Weston Arthur Goodspeed.

The province and the states, a history of the province of Louisiana under France and Spain, and of the territories and states of the United States formed therefrom (Volume 4) online

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:\lessrs. Gordon, G-age, Farn>\vorlh and .Mills, was completed and
uinied over to the slate under a lease. 'JMie legislature of 1864
wa.s the hrst to meet in the new <|Uarters thus provided. Tliere
were ])assed acts gr.auting to each county abmg the line of the
.Atchison, Tojiek-a iK: Sanla I'e i-ailmad llie powe'r lo issue bonds
lo the amount of two lunulred tliousaud dollars lo aitl in the con-
struction of the road; locating a deaf and dumb asylum at
(Jlathc and a l)liud as}'lum at \V)andotte; abolishing grand
juries, anil changing the site of the penitentiary to Lansing, near
Leavenworth, to include stone quarries and a cc)al mine. .V con-
slilutioual amendment allowing soldiers in the field anil certain
other persons the right to vote was ])ro|)osed, and tiie (piestion
whether the school lands should be sold was submitted to the
people at the NtAember election.

.Some trouble grew <iiU of the election of a United States
>enalor to .siuceed tuiivT.d i.ane. As Lane's leiui did not expire
uiuil the .ph ot March, 1805, and another animal session of the
legislature would convene in January, i8()5, Lane's friends in-
sisted that the election of his successor at this term was prema-
ture. On the 6th of February eight members of the senate and
nineteen of the house signed protests against such a course; but
three days later tiic two branches were called to meet in joint
session to elect a senator. Governor Garney receiveil 68 votes ;
declined to vote 27 members; "against a fraud" i vote; blank
b.dlots 2. I'he presiding officer annoiniced that Governor Carney
was elected, but when the Ive-publican state convention met at
Topeka, April 21, the governor sent a letter to the convention
declining the office.

y\t that eiKrution (Kueral Lane, A. G. Wilder, T. M. lloweii,
W. W. 11. i,.,vren<H>, M. II. iiisley and I'. W. I'otlir u ere selected
as delegate:, to the national convention. Kesolutions expressing



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294



7 HE PROVINCE AND TllE STATES.



confidence in President Lincoln, and inslrnclini;- llic delegates to
vote and work lur his renoniinalion were adopted. The pLittorni
further favored the aliohtioii of sla\er\- and an anienduient to llie
constitution of the I'niled States "to secure l'"reedoiii to every
lunnan heiui;' within its iiuis(hction."

A second convention of tiie same party was hehl at tlie capital
on the 8th of Septeniher, to nominate a stale ticket. Samuel J.
Crawford was nominated for governor; James McGrew, lieuteu-
ant-g-ovemor ; R. A. I'.arker, secretar}' of state; John R. Swallow,
auditor; William Si)rit;i;s, treasurer; j. 1). lirumhaugli, attorney-
general; I. T. OiKjdnow, superintendent of i)ul)lic instruction;
Jacoh Safford, associate justice. Ell.-,worlh (.'luesehrough, of
Atchison, Nelson McCracl.en, of I.eas'eiuvorth, and Robert
McBratJicy, of Davis county, w ere named for presidential electors.
Before the election AlcCracken and Clieeseljrou.'.^ii died, and the
vacancies on the ticket were filled b)- the selection of \\ . F. Cloud
and Thomns Moonlig-ht.

June I, the Democrats met in convention at To|)eka. Wilson
Shannon. Orlin Thurston, \V. C. Afc Dowell, L. B. Wheat, H. J.
Strickler and J. 1'. Ta\lor were selected as delegates to the
national con\'ention. The onl\' resolutions adopted declared in
favor of the establishment of a Democratic paper at Leavenworth
and of making Kansas a "free wdiite state."

On the 13th of September the Repul)lican Union state conven-
tion met at Tt)iieka and nominated the following state ticket:
For governor, Solon O. Thacher ; lieutenant-governor, John J.
Ingalls; secretary, William R. Saunders; auditor, .\sa llairgrove;
treasurer. J. R. Mci^Mure; attorney-general, Iliraiu Griswold;
superintendent of public instruction. I'eter Mc\'icar; associate
justice, Samuel A. Kingman. The platform favored a vigorous
prosecution of the war; endorsed the Republican national plat-
form, recommended the voters of Kansas to support Lincoln and
Johnson, and called upon "all good men, irresjiective of party, to
unite in jnitting down the 'one man power' in Kansas, the corrupt
and tyrannical exercise of which has brought disgrace and un-
told evil upon the State."

At the same time and pilace the Democrats held a convention,
but made no nominations except those of Nelson Cobb, Tliomas
Bridgcns and Andrew J. Fge, for presidential electors. The
convention adopted resolutions ratifying the work of the natifjnai
convention at Chicago and s<ttin(; forth "ih.it tliis couvenlion
decni II ui.vpcliriil for llic D.inonalic p.iMy (d' Kans.as to noin-
in.ite a St.ite tidal, lo be supported at ihe i iisuing dcttion, and



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1 .H



KANSAS PROM iSOi TO iS6i^. ' ' 295

we deem it imi)()litic for any Dciuocral in the state to permit his
name to be used as a eandidate for any state oflice or member of
Congress."

At the eleetion, November 8, the Republican ticket was
successful Tile highest vole received by any of the presidential
electors was that ol W. V. Chjud, which was 14,2j8. J. Hridgcns
received 3,871, the highest vote on tlie Democratic ticket. For
governor S. J. Crawford received 13,387 votes and S. O. Thaclier,
8,448. Sidney Clarke, Ke[)ubliean, was elected to congress over
Albert L. Lee, the Union candidale, by a majority of 1,120.

Information that Gcii. Sterling Price with a force of hfteen thou-
sand Confederate soldiers was marching westward ihrmigh Mis-
souri, probably having for his object the invasion of Kansas,
reached General Curtis on the second of October. General Ewing
had been driven back by Price's army from Pilot Knob to Rolla,
where his infantry went into garrison, while the cavalry joined
Cicneral JMcNeil. This left the road open to Price.* So far as it
was possible, General Rosecrans, at St. Kouis, kept General Curtis
and Governor Carney apprised of Price's movements. Ry the
Sth affairs had assumed such an aspect that Governor Carney
issued a proclamation calling upon "the men of Kansas" to defend
the state against the threatened invasion, and appointed George
W. Deitzler major-general of the militia. The "'men of Kansas"
responded with an alacrity seldom ecjualed. Within three days
more than twelve thousand troops were mobilized at Olathe,
.•\tchison, Paola, Fort Scott, ^^'^yandotte and Mound City. On
the lUh tuiural Curtis called all the Uniteil States troops in
Kansas \\\\^> the lield lo co operate with the militia. 'Idie next day
lie appointetl Gen. James 11. l.ane on his staff luid proclaimed
martial law in the state. Gen. James G. Blunt was j^laced in
contmand of the militia at C^lathe. lie organized the men into
three brigades under the command of Colonels Blair, Jennison
and Moonlight. All these officers, while connnanding Kansas
regiments, had seen service in the field.

Meantime Price was being ckiselv pursued by I'Vderal troops
under General.s SanJK.ru ;md' Pleasai'iton. I'.y thr mi.ldle of ( )cto-
ber nrarl\' twenty thousand K'ansas miHli.a had been Cducentrated
in the towns alimg (he border and were w.-iiting lux his apprcxich.
On the i6th General I'.lunt crossed the state line into Missouri
and took' iij; a j)osition at I.e.xington. Price was now between



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tlO '():')



296 THE PROl'INCB A.\'D THE STATES.

two fires. On the cast were Sanborn and Pleasanton, and on the
west was the Kansas "Army of the 15order," inexperienced and
undisciphned, but eager for the fray. Then followed in quick
succession tlie battles of Lexington, Little Blue river, Indepen-
dence, and Big P)lue river, until Price made a stand at Westport,
where he was completely routed on Sunday, October 23. After
this repulse he retreated soulhward. At sunrisi.- 011 the 24th the
rear of his army was ten miles from W^estport. Two divisions
started in pursuit. Along the Missouri border ten thousand men
were pressing closely upon the rear of the Confederates, while
Colonel i\Ioonlight with another detachment moved rapidly south-
ward along the Kansas border to prevent the retreating army
from entering the state. A slight skirmish occurred on the 24th
at Cold Water Grove, between a portion of the Confederate
troops and the Kansas Cavalry of the Border Army. Rallying
his forces Price crossed into Kansas a few miles south of West
Point, lAIo., and encamped at the old trading post on the
]\Lirais des Cygnies. He was soon driven from this position, and
on the 25th the battles of Marais des Cygnes, Little Osage river,
and Mine Creek were fought upon Kansas soil. The engage-
ment at Mine Creek settled the fate of Price's expedition. Gen-
eral Graham was killed, General Slemmons mort^illy wounded,
anil nine cannon and eight hundred i)risoners were taken, among
them Generals Cabell and ALarmaduke. The Confederates, hotly
pursued by General McNeil, tied in disorder and the invasion of
Kansas was over. The triumphant occupation of Kansas as
planned by General Price, had endeil in a humilialing defeat. In
the b.illirs of Alar.ii.s des C\i;ii>> aiul .Mine ( 'rrrk the Kansas
Hoops louglit like veterans. What they lacked in tactics thcy
more than made up in courage and impetuosity, and the decisive
results of the campaign were largely due to their bravery and
their eagerness to repel the invaders.

In a congratulatory order, November 8, General Curtis said:
"In parting, the General tenders his thanks to the ofticers and
soldiers for their generous support and prompt obedience to or-
ders, and to his staff for their tuiceasing efTorts to share ihe toil
incident to the campaign. The pursuit of Price in 1864, and the
battles (jf Lexington, I,ittle Bine, Big Blue, Weslporl, Marais des
Cygnes, Osage, Charlott anil Newtonia, will be borne on the ban-
ners of the regimeiUs who shared in them; and the states of
Missouri. Iowa, Kansas, CokMado, Illinois, Indiana, Wisconsin,
and Arl ir.is iii;iv gl^rv in the a^ liievtnu nl ol lluir .-..mis in ibis
short bill I venlful cam|iaigii."



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t ir.'. eiJifj.'



KANSAS FROM iS6i TO 1S69.



297



January 10, 1865, tlie fifth state legislature assembled at the
capital. At the beginning- of the term the candidates elected in
the preceding November were inducted into office. On the iilh
Governor Crawford sent liis first message to the assembly.

Samuel J. Crawford, the third governor of Kansas, after its
admission into the Union, was born in Lawrence county, Ind.
April ID, 1835. His early life was spent upon a farm. While
attending the Bedford Academy he took up the study of law,
and at the age of twenty-one graduated from the Cincinnati,
(Ohio) law schotjl. Two )cars later he Kjcated at Caniett,
Kan., where he began the practice of his profession. He was
a member of the first state legislature, which met in March, 1861,
and although only twenty-six years of age he scx^n demonstrated
his ability to rei)resent the district from which he was elected.
Upon the call for trwops he resigned his seat in the legislature,
raised a company for the Second Kansas, being in due season
promotctl to the colonelcy of the regiment and given the rank of
brevet brigadier-general. He was still in the service when
nominated for governor in September, 1864. In 1S66 he was
re-elected, but in November, 1868, resigned to take command of
the Nineteenth Kansas regiment, in an expedition against tlie
Indians on the frontier. After tiie Indians were quieted down
he resumed the practice of law at Toiieka, taking nuik as one of
the leading attorneys of Kansas.

Lieut. Gov. James Mc(jrew was inaugiu'ated at the same time
and became the presiding ollicer of the senate, by virtue of his
office. Jacob Stotler, of Lyon county, was elected speaker of the
house.

During the Trice raid the conduct of General Lane, as a mem-
ber of General Curtis's stall, had so restored him to popularity
with the people of Kansas, that but little opposition was offered
to his re-election as United States senator. The vote was taken
January 12. Lane received 82 votes. Col. William Philli[)S 7,
William C. McDowell 4, C. B. Brace 2, W. Y. Roberts 2, B. M.
Hughes 1.

The most important acts ])assed by this session wc-e those
authorizing comities to issue bonds to aid in the construction of
railroads; providing for a census; stipulating for the payment
of claims growing out of the Price raid ; and iirevenling the bring-
ing of live stock from Texas into tlie state. The session ended
c>n the uiih of February.

T.y :,,i.l act of congress, March 3, 18^.15, JiluTal grants of land
were m.ule to Kansas to prc^mote the building of a railroad from



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2(jS Tllli PROriXClL .L\'l> TUB STATJIS.

Atcliison, via Toi)eka, to tlie wesleni line of the state in the direc-
tion of Santa Fe, N. M.; also for a railroad and telegraph
from Leavenworth, via Lawrence and the Ohio City crossing
of the Usage river, to the southern line of the state in a direction
leading toward Galveston, Tex. Certain branch roads were
also provided for, the amount of land given to the comj^anies
being ten sections, or 6,400 acres for each mile of road, including
both the main line and the branches. Rules were prescribed for
the sale of the lands, and the grant became void if no part of the
road was completetl within ten j-ears from the date the conditions
of the act were accepted. These lands were given to the Atchison,
Topeka and Santa Fe railroad company by the Kansas legislature
in Februrary, 1864. lly this grant the comjjany acquired about
3,000,000 acres of Kansas lands.

While tlie war was in progress, but little was accomplished in
the way of raih-oad building. In Novenil)er, 1S63, work was
begini on the Union J'acitic, the tirst road prujocled fron\ the
Missouri river to the Pacific coast. A grant of about si.x million
acres, embracing alternate sections tin-ougli a strip tweiuy miirs
wide, extending from the Missouri rlwv to a point nearly lour
hundred miles west, was subsecjuently given to this company.
The Missouri, Kansas and Texas railroad alM) rcnxKcd a l.irgo
grant of land direct from the stale, and all lliese C(jmpanies
obtained by treaties large tracts from the Indian reservations.
Charters contemplating an extensive railwa) system had been
granted to various companies ]i\' the territorial legislature, and a
few miles of road had been built before the beginning i_)f the war.
V\Km the restoratuMi of ])eace the ])eople turned their attentirjn to
the matter of establishing railroad coinnumicatitju with the other
.-tates. liesidcs the land grants mentioned, the organized counties
voted liberal issues of l)onds, and iii other ways the construction
of roads was encouraged. With tlie ])ros])ect of ample and con-
venient transi)ortation facilities, Kansas took on a new life. The
population increased by lea])s anil bounds.

Another thing that aided the material pr(jsperily c>f Kansas in
the years immediately following the war, was the homestead law
enacted by congress. May 20, iS6.>. A similar bill had been
vetoed bv President P.uchanan. Under this act the seltUr could
acquire title to 160 acres of lan<l b)' living upr)n it for five years.
At the clo^e of the war the law was amendeil so tliat ex-soldiers
of the I'liion armv miglit deduct from the Cwv years tlu' term of
their 1 iM.iry ^,erviee. This brought a large munber of settlers
to Kansas.



K.l\'S.lS I'ROM iSHu TO /i'd.;.



jyy



On the twcnt)-ninlli of September, 1865, a treaty by which the
(Jsage IiKhans ceded lo the United States a tract thirty ]jy fifty
miles off the east end of their reservation was made at Canville,
Kan., with tliat tribe. This tract lies in Neosho and Labette
counties. At the same time they ceiled a strip twenty miles wide
off the north side of their lands, to be sold for the benefit of the
trilio. The eastern lioundary of this strip was about fifteen miles
east of tile town of Fredonia ; the mirlhern boundary was aljuut
four miles south of the fifth stan<lard parallel; and the wist end
was at old I'ort Sunnier, where the Santa l-'e trail cr(>.sM.d the
.Arkansas ri\-er. This treaty opened to settlement a larL^e tract of
land. Treaties by which most uf their reservations pas>ed into the
hands of the Lhiited Stales, had beiMi made durini;- the war with
the JVjttawatomies, Kickapoos, Delawares, ( )ttawas and Roche de
Hoeuf Indians. In 1861 a treaty with the /Xrapahoes ami Chey-
euiies of the Upper Arkansas was i.;;i<le at Fort Wise. All that
|ionion of Kansas lying- north of the Arkansas river and west of
all former cessions was ceded to the United States. By the close-
of the war these tribes had been removed to their Colorado reserve,
and northwestern Kansas had been thrown o\)Qn to the home-
steaders.

At the beginning of the year 1866 there were in the state al)OUt
three hundred miles of railroad in operation. The construction of
railroads was still further stimulated by an act of the sixth state
legislature which convened on the ninth of January, 1866, g'iving
to four railroad companies the five hundred thousand acres of land
aceruiug to the stale uu<ler the act of congress, Sei)lember 4, 1841.
'iMie bill passed tin- senate, |amiar\ -'(>, and was sent to the house.
Vox the reason that a [>r()vision of the Kansas constitution ai)i)ro-
priated these lands to the support of the common schools, twenty-
three members of that liody signed a written protest against its
[lassage.

Notwithstanding this i)rotest the act passed on the seventeenth
of i'ebruary by a vote of 44 to 2y, and was declared constitutional
jjy the attorne\-geiieral.*

The companiis to which these lands were granted were the
Northern Kans.is, the Kansas and Neosho \'alley. the southern
branch of the Union Pacific, and the Leavenworth, Lawrence and
Fort Gibson. 'J'he nami' of tlu' last was afterward changed by
the legnslatnri- to that of the Leavenworth, f.awrLnce and (ialves-
ton railn.,..!



300



THE PROVINCE AND THE STATES.



At this session the legislature i)assed acts to issue bonds for
the erection of a penitentiary; to provide for the sale of the lands
helonginj^' to the stale university, normal scho<jl and agricultural
college; to encourage the planting and culture of forest trees; to
reapportion the stale for iiiemliers of the legislature, and to author-
ize the building of a capitol. In A]iril Governor Cra\vf(jrtl sold
in New York ^ixt_\- tliuusanil dollars of penilcnliary bunds and
seventy thousand dollars of public iniprt/\ enient biunU at yi cents
on the dollar.

The dillerence of opinion between President Johnson aiul con-
gress with regard to the jjolicy under which the seceded stales
should be re-admitted into the Union, caused a division in the
ranks of the Rei)ublican |)arty. Those agreeing with the presi-
dent called themselves the "Union Reiniblicans." Belonging to
this class was Sen. J. li. Lane, thougli a majority of the Kan-
sas Republicans favored the policy advocated by congress. This
condition oi aliair.^ re.-ulted in an open rupture between General
Lane and one wing of his iiarty. C )p|)0nents of the president's
course held jniblic meetings at which Lane \vas branded as wear-
ing "Andy Johnson's collar." Lane (obtained a leave of absence
from the senate and hurried to Kansas where he made a bpkl
fig-ht to retain his power. Ihil it was too late. His party repudi-
ated his policy, and. crazed by the coldness and rebuffs of his
former friends, he committed suicide. Maj. Edmund G. Ross
was appointed by Governor Craw ford, ciu the JOth of July, to fill
the vacancy in the Ihiitecl Stales senate, caused by General Lane's
death. MajcM- Ross was a natiw of Ohio, a printer by trade, who
had come to Kansas during the territorial regime. He was a
delegate to the \V\andotte constitutional convention from Wab-
aunsee county, ;md during the war ser\ed as m;ijor and brevi't
h(.;uenai;i coK'nel of ibc i'.lo\ enili Kan.-as cawilry.

On the 4tli or July, iSori, a reunirni of Kansas soldiers was held
at Topeka. The princi])al feature of the celebration was the pres-
entation to the state of the battle flags carried by Kansas military
organizations in the Civil war. Judge Sanuiel A. Kingman was
the orator of the occasion. The speech of presentation was made
by Gen. James G. Blunt. Governor Crawford made a fitting
response, accepting the custody of the flags, and since that time
they have remained in the care of the state.

A trc.'ilv with thi,- Delaware Indians, July .1, authorized the
secretar, wf the interior lo sell the remainder of tlu-ir lands to the
Mis.soui 1 K'iver Railroad ('oni|>aiiy, at a price not Irsh than two and
one half dollars an acre. On the Kjlh of July a treaty with the



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Online LibraryWeston Arthur GoodspeedThe province and the states, a history of the province of Louisiana under France and Spain, and of the territories and states of the United States formed therefrom (Volume 4) → online text (page 31 of 53)