Weston Arthur Goodspeed.

The province and the states, a history of the province of Louisiana under France and Spain, and of the territories and states of the United States formed therefrom (Volume 4) online

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the .Shawanese of ( )hio were given lands with the Shawanese
of Missouri, and the ( )ttawas of I'lanchard's l'\)rk and ( )(|uan-
oxie's vill.'i'i were givt-n a reservation in what is now b'rauklin
county. \ii .igri'iinenl with the Kickapoos by which they ceded
their lan<; on the < )Nage liver, and accepted in exchange a tract
about twuit, miles wide and sixty miles long, lying north and



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230 Tin: PROl'INCR AND TUIl STA'riiS.

west of Fort Leavenworth, iiicludini^- all of AlehiNon county and
part of the counties adjoiniuL;-, was reached on the Jjtli of ( )cto-
ber, i83_>. October -'J, a treaty with llie Kaska>kias, IVorias,
and some minor bands, by which those tribes were ,<;iven homes
in Miami ctinnly, was concluded al Castor Hill, St. 1 .onis county,
Mo. Two days later the riankeshaw and Wea tribes were
included in the same reservation. The (juapaw reservation was
established May 13, 1833, that part of it in Kansas beini^- a nar-
row strip across the southern end of Cherokee county. On the
ninth of the followin- October the Confederated I'awnee tribes
ceded all their lands S(nith of the I'lalle river of Nebraska. l!y
this treaty the* government ac(pnreil title to a triaiii^'ular piece
of land in Kansas, lying north and west of Prairie Do^- creek,
the Pawnees accepting- a reserve in Nebraska.

On December 29, 1834, a treaty with the Cherokees, in which
they relinciuisbed all claims to their lands east of the Alississippi
and were gi\en a reservation containing about 800 scpiare miles
in the southeast corner of Kansas, was made at New F.chola,
Ga.*

Uetween the years 1835 and 1850 se\'eral other tribes were
removed from the states east of the Mississijjpi and given lands
in Kansas. In May, 1836, the Chippewas of Michigan were
located in Franklin county. In September of the s.ame \ear the
lowas and Sacs and luj.xes were given small reser\ations along
the Missouri river in the extreme ncirlheaslern corner of the
state. N'arious New \'ork tribes were ([uartered on a strip
twenly-seven miles wide, l\ing directis north ui llu neutral land
and lunning w.'.-,t from the Missouri boundary thi-oui;h liour-
bon, Allen, Woodson and (ireenwooil counties. Just north of
this New York reservation, the Miamis were given lands b)' the
treaty of November 6, 1840. March 17, 1842, the W'yandots
of Ohio ceded their lamls in that state and accepted a reserve,
beginning at the conlluence of the Missoin-i and Kansas rivers,
running up the Kansas to the lands of the Kansas Indians, and
extending up the Missouri to b'ort Leavenworth.

The Kansas Indians ceded 2,000,000 acres off the east end
of lln'ir reNervation on January ip 18 |f), for the benelil of the
Methodist mission, and received in exi bailee a tract of timbered
land lying a little southeast of Comicil (irovt'.

Whili I be lands were being thus parceled out, military posts,
desiipud lo presiMx'c orik-r anion;' llie v.arions tribes and pro-

♦TliiM ,. .. luillun u.is iilhTwiud KiM.wu iis -.NCmOuI i.:ituV niul was colol

Id n.i> iiillid .Sliili.; .Inly I'.), I.scii, In l.i hwM fm lln' hrrjilil ,,1 i\u- CImioKh^
Niilloii.






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.PRnrnRRITORLlL ni'HNTS IN KANSAS.



-^31



tcct tliL'ir iiilLTcsts were cslahlislied. I'ort Scolt was begun in
iS.jJ, tlioui^li it was iKil edinpK'led iiiilil Iwo \ears later.

Ill 1S51) Cdlonel Suiiiiier hiiill a I'mt iii'ar the i)resent site of
Wnh^c City, wliieii at lirst hore the name of l'\)rt Sumner, but
the ft)llowint^" year was named h'ort Alkin.son. It was eon^tructed
of poles, brush, and sod, and was i^arrisoned liy a port of the
Sixth Ihiited States infantry under I'aptain ihiekner until 1853,
ulieii it became uninhabitable and was turn di)\\n to j)revent the
Indians from taking" l)os^es^i(ln. l'\;rt i\ile\', tirst ealled Camp
Center, because it is the geoi^raphioal center of the I'nited States,
was established in 1852, and nameil in honor of t\'n. iiennett C.
Riley. Jt was (jne of the mo.st imijcndant and best constructed
military posts of Kansas.

Notwithstanding the fact that the Indians were ]M-omised in
1830 that, if they would surrender their eastern lands and accept
homes west of the Mis^is^ippl, they should never again be dis-
turbed, hardly had the last of the tribt-s been cpi.artered in the new
region than ne;^"i illations were in^-lituted to secLue their reserva-
tions for white settlers. It is a fact worth} of n.ite that nearly all
the treaties b)' which the lands of K'ansas were secured to the
white peojile, were made at Washington, 1). C. The chiefs of
these untutored children of the forest and plain were induced to
visit the national capital, 'idiere ihev were wined and dined; they
were shown the sights; there, annd the seductive >urrouiulings,
they list<nrd U, the i)ersuasive tongues of their dreat heather's
regents, and, like I'^sau of old. snld their birthrights for a mess of
lHilla,L;e. What wonder that settlers upon the frontier ha\-e been
ruthlessly mur<lered, and their homes been burned to the gre)nnd?
Unable to cope with the white man in the art of bargaining, the
chiefs frittered away the iJ.atrimony of their people. The masses
of the tril)C knew no remedy but brute force to wrest the lands
from the brmds of the pale-faces.

On April 1, 1850, the \Y\andots ceded all claims to 148,000
acres of their reservation lying between the Kansas and Missouri
rivers, for which the government agreed to pay one dollar and
twenty-five cents an acre. May 6, 1853, the Delawares relin-
quislied their claims ti> the lands of the tribe I^ing between the
Missouri and K'ansas.

( )n M.iv 10, 1S51, the Shawanese chiefs while in Washington,
ce.led all'llie re.-ervatiwn esl;,blisbed for them m i,S_'5, except
-()o,(K.(> .. IS. The boundaries of the cr^U'^l l:mds were as fol-
lows, r ,:, Mining at a |>omt on the \\M-,lern bound, uy line of the
state of Missouri three miles s(nith of the Kansas river; thence



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232



run I'lKoriNCE and the sr.-niiS.



south alon.L;" tlie iMissouri line 25 miles; iheiice \ve>t uu miles;
thence north to a ])oint from which a liiK- ih'awn clue east wouKl
intersect the southern houndary of the Kansas Imlian reservation;
thence east on this line to the southeast corner of the Kansas
reservation; thence north aloni;- the eastern hiiundar\- of .said
reservation to the Kansas river, thence alonL; the south hank of the
river to a point tine wet-t of the startint;- [ilace, and thence in a
direct line to the place of heqinnini;-.

On the 17th of May the lowas ceded their several small tracts
in the northeastern part of the .^tate, and received a reservation
between Kohart's creek and the Xeniaha river. 'Jdie ne.^t day the
Sacs and I-'oxes ceded their lands in Kansas and accepted a reserve
in Nebraska. At the same time the Kickai)oo chiefs ceded the
lands of that tribe, acipiired 1)_\ the treat)- of May 24, 183-', except
350,000 acres at the we.st end of the reser\ation. The lands of
the Kaskaskias, Teorias, and I 'iankeshaws, were ceded on the
30th of Ma>-, 1854, and those of the Miamis, on the 5lh of June".

At the beginning of the year 1853 there \vere about fourteen
hundreil white peoj^le in Kansas. 'Ihe)- were gathered about the
military and trading ]iosts, or the mi-ssieuis, ancl were either
soldiers, traders, or missionaries. A few white families were
located at 1-dm and at Council l^rove; a settlement had been
started at Uniontown in 1S52; and Delaware i)ost office, (ju the
Kansas river, about ten mile.s above the mouth, had a few white
Settlers. There were also a few white men living on the Wyandot
Indian reservation.

C)n juh' 28, 1853, a convention was held at Wyamloiie to nomi-
nate a delegate to congress. The friends of Thomas 11. I'.euton
sui)ported Abelard (iuthrie, while the follower.s of 1). K. .\tchisoii
gave their supi)ort to Rev. Thouias Johnson, the founder of the
Methodist mission. Guthrie was nominated, but on the 20th of
September Atchison's friends assembled and nominated Johnson
as an opposing candidate. The election was held at the Indian
village of Kickapoo, and Johnson was elected by Indian votes.
IJ|)on the assembling of congress, he went to Washington, but
was not admitted as a delegate, because the territory had not yet
been organized.*

liUt the conditions were such that the organixalion of a sej)-
arate territcn-y west of the Missouri could not be long delayed.
The Indian titles were being e.xtinguished, .and m.my w bite ])eo|)le
were looking with longing eyes at the fertile pl.iins of Kansas.

•Then' In ., ..•poll ,,r iiii .•l,rll„n ,.( n ilrlci,':,!,' in l.S.'.L' l,v II,,. f,.u ulill.'S
llvllih' 1111, ui:;- 1.1, Wyim,lot,(., lii,lii,i,s. bul il is ii.,l Wi'U aiil l„Mil I.mIoI.



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I'RIiTllUKiroRlAL El'liNTS IN KANSAS.



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i\s early as DLOcmljcr 13, 1852, a hill had hccii itiinjiluced in the •
iiatiMiial house of represeiitalives hy W'illard 1'. Hall, of Alihhouri.
It provided for the oryanizatioii of the 'I'erritor)' of 1 Matte, which
included the present states of Nehraska and Kansas. It was
referred to the committee on territories, however, and the matter
rested until February 2, 1853, when William A. kichardson, of
Illinois, a member of the committee on territories, reported a bill ''■'
to organize the Territory of Nebraska. This bill passed the house
on the loth of February, by a vote of 98 to 43, and was sent to the
senate, where it was favorably reported by Stephen A. Douglas . -'
on the 17th. On the 3d of March the measure was tabled in the ''
senate — 2}, to 17, and thus ended the second effort to establish a """■
territory west of the IMissouri. '

No reference to the slavery (piestion was made in eilher tlie Hall ''''
or (he Richardson bill, 'jhe act of i8_'o, known as the Missouri * .' ''^
("onipromise, provided that all lerrilniv of Louisiana purchase ''"'''
lying north of },() ilegrees 31) minutes should be organizedinto free t' *'
states. No one (luestioned the lt)rce or stjundness of this [)rovision,
which had i)een the law of the land for more than thirty years; ' '
and had either of the bills mentioned become a law, Kansas would
have been organize<l as a free territorx', and admitted as a free
state, without dispute.

The third essay, and, as it proved, the successful one, to organ-
ize Kansas into a terrilor)', was begun on the .|lh of December,
J853, when Augustus ( ". Dodge ollered a bill in tiie I'niled Stales
senate to organize the Territory of Mei)raska. All the territory
\\esl (d' Iowa and Missomi to the l\ock\' mountains was included
uilhm the boundaries propo^e<l by .Mr. Dodge. The hill was
reported JKiek' to the senate, January 4, 1854, by Stephen .\. Doug-
las, with several important amendments. Ilefore action was taken
on the measure Senator Douglas reported a substitute (Jan-
uary 23) providing for the organization of two territories, Kansas
and Nebraska. This bill afterward became universally known as
the Kansas-Nebraska bill.

When California had applied for admission into the Union in
1850, the people of that state had adoi)ted and submitted to con-
gress a constitution expressly prohibiting slavery. This re-opened
the subject of slavery in congress and led to the i);iss.'ige of the
"Omnibus I'.ill" i)ropose<l by Henry Clay. I'oll.iwing the lead of
this measure, Douglas incoriiorated the following piovision in
the Kansas \'i braska nuasure:

"Thai the .Ml lilnlion. and all l.iws of the Ihiil.d Sl.des which
are not loc;;(:> niapi)licable, shall have the .same force and elTect



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234



THE PROriNCE AND THE STATES.



,. within the said territory of Kansas as elsewhere witliin the

United States, except the eij^hth section of the act preparatory to

the aihnission of Alissonri into the L'nion, apiM-w\Kl Marcli sixth,

j eighteen hnndreil ami twenty, whicii, heini;- inconsistent with the

prineii)lc of non-intervention by Congress with slaver) in the

States and Territories, as recognized by the legislation of eighteen

.1 hundred and fifty, connnonly called the Compromise Measure, is

;, hereby declared iiu3perati\e and void ; it being the true intent and

i meaning of this act not to legislate slaver\' into an\' territory or

slate, nor to exclude it therefrom, iuit to Kax'c the people thereof

perfectly free to form ami regulate their domestic institutions in

their own way, subject only to the Conslilntion of the United

r States; provided, that nothing herein contained shall be con-

(. strued to revive or put in force any law or regulation which may

i' have existed prior to the act of the sixth of March, eighteen hun-

^ dred ami t\veiit\', either ])rotecting, establishing, ]n-ohil)iting, or

< abolishing slaver)."

J An acrimonious debate followed the introduction of the bill.

{ Amendments giving the ])eople oi the territory the ])o\ver to i)ro-

(., hibit slavery and io elect their own governor were offered by

,, Salmon P. Chase, of Ohio, but they were ])roiniJtly voted ilowii.

•,-, Tlie bill passed the senate about Umv o'clock in the morning of

^ March 4, 1854, by a vt)te of 37 to 14, ami was sent to the house

where it was passed at midnight. May 22 — 157 a)es to 100 noes.
[ While the bill was on its j)assage in the senate, Charles Sumner

of Massachuselts made a speech in which he said :
; "Sir, the bill which \ 011 are about to pa^s is at oiice the worst

antl the best bill on which Congress e\'er acted. . . . It is
the worst bill, iiuiMnuch as it is a present \-ictor)' for slavery.
It is the best liill on which Congress ever acted, for it
annuls all past compromises with slaver)-, and makes future com-
promises impossible. Thus it ])uts freedom ami slavery face to
face and bitls them gra])])le. Who can doubt the result.

"Thus, sir, now standing at the ver\' grave of f'-eedom in
Nebraska and Kansas, 1 lift myself to the vision of that happy
resurrection, by which freedom will be secure<l. not only to these
'J'errilorit'S, but e\er)\vbere under the nalional go\ernmeiU.
Sorrowfully J bend bc'fore liie wrong yon are about to
commit; joyfully I wi Icoiiie all ibe promises (jf the fulme."

lu Ihe light of Subse(|Uelll evellls lllese Words seem pldplu'tic.
Had :!.. r.iiiloiN' ,,| K.ms.r. beeu .ar.ani/e,| under llie Hall or
the I'uli.irdsoii bill, Ibe gieal livil war, with all its dire C(;ii.se-
(juenccs, niighl have iieen posljioned foi' yi ,irs. I'.ut the aggres-



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'Jilt frsriii'.



rRlilliRlUrOUlAL Ul'UNTS IN KANSAS. 235

sivencss of the slave power forced the issue, and the world knows
the result.

On May 30, 1854, President Pierce approved the Kansas-
Nebraska bill, and the lands recently purchased from the various
Indian tribes were thrown open to settlement. Regarding these
treaties, Greeley, in his American conflict, says: "These simul-
taneous purchases of Indian lands by the govermrient, though lit- . v
tie was known of them elsewhere, were thoroughly understood
and appreciated by the Missourians of the Western border, who
had for some time been organizing 'Blue Lodges,' 'Social Bands,'
'Sons of the South' and oilier societies with intent to take posses-
sion of Kansas in behalf of Slavery." ' i

Doctor String-fellow, in his testimony before the congressional , t

investigating committee two years later, stated that the purpose of '■ <

the Kansas-NeJM-aska bill was to niakc Kansas a slave state, and ^^ )

that the president and those ai)poinled In carry out its ]M-ovisions
so understood. Senator Douglas, the chami)inn of the bill, denied ;r '

that this was the object of the measure. Ife declared that the • i\ :
purpose of the bill was simply to take from congress the power to ). r ■[

regulate the domestic affairs of the states, leaving all such ques- ..•■ ',

tions to the i)e(i])le themselves. 1 lowever this may be, as soon as ./id j

it v/as definitely known that the Kansas-Nebraska bill had become nd !

a law hundreci of Missourians crossed the border into Kansas, w, I

selected claims, held squatter meetings, and returned to Missouri. •'- ]

At one of these meetings they passed resolutions declaring that |

protection would be given to no abolitionist as a settler of the \

terrilor\- ; recogni/ing the institution of slavery as already existing
in Kansas, and advi>mg slave-liolders to bring their property
into the territory as soon, as jKJSsible. Slavery was actually intro-
duced by Rev. Thomas Johnson, the head of the Shawanese mis-
sion. Johnson has been described as "vulgar, illiterate and
coarse." When he took charge of the mission, it was declared
that he was "not worth a blanket" but that he got rich off the
Shawanese through the cesions of several thousand acres of land
given to the mission.

But, while the pro-slavery advocates were thus at work, the
free state men were not idle. April 26, 1854, the Massachusetts
legislatm-e passed an act incorporating the Massachu.setts Emi-
grant Aid Society, with a capital luA exceeding five millions of
dollars, the object of tlie society being l(; assist emigrants in set-
tling up liu West.

lunigraiii ;iiil societies were organized in several others of the



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^p, ? .'■ THE I'ROriNCi: AND TIIR STAl'lLS.

V ■ Nortlicrn and Kasteni states. AmoiiL,'^ thcni were llie American

1 Settlement Coni|)any, of New York City, with Theodore Dwight

..;; as secretary; tlie New York Kansas Leagne ; the W',t;-etarian Set-

-; • tlement Company, etc. I'.iit the greatest of all anil the only one

'- ' that endured to the end of the contlict, was the New h.nt^land Enii-

i' ' grant Aid Company, organized in June, with Amos A. Lawrence,

J. Af. F. Williams and F.li Thayer, trustees, and Dr. Thomas H.

,: \- W'ebl), secretary. 'J'he active agents of the society, were in the

'• N order of appointment, Dr. Charles Rol)inson, S. C. Pomeroy,

;. - William P.. Spo..ner, J. M. 1-. Williams, Pli Thaver, Dr. S. Cahot,

Jr., K. P. Waters, \)v. I.ell.in.n Russell, Charles J. Iligguison and

JCdward Pverelt Hale. This sixiet\ advertised emigration aC

"wholesale prices," and (Miedialf the saw mills in Kansas, located

during- the first years of settlement, were taken to the territory by

• ,; its capital.

(!:«■ These societies naturally aroused the oi)i)(»sition of the pro-
,.: slavery element. W'Iku the iii'st free state emigrants arrived in
, /\ Kansas, the pro-slavery men of Westport, J\Io., met, formed
.. ■■.- an association, and resolved: "That this association will, when-
ever called upon by any of the citizens of Kansas Territory, hold
itself in readiness together to assist in the removal of any and
all ernig-rants who g-o there under the aus])ices of the Northern
Emigrant Societies." The association, in the hope that a formid-
able display of opposition might deter the free state men from
trying- to effect settlements in Kansas, also called ujwn the citizens
of other counties along the border to organize similar associations
and pass similar i-esolulidus.

The proxunily of Ali>,Miuri, a slave slate, gave the i)ro-slavery
men an advantage which the\- were not skiw to utilize. June 1.5,
1854, the Leavenworth Town Company was organized at Weston,
INlo., with Major Macklin of the U. S. Army, Amos Rees and
L. D. Pird, trustees. The Atchison Town Company was formed
on the 27th of July, with Peter T. Alxll, i)resident ; J. H. String-
fellow, secretary, and James N. Purnes, treasurer, though the
first sale of lots did not take place until Sei)teniber.

Although the pro-slavery men were thus Hie first to locate town
sites and pre-empt claims, they were not the first to establish a
permanent settlement. Tlu- New l'".ngland Aid Society sent
Charles Robinson and Charles H. I!ransci)mb to the territory to
select a site for the fi^^l cokmy of casltrn immigrants. They
selci 1 ,i the iilacc where the eily of I .;iwreiK-i' now stands, ami on
(he I .1 u\ Atignsl Hie Inst companv of Ihirlv arrived, and began









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PRllTHRRITORIAL El'IlNTS IN KANSAS. 237

the tirht nulc structures in the future city/'' A second party of
(Uie hundred and fourteen came in Septeniljer, among- them being
Doctor Robinson and S. C. I'omeroy.t I'.y the clo>e of the )ear
free state settlements hatl l)een made at Manhattan, Grasshojiper
Falls and Topeka, the foundations of the last nanud heiui^ laid
on the 5tli of December by Col. C". K. llolliday, M. C. Dickey,
V. \y. Giles, and others.

Jioth side early established newspapers in the territory. On
September 15, the lirst issue of the Leavenworth Herald, a i)ro-
slavery jKiper, made its api)earance. It was printed under a lar<^-e
elm tree, no buildini;- ha\in,< \et been erected for its accommoda-
tion. A month later, October 15. the Kansas I'ribunc. of Law-
rence, a free-state i>aijer, api^eared. The first number (jf this
paper was printed in ( )hio, though the matter was prepared in
Kansas by the etlitor, John Speer. October Ji , the hrst number
of the Herald of Freedom, another free-state ]Xii)er, was ]n\h-
lished at W'akarusa, by O. W. i'.rcnvn .K: Co. It was printed in
Pennsylvania, but the seconil number was printed at Lawrence
January 6, 1S55. The hrst number announced the arrival, on
the 6lh of Sei)tember, of Charles II. llranscomb, with another
com])any of more than a humlred persons.

Wdiile the free-state men were thus depending upon actual set-
tlers to determine the fate ui Kansas, the i)ro-slavery settlements
languislied. The advocates of slavery relieil upon enough votes
coming o\'er from Missouri to ci)utrol the elections, when the time
came to a.sk for admission as a stale. Actual settlements were
theref.ire not neces^ar)' [o their puri)ose, and, tlu)ugh they had been
prompt to secure some of the best town sites, their energy was of
short eluration. They preferred the intimiilation of Abolitionists
and the fraudulent control of elections to the work of developing
the resources of the new territory. If Kansas could be admitted
as a slave state, no matter what the means used to accomplish such
an end, the resources could be developed by slave labor under the
lash of the overseer.

Meantime the territorial government was taking form. In
June conmiissions were issued to Andrew LI. Keeder, of Pennsyl-
vania, as governor; Daniel Woodson, of Virginia, as secretary;

•Till! si'ttleim-ut wns iit ni&L calk-d WaU;inisii. Oi'tobcT U. Uic lowu wa3
namc'd Lawri'iiri', in lujiiui- nf Aiiuis A. I.uw rc-iicr, diii' nl Uic |ii-umiiu'iil iiicm-
Lor.s oi ll.c Aid Sn.lclv.

IMr. |{,,l,i„,-.„. ,.,M II,.. Iii>t party ii. St. l,...iis and /iIm. conducln,! tlio m.ommI
nailv ridiii SI I. id, \<> ! .a V, ivMcc Hi' wiiH llic liiHl Id.al ny.rul ,,( llic Ni-\V
iMirlalid lOiil' I ,1 Aid ('uhJ|,aMv and Ihr lii:,l |.ir-;ldriil ,,r (lie l.au nine (,,wil



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238 '/-//Z: PROl'INCE AND THE STATES.

Samuel D. Lecompte, of J\Iaryland, as chief justice r' Saunders
W. Johnston, of Ohio, and Rush Ehuore, of Ahibaina as associate
justices; Israel Li. Donalson of lUinois, as United Slates marshal,
and Andrew J. Isacks, of Louisiana, as United States district
attorney. On July 7, the oath of office was administered to
Governor Reeder, at Washington, by Reter V. Daniel, one of the
justices of the United States supreme court. He set out for
Kansas from his Pennsylvania home about the 1st of October,
and on the 7th arrived at Leavenworth, where he established a
temporary executive office.



11. (,f Miinliiiul, was lirst apiMiiiUiHl clilof Jiisllco, but declined.
.)i the same slate was tlieu apiioiuted.



Online LibraryWeston Arthur GoodspeedThe province and the states, a history of the province of Louisiana under France and Spain, and of the territories and states of the United States formed therefrom (Volume 4) → online text (page 24 of 53)