipal Assemljly in St. Louis
upon the jiassage of a valuable franchise ordinance. This ordi-
nance failed and a second bill was introduced, upon the passage
(if which the sum of about two luuidred fifty thousand dollars was
distributed among the members. After the passage of this ordi-
nance the franchise was sold for one million two hundred fifty
thousand dollars. The city realized nothing whatever from this

Many persons were indicted — members and cx-meml.iers of the
nuuncipal assembly, for receiving bribes; sloeklu)lders of the
railway com])any and their agents or jiromoters, for sanctioning
or giving bribes ; and some of all these classes, f(;r perjury in
their testimony. Several of the accused fied to Mexico, to F.urope
and to other places. A few wiio stood their ground (and also
one or two fugitives who were brought back or who came back
voluntarily) confessed. Many were convicted. Indictments and
C(jnvictions were also had in C(jnnection with city lighting, with
garl)age collecting and with other sorts of transactions. I^i'pub-
licans and Democrats alike were inv(dved as bril)ers, bribees, or

In the course of these investigations into nuuncipal wrong-
doing, clues were obtained which led to still more extensive
developments in corruinion in the work of the legislature. In its
report on I\Iay 29, 1903, in this connection, the grand jury said:
"The testimony we have heard has shown a state of affairs most
amazing. High state officials have confessed to us of having
been paid bribes for official influence, and having acted as go-be-
tweens in securing bribes for other legislators. . . . Our
investigations have gone back for twelve years, and during that
time the evidence before us shows that corruption has been the
usual and accepted thing in state legislation, and th.it, too, with-
out interference or hindrance. . . . Laws have been sold
to the bijjh' I bidder in nimierous instances that we have evi-
dence of. . nators have been on the pay roll of lobbyists and
served si-nnl iiiteri':.ts instead of the i)iiblic good."

The coriiiption in Jefferson C'ity covered legislation connected



run i'KoriNCE and tiih status.

with baking- ijowder, scIiocjI books, railroad freiglit rates, insur-
ance, street railway consolidation, the St. L(jnis police and elec-
tion commissioners laws, and many other things. Among die
officials involved in 1903 in the scandals was the lieutenant guv-
ernor of the state, who resigned and confeshed. In part of the
investigations in connection with stale legisIati(Mi, Atty. (kn.
Edward C. Crow particii)ated. A little work in this field was
done by local ofificials in Cole county, in which jelferson City
is situated. It was in St. Louis, however, and by Circuit Attorney
Folk, that the most important part of the wi)rk was accomplished.

But these disclosures bring their compensations. Conviction in
nearly every case quickly followed proof of guilt. The locality
has thoroughly appreciated the circuit attorney's services and
enthusiastically aided him. His name has been conspicuously
coupled with the candidacy for the governorship, also with that
for the presidency. Public spirit and civic honesty are nowhere
more widely diffused and more active than they are ii: the slate
and in the principal city. St. Louis's ami .Missouri's vast scheme
of social purihcaliwn on the e\-e of the time when they are to enter-
tain the nations is an inspiring example to other communities
similarly afllicted, and will effectively supplement the World's
Fair's exhibits and lessons in 1904.

The World's Fair will be Missouri's largest event during liio
administration of Governor Dockery. On hVbrnary 5, 1S98,
I-Ion, Richard r.artluildl, of .Missouri, introduced a bill in con-
gress providing for the hohling of an international expo.Mtioii
in St. 1 .oni> in 100^, lo comuieinorale ihe centeniual of the pur-
chase of Louisiana. Some Si. l.oms new.spapers and ])ublic men
had, before that time, recommen.led such a celebration, but the
Bartholdt bill brought the matter to the notice of Missouri and
the country. The destruelion of the .Maine ten days laler, how-
ever, on I'ebruary 15, i.S(;8, and the war with Spain which fol-
lowed it, gave the country things of more pressing moment to
think about, and the expositon project was dropped temporarily.
It was taken up, however, by the Missouri Historical Society in
September, i8y8, committees were appointed by that body to
consider the matter, and on their suggestion a convention was
called by Governor Stephens, of Missouri, to be composed .>f
delegates from each of the states and territories of the Louisi;ma
Provine. , which met in the Southern hotel, St. Louis, on Jami-
:irv 1'.. iSww, and wbirli was presided o\er by Lienl. Gov. J. C
^K•ll.^,,ll.of b,wa.

I^solulions f.ivoring an inlern.ational ex|.o.sition in Si. I.oui-.



in 1903 were adopted b_v tlie Cdnvention, an executive comniittee
was appointetl, witli ex-Ciowrnor iM-aueis at its licad, to arraui^e
plans for the celebration, and this body appointed a coniinittee
of fifty cili/ens, which decided to raise five million (U-llars by
jiopular sul)scri])tion, and urged that five milliuii dollars be am-
tributed by the city of St. Louis and live million dollars by the
United States government. The coniinittee of tifty Ijeing raised
to one of two huntlred, with I'lerre Chouteau as its chairman,
it framed a bill embodying its icleas, and forwarded it to the
Missouri delegation in congress.

On April I2, 1S99, the Missouri legislature enacted a law
incorporating tlie Louisiana l^urchase Exposition Company, and
the legislature subsequently submitted to the pcojjle two consti-
tutional amendments, to he voted on at the general election in
Noveniber, 1900, one of which authorized a one million dollar
appropriation by the state of lAlissouri t\)r the World's h^air, and
the other enabled the people of St. Louis to vote a numicipal sub-,
scription of five million dollars for the same (object.

Congress ]xissed the sundry civil bill on June 4, 1900, with
an amendment proposed by Sen. b'rancis M. Cockrell, of iMissoun,
promising the federal government's support for the World's hair,
and a contribution of five milli(;n dijllars conditional on the
raising of ten million dollar^ b)- subscriiJtion b)- the ])eople of
vSt. Louis and by the municiindity. ( )n No\-ember U, i"oo, the
two Missouri conslilulional amendmeiils were ado|)ted by the
peoi)le, authorizing the St. Louis numicipal contribution of live
million dollars and the api)ropriation by the legislature of one
million (Killars for a slate exhibit at the fair, d'he live million
dollar subscription by the people of St. Louis was completed on
January 12, 1901, the issue of city bonds for a like amount was
authorized by the St. Louis municii)al assembly on January 30,
and a World's Fair bill with a hve million dollar approi)riation,
previously introduced in the house by Hon. Charles F. Joy,
of ]\Iissouri, and referred to a special committee headed by
?Ion. James A. Tawney, of i\linnesota, [massed congress early in
the morning of Afarch 4, i<)oi, and was signed by I'resideiit
McKiiiley. ()n March 12 the i)resident a])pfiinted the commis-
sioners — John ]\I. Thurston, of Xebraska ; Thomas 11. Carter,
of Montana ; William Lindsav, of K.-ntuckv ; (ieorgv W. Md'.ride,
of ()rego;i; hrederirb A. I'.dts, (,1 ( oiuurlinU ; )<,l,ii iM . .'Mien,
of Mi'M ip|M ; iMailln II. CKiui. .4" N.w \>n\. ; |olni h'. Mil
ler, (4' Indi ma, ,iiid I'liihp I ), .^'-eoll, ,,| A 1 l,,,ii:..r. lo loo|. alLr
the go\< . ;ii.iiiit's interests in connection wilh the fair. 'J 'hi- com-

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mission subscquL-nUy (;rg-anize(l by making- Air. Carter president
and xMr. Glynn vice president.

The government's eo-opcratiwii l)eing- secnred, the fair's pro-
moters promptly jilaced the enterpri^.e on a practical basis. On
April l6, KjOl, a vote of the stockholders elected ninety-three
directors, wIk), on JMay 2, the Louisiana Purchase Exposition
Company having been regularly incor])(irated under the laws of
Missouri a few days previon^-Iv, chose IX'n id K. b'rancis as presi-
dent; Corwin II. Spencer, Samuel M. Kennard, l)aniel M.
Ilnuser, Cyrus P. W albridge, Seth W. Cbb, Cliark^, 11. Hut-
tig, August dehner and Pierre Chuuteau, Aice president ; William
PL Thompson, treasurer; and Walter P. Stevens, secretary, while
James L. Blair was subsequently elected as general counsel.

Forest Park, on June 24, iijOi, was selected as the site for the
fair. On August 24 President Mclvinley issued a proclamation
giving notice that an international exposition was to take i)lace
in St. Louis in HjfJ,^ and asking the \vorld to take part in it.
Ground was broken in Forest Park on December 20, 1901, the
ninety-eighth anniversary of the transfer, at New Orleans, of the
Province of Louisiana by h^-ance to the Ihiited Slates, and the
work of clearing the site and erecting the buildings began. On
May 5, 1902, an amendment i)roviding for the i>oslponement of
the fair to 1904 was added to the sundry civil bill in congress.

The world's attention to the coming St. Louis Fair was attracted
in a St. iking way by President iMancis's dash, in February and
March, 1^03, across the Atlanlic and through a large i»art of
l'anii|H', in which he had conferences with h'.dward \T1. of Fng-
lainl, Presiilenl Loubet of I'rance, William 11. of (krmany, Leo-
pold IL of Pelgium, the heads of the ministry of Alfonzo XIII.
of Spain and with a large number of other personages conspicu-
ous in Europe's politics and social affairs, in which he enlisted
their co-operation toward securing the participation of their
respective countries in the e.Kposition. This work in the interest
of publicity was effectively supplemented on April 30, 1903, when
President Roosevelt, in the presence of ex-President Cleveland,
the representatives of many nations, the governors of eighteen
states, and a concourse of iens of thousands of jieople fi^om all
over the country and from many parts of the outside world, dedi-
cated the exposition.

Representing, as it does, a larger investment of money and
a nmcli "u nrr area in ground and lloor space than did any pre-
vi(jus ini' in.dional oqtosilion ever held anywhere, and promis-
ing, as it iilvcwise does, to present a longer list of attractions than

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did any of tlicni, the St. I.oiiis World's Fair of 1904 is certain
to be a Dotal »le event in the annals of Missouri and of the United

Ajiart altoj.;xlher from ihe World's Fair, ihe lastini; effects
of wiiieh must necessarily he widespread, Missouri has nmch
uiion which \o felicitate itself. I'rom a population of _'(),845 in
1810, just before its organization into a territory, and from
66,557 in 1820, the year before its admission as a state, IMissouri
had grown to 3,106,665 in 1900. The twenty-third among twenty-
four states in i8jo, it was the fifth among forty-five in 1900, and
had held that rank among the states since 1870.

One of Missouri's cities, St. I.,ouis, stands fourth on the list
of the country's great towns, with a p(j])ulation of 575,-^38 in
1900, being led only by New York, Chicago and Philadelphia.
Kansas City was twenty-second on the list of the country's cities
in 1900, with a population of 163,752. St. Joseph, with 102,979
inhabitants in that }ear, was thirty-fourth on the roll. The popu-
lation increase for the decade was 27.3 for St. Louis, 23.4 for
Kansas City, and 96.8 for St. Joseph. No other city of St.
Joseph's size or larger made any such proportionate gain as
that town did in the ten years. Kansas City and St. Joseph are
virtually the creation of the past third of a century. Joplin, with
26,000 population in 1900, Springfield with 23,000, Sedalia with
15,000 and Hannibal with 12,000 — to restrict the enumeration to
towns of over 10,000 inhabitants — are also Ihjurishing comnumi-

Missouri's total wealth, for imrimses o\ taxation, was placed,
on June I, 1903, at one billion two hundred eighty million eight
hundred seventy-seven thousand six hundred fourteen dollars.
In some of the items comjiosing this aggregate the amounts are
far below the actual mark. The United States census bureau's
figures of the true valuation of the property of the various states
for 1900 had not been collected when (the. middle of 1903) these
lines of this history were written.

The state has no bonded debt. Its school fund certificates,
three luillion one hundred fifty-nine thousand dollars, and its
seminary fund certificiUes, one million two hundred thirly-nine
thousand eight htmdred Ihirtynine dollars, a total of four mill-
ion three hundred ninety-eight thousand eight hundred thirty-nine
(lollars, as H.ilcd by Auditor Alhi rt ( ). AllVn, npr.sciil ils aggre-
gati- oblif.ili )iis. This ixhihil pl.icrs Missouri in a peculiarly
forlunale \>^> ilon anion^ the eounhy's connnonwealtiis.

Notwii; l.unling the stale's rapid growth in ])opu)ation' and in

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the extent and diversity of its aelivities, Misscun-i's river trade
continues to tlecline. Ivjr the calendar year Kjoj, as sliown hy
the report of the St. Lotii.-^ Merchants Exciian.^e, tlie agg-rei^ate
river tralTic — lower Alississipiii, u|>iier Mississippi, Missouri, Illi-
nois, Ohio, Cuniherl.and ;ind Tennessee -nf St. 1 .ouis was C)|i,i.S_>
tons, as coniii.ired wiUi l)yj,oj() tons in Kjoi and 757,590 tons
in 1900. For the time at least the i^lory oi Mihsoun's j^reat water- ;
ways has dejiarted. St. ].(nhs's railroad trahic, however, is ;
expanding much more r;i])idl3' than its river trade is contracting. ,
The freight movement at St. Louis hy rail, in holh directions in |
the aggregate, ar.ioiniti.-d to more than _'(;,ik)o,ooo ton.-^ for 1902, j
as against 28,000,000 tons for 1901 and 25,000,000 for the preced- |
ing year. I

Those figures are symptomatic of the conditions in Missouri ;
as a whole in this field. There were over 7,000 miles of main
track in the state at the end of 1902, representing fort\'-three steam
railroads. Every one of lAlissouri's 114 counties is traversed hy
a railroad except Dallas, Douglas, C )zark, Stone and Taney.
Missouri's forty-three railroads are parts of systems which re|)-
resenl an aggregate of :i1khi1 4o,(joo miles ni main track, ant! a
cai)ital slock and scrip of a lidK- over one thousand million dollars.
Twenty-four lines of railroad Irrminale in St. 1 .onis. Kansas City
is also an important railwas' center. In die region couim^rciallv
trihntary to Missouri's two leading eilies - d\ansas, Arkansas,
Oklahoma, the Indi.m Terriloiv an.l Texas the raih'oad eon-
slrnclion ol rrernl \ears h.is hei-n mnJi more txlensive llum it
h.is h.vii m .mv oUier p.n 1 ol lli.- I'nn.d .Si,,|.s.

Si. loms, Ihe lillh on llir loll ol the counlry's cities in \)u\n\-
latiou in i(/>o, was also fifili m Ihe amount of its hank clear-
ings, with a total of two hilliou five hundred se\en million dol-
lars, an incrt-ase of 10.3 per cent over HjOi. idiis was a greater
gain than was made in any other large town in the country, the
nearest to it in rale of increase heing Chicago, with an 8.2 per
cent expansion for that }'ear. Kansas City, the twenty-second on
the list of the country's lov^ns in inhahilanls, stood in the tenth
place in bank clearings, nine hundred eighty-nine million dollars,
a gain of 10 per cent over njoi. .St. Joseph, holding the thirty-
fourth place in population, was up in the twenty-third jjosition in
clearings in 1902, with a total of two hundred thirty-lhrci: million

.\ii-.onri w.-is liflh in the )0"^^> value ol ils ;i;m i(adlm;d prod-
licl :, ,110,1- .ill Ihr .sl.iU-s and l.-niloi i.s in m^oo, wilh a lol.il ,,f
tW(, hmidrcd iiiiu U-.ii million doll. us, .and sevnilh In llic v;diic of

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its manufacturers, three huutlred eii^iity-five million dollars. It
stood first among the states in its manufactures of chewing and
smoking tobacco and snutl ; fifth in the manufacture of cars for
steam railroails ; fifth in the i^roduetion of confectionery, and
filth in the extent of its wholesale slaughtering and meat pack-
ing. Missouri's lead and zinc fields are among the richest of the

St. Louis stood sixth among the country's cities in 1900 in

the number of its manufacturing establishments of all sorts,

6,732; sixth in the cajjital in\ested in them, one hundred sixty-two

million dollars ; sixth in the total wages paid, thiity-eight million

dollars; fifth in the number of wage earners, 82,672; and fifth

in the gross value of their product, two hundred thirty-four million

j dollars. In these figures, however, as presented by the census

returns for 1900, Brooklyn is represented as an inde])endent city,

whereas it was annexed to New York two years earlier. This

puts St. Louis up a point in each particular. In the gross value

I of its manufactured product in igotj it Kd l<oston, one of the

' country's great manufacturing centers, and it also led any one

I of thirty-seven entire states. To a larger extent, too, than almost

i any other great town in the country it may be said that St. Louis

j owns itself. By the panic of i893-<j7 St. Louis was hit later

I and lighter than any other of the larger business centers. It

j has a record for financial solidity unsurpassed by that of any

I other of the country's cities.

i It is not in the material things alone that Missouri ranks high

I as a conununily. The tot.d em-oUmeiit of white and colored pupils

I in the stale's public schools- in 1902, as shown by the report of

i W. T. Carrington, state superintentlent of education, was

703,057. These had 16,347 teachers, wb.ose wages in the year
I was five million four thousand nine hur.dred forty-two dollars,

and they taught in 10,320 school houses. The estimated value
of the public school property in the state in the year was twenty-
one million two hundred ten thousand eight hundred ninety-seven
dollars. The aggregate of the permanent school funds of the

Online LibraryWeston Arthur GoodspeedThe province and the states, a history of the province of Louisiana under France and Spain, and of the territories and states of the United States formed therefrom (Volume 4) → online text (page 22 of 53)