Weston Arthur Goodspeed.

The province and the states, a history of the province of Louisiana under France and Spain, and of the territories and states of the United States formed therefrom (Volume 4) online

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169,197'



l:)l,372

75U,CKjO



115,987.41
3, 606. 7 J



•I 00
'L 00



81 50
i!6 76



lfiH,>;77 1)0
t-^T.HOS <J0
2U9, 172 00
529, ln7 00

\&:i'u UO

22"),0(KI UJ

56,190 00

, ij(KI,0(X) (X)

65, UK) 00

100,000 00



,3S4,473 90
318,088 83



6, 6*5,697 45
98, 6;)! 75



(jrand total of

pioductiou

since industry

bub'an.



$71,911,981 69

873,375 00

7,393,(35 .57

15-(,K77 0(1

3,194,204 00

2,52t!,5S5 00

5,351,051 00

2,420,.S6«) 00

615,744 73



,150,000 00
,510,1300 00
650,000 00



47,514,550 68



47,351,332 28
5,56j,253 38



$;00,908,518 33



•1903 shows a lar^a iucroaso iu tl
facturiub' purposes.



production of oil and of natural gas for maaa-



l''f.



l\^J.^\^:^A.•iLV,* uv.v. ;^ uT'^IVl^o^v\ ,^^.^vl^.v\



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36^



THE rKOJlNCE AND THE STATES.



YIELDS, IN liUSHKLS, FOU TWENTY YEAUS.



Yours.


WluNit.Winlor
aii.lSp.iut,'.


(.'urn.

1S2,0.S4,,526
1'..0,>S70, 6.i6
177,3.70, 7i!3
]39,.769,l.y2

I6s!7",l!o^7
273,,^8^32l

51,090,229
139,3i;3,991
13,S,6"..S,62I
ll.S,621,369

i;6,9,72,M3
201,457,396
221,419,414
152,110,993
126,999,132
225,1.^3,432
134,, 023, 677

42,605,672
201,367,102


\\,r.


Oat.-,.


18S,t


JO, 02 1, 9.16

4-s,o.-.o,i:il

10,772, LSI
14,579,093

9,2;8,r,ui

16,724,717

3.i,3!9,,v71
2\cS01,21l
r,\-.:,0,(i.-,3
71,53^,906
2l,^27,."i2.!
21, 20:,, 7110
16,001,060
27,75),\vS
51,026,604
60,790,661
43,6^7,013
77,339,091
90,333,095
54,619,236


5, OS 1, 391

2i72s':«)l
2 .727, 3s5
l.92.1,3.r.
3, '.99, 110

5,.VJU,1.50

h\ n3io;o

4,012,613
l,O'13,019

97r;,6:.S
1,675,713

99S, 897
1,661,662
2.1 :.•'<, 0.70
1,751,406
1,915,026
2,955,065
3,72.5,296


30,9,S7,8G4


18<l


29,0S7,29»


1NS6


31,561,490
37,777.365


1>>S

18^9...


5l,6i;7,0.55
47,922,889


l.^HO




1«I2


43,722,4s|


1M)<

1^115

1896


|S,3S5,469
31,664,748
19,314 772


1897




1898


21,702,537


1899


'lii 016 773










1902 . ..


32 966 114






Totals


801,25.7,351
40,062,767


3,0:8,695,770
151,431,7.^8


58.203,491
2,910,174


643, 214,. 568
32, 160, 729 ■







Kansas was organized as a territory May 30, 1S54, and admitted
as a state January 29, 1861. From the first organization of tlie
territory, the government has been administered by the following
officials :

'l\rriiorial tioverncrs: Andrew II. Reetler, KS54; Wilson
Shamuni, 1S35; John W. (k>aiy, iSsC); Robert j. Walker, 1S57;
James W. Denver, 1S58; S;miuel Medary, 1858.

Secretaries: Daniel Woodson. 1854; h'red'erick i'. Stanton,
1857; James W. Denver, 1857; Hugh S. Walsh, 185S; George M.
Beebe, i860.

State Governors: Charles Robinson, 1859; Thomas Carney,
1862; Samuel J. Crawford, 1864; Nehemiah Green (elected lieu-
tenant-governor, succeeded to tlie office Nov. 4, 1868, when Gov-
ernor Crawford, resigned) ; James M. Ilarvey, 1868; Thomas A.
Osboni, 1872; George T. Anthony, 1876; John P. St. John, 1878;
George W. Ghck, 1882; John A. 'Martin, 1884; Lyman U. Ilnni-
phrey, 1888; Lorenzo 1). Lewelling, i8<p; iMlmnnd N. Morrill,
i8g4; John W. Leedy, iXt/,; William K. Stanley, 1898; W. J.
Bailey, Kjoj.

Lieulen.iiii -Governors : Joseph V. Root, \'S>^i); 'J'homas A.
Oshorn. i;of; ):iiu,s MeCrcw, 1 8( . | ; iN'eliemiah Gieeii, |8(.();
Ch;lrle^. V . h.-,kridg.', |8(.8; IVler V. h'.lder, 1870; L.lias S. Slover,



•c:\TLl \ :j.\\'i 0,V;, ^^^'V.V\(^'A'\ aVVV



U)i



•J .-aiir^'iH »<.) .eu.irtijr



.c \.















KJX'SAS, I'ROSl'ECTll'E AND RETROSPECTIVE. 363

1872; Melville J. Salter, 1874; Lyman U. Ilumphrey, 1877;
D. W. Kinney, 1880; Alex. P. Riddle, 1884; Andrew J. Felt, 1888;
Percy Daniels, 1892; James A. Troulman, 1894; A. M. Harvey,
1S96; H. E. Richter, 1898; D. J. llanna, 1902.

Secretaries of State: John W. Robinson, 1859; S. R. Shep-
herd, 1862 (appointed) ; W. W. II. Lawrence, 1862; R. A. Barker,
1864; Thomas Moonlight, 1S68; W. II. Smallwood, 1870;
Thomas II. Cavanaugh, 1874; James Smith, 1878; Ldwin B.
Allen, 1884; William' Ili^rgins 1888; Russell S. Osborn, 1892;
W. C. Edwards, i8(;4; William \i. Bush, 1896; George A. Clark,
1898; J. R. P)urrow, i()02.

Auditors: George S. llillyer, 1859; l^-^vid L. Lakin, 1862;
Asa Ilairgrove (ai)pointe(l) , 1862; John R. Swallow, 1864; Alois
Thoman, 1868; D. W. Wilder, 1872 (resigned Sept., 1876);
P. I. iionebrake, 1876; Julward ]'. McCabe, 1882; Timothy
McCarthy, 1886; Charh-s M. Jlovey, 1890; Van B. Prather, 1892;
George \i. Cole, 189-I ; William II. Morris, 1896; George E. Cole,
1898; Seth G. Wells, 1902.

Treasm-ers: William Tholen, 1859 (enlisted 1861, 11. R. But-
ton appointed); William R. Spriggs, 1862; Martin Anderson,
1866; GecMge Graham, 1868; Josiah E. Hayes, 1870 (re-elected
and resigned April, 1874; John Francis appointed); Samuel
Lappin, 1874 (resigned Dec, 1875 — Francis again appointed) ;
John Francis, 1876; S. T. Howe, 1882; James W. Hamilton, 1886
(resigned March, 1890, William Sims ap])ointed) ; S. Ci. Storer,
1890- William H. Biddle, i8i)2 ; Otis L. Atherton, 1894; David H.
Hefllebower, 1896; Inank F.. Grimes, 189S; T. T. Kelly, 1902.

Attorney-Generals; 15. F. Simpson, 1859 (resigned July,
1861, Charles Chadwick appointed until election of 1861, when
Samuel A. Stinsou was elected to the vacancy) ; W. W. (Juthrie,
1862; J. D. Brumbaugh, 1864; George II. Iloyt, 1866; Addison
Danford, 1868; A. L. Williams. 1870; A. M. F. Randolph, 1874;
Willard Davis, 1876; W. A. Johnston, 1880 (resigned Dec,
1884, to go on tlu- supreme bench, and George P. Smith
appointed) ; T. B. Bradford, 1884; L. P.. Kellogg, 1888; John N.
Ives, 1890; John T. Little 1892; F. P.. Dawes, 1894; L. C. Boyle,
1896; A. A. (iodard, i8()8; C. C. C:oleman, 1902.

Superintendents of Public Instruction: W. R. Ciriffith, 1859
(died February, 1862, S. M. Thorp api)oiiited) ; Isaac 'V'. Good-
now, l8(.j, Peter McVicar, i8r/): 11. D. MrCarly, 1870; John
Iwaser, i.S/i; A. I'.. Lemmoii, 187^); H. C. S|)eei-, 1880; Joseph 11.
Lawhc.d, 1884; George W. Winans, 1888; Henry N. Gaines,



.2



-q^






3^4



THE PROVINCE AND THE STATES.



1892; Ednnimi Stanley, 1894; William Strykcr, 1896; Frank
Nelson, 189S; I. L. Dayholt, 1902.

Chief Justices: Thomas E\vin<,^ Jr., 1859; Nelson Cobb, 1862;
Robert Crozier, 1863; S. A. Kingman, 1866; A. li. Ilorlon, 1876;
Daviil Martin, 1895; Frank Doster, 1896; W. A. Johnston, 1902.

Associate Justices: S. A. Kingman, 1859; L. D. i'.ailey, 1859;
Jacob Saffora, 1864; D. M. Valentine, 1808; David J. Brewer,
1870 (resigned Ai)ril, 1884, T. A. llurd appointed); W. A.
Johnston, 1884; S. H. Allen, 1892; W. R. Smith, 1898; H. F.
Mason, J. C. Pollock, A. L. Greene, R. A. Rurch and E. W. Cun-
ningham, 1902.

United States Senators: James H. Lane, l86r ; Samuel C.
Pomeroy, 1861 ; Edmund G. Ross, 1867; Alex. Caldwell, 1871
(resigned March, 1873, Robert Crozier apijointetl) ; John J.
Ingalls, 1873; James M. Harvey, 1874; Preston IS. Plumb, 1877
(died December, 1891, B. W. Perkins appointed) ; John Martin,
1893 (vice Plumb); W. A. Peffer, i8<;i ; Lucian A. liaker,
1895; William A. Harris, 1897; Joseph R. Burton, 1901.

A hundred years have passed away since Kansas first became
a part of the domain of the American Republic. During the first
half of that century, the explorers — from Pike to Fremont — placed
Kansas upon the maps as part of the "Great /Vmerican Desert."
But the last half has shown the error of these early explorers,
for the slate has steadily risen from nothing in 1853 to the
eighteenth in i)opulalion in li)oo. The "desert" has become a
fruit fid held. The Indi.m and the butfalo have departed, and in
their places have come the husbandman and his domestic Hocks.
Where the council tire of the savage once burned, the dome of
the university lifts itself toward the heavens, a landmark of civili-
zation. Nearly nine thousantl miles of railroad traverse the plains
that two generations since were unmarked by the foot of civilized
man.

The people who settled Kansas l>elieve(l in education. Sections
sixteen and thirty-six of the public domain, that were set apart
by congress for the support of the common schools, have devel-
oped into a i)ermaneiit school fund of almost three million dollars,
and the end is not yet. The school property of the state was
valued in looi at more than eleven million dollars. Over lialf a
million oi Jiildrcii of school age were enumerated, and seventy-
five per e.ii, (4 (he ( ininu'i.ilion were enrolled. Peside.s (lie dis-
trict schc.l:, the stale has 5 manual training schools, and 12



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KANSAS, PROSl'ECTll'll AND RETROSl'llCTlVIi. 365

county, and 106 citv, high scliools. The state normal school at
llinporiahad, in lyoi, an enrolhncnl of 2,034 students. This school
property is valued at two hundreil thirty-six thousand dollars,
exclusive of lands, and has an endowment of two hundred seventy
thousand dollars. At the state university 1,233 students were
enrolled. The value of the huildin^s and apjiaratus at this insti-
tution, not including the 62 acres of land constituting the cam-
pus, is estimated at one million dollars. Tiie uni\eisily enchjw-
ment is ahout one hundred fifty thousand dollar^. The agri-
cultural College enrolled i,3y6. Of all the higher educational
institutions in Kansas, this college has the largest endowment,
amounting at present to four hundred ninety-one tlK»usand dol-
lars. The buildings and a])paratus are valued at four hundred
eighty-five thousand dollars.

It was a Kansas educational institution that gave to the farmers
of the coimtry a remedy for the chinch hug. The discovery of
this remedy was due to Ciianceller vSnow of the state university.

In 1902 the pn)perty of the state was valued at eleven million
dollars, the capitol alone being worth three million dollars. The
receipts during the year amounted to three million five hundred
ninety-five thousand dollars, and the bonded indebtedness of the
state was but six hundred thirty-two thousand dollars, all of
which was held by the school fund. Hence it may be said that
Kansas is in sound financial condition. Reports from 607 banks
showed a capital stock of more than sixteen million dollars, with
individual deposits amounting to nearly one hundred million dol-
lars, \\hich is evidence that the people were fairly prosperous.

"Ad astra per as[)era" — the motto upon the great seal of
state, a motto selected by John J. Ingalls, then a young man, serv-
ing as secretary of the state senate — is certainly appropriate.
Kansas has had her struggles and her blessings. Many of the
struggles of territorial days were really blessings in disguise, for
they brought to the young commonwealth strong, self-reliant men,
men wiio stood for convictions and who were ready to make sacri-
fices for the general good. Such men make a great state; and
Kansas was fortunate in having among her pioneers so many of
that class. Along the line of the Santa Fe trail sunflowers sprang
up as from the touch of the magician's wand. Wherever the plow
of the husbandman disturbed the hitherto unbroken soil, the sun-
fiower came to cheer him in bis lonely sod house or dug-out upon
the prairie. The sodhouse and dug-out have bci'n replaced by
more snbsl; Mud and more pretentious dwellings, but the sunflower



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.•/Jin'Jvi-



366 THE PROVINCE AND THE STATES.

rciiiaincd, ami !ias been a<k>i)tc(l as the floral emblem of the state.
And a more appropriate llower could not have been found, for
Kansas, while jjassing through the horrors of the border wars,
the devastations of droughts and grasshoppers, has, like her floral
emblem, kept her face toward the sun, confident that better days
were coming. And by the exercise of this hopeful optimism she
has surmounted all her difficulties, and risen to a proud {position
in the constellation of American States.



M.



I



State of Colorado



4 ■■'



Hon. Frank Hal

Associate Editor



•^V^.



obfcjfoii'



Colorado



K ■ I -i ,'\a(



/,::'■ CHAPTKR I

Events Ante-Dating the Territorial
Administrations .; r.



As Francisco Vasquez da Coronado marched from Santa Fe,
in the Spring- of 1541, to fmd the country of Ouivira and
possess himself of its fabled wealth, he sent out small
scouting parties at intervals to gather information regarding the
object of his search. Others, becoming dissatisfied witli the long,
weary march across the ])lains, deserted the expedition and, choos-
ing a leader, went into tlie business of exploring for themselves.
One of these i)arties, ci)nsisting of twenty-live men, under the
leadership of one Diaz, marched westward until they came to the
Colorado river, which they descended to its mouth. Cardinas,
another captain of Coronado's, with twelve men, discovered the
same stream, at a point much farther north than that touched by
Diaz. It is not likely that the main bmly of Coronado's expe-
dition passed over any jjorlion of what is now the slate of Col-
orado, unless it might be the extreme southeastern corner, but it
is certainly possible that one or both the small parties mentioned
crossed the state, and were the lirst white men to sel foot within
tile presi-nt boundaries of Odorado. This is csjjeeially true of
Cardinas who left tlie expedition lalc'r than Diaz, and after it had
reached .1 |ioiiil farllur north. In his report he ilescribes the
liver a. (MMH); "b.nil.s so bi.idi Ihey Memed lo lu; three or four
leagues m the air." Scjine of the most active and athletic men in



I
li.



o!:)x^foIo^



PM



cportctl that the rocks lyint; a


the 1)


iltOI


1, \\ h(.n \ic\\'ccl from aljow,


onke.l


to 1


were as "\nv: as tlie eatliedral


of Se


■ille



368 77//: I'ROVINCI'. AND THE STATUS.

the party tried to (kseeiul to the stream, but after tuihii,^^ all day
returned late in tlie evening-, having- acconiplished about one third
of the distance. They
of the canon, and whi^
about as high as a niai

Fifty years after Coronado a company of Spaniards under Juau
de Onatc established a settlement at Chama, in New Mexico. In
1595 (3nate explored the San Luis valley and reported the find-
ing of gold a short distance above Fort Garkuul, but if any
attempt was made to establish a settlement there no record of it
has been preserved.

About the middle of the Eighteenth century Cachuj)in was made
governor of New Mexico. Reports reaching him of the mineral
wealth of the mountains lying to the north he plavmed a number
of expeditions to that region. What is now known as the San
Juan country was explored by tliese expeditons, but as the precious
metals could not be found in sufi'icient cpiantities to pay for work-
ing the mines no settlements were undertaken.

In 1761 Juan Maria Rivera, accompanied by Don Joaquin Lain,
Pedro Mora, Gregorio Sandovak and a few others, reached the
valley of the Gunnison river. During- the next ten or twelve
years several small exploring parties penetrated into the present
limits of the state of Colorado, on both slopes of the Rocky moun-
tains, in search of gold. It seems, however, their achievements
were so evanescent that they have been deemed unworthy of more
than a passing mention by the historian.

In response lo the imi)ortiniilies <if l*adri' Jimipiro Serra, pres-
idc'ut of the C'atluilic mission on the western sloi)e, an expetlition
was organized in 1771) by I'adres k'rancisco Fscalante and Atana-
cio Dominguez, church dignitaries of New Mexico, the object
being to seek out an overland route from Santa Fe to the Pacilic
coast. The party consisted of ten men, and Don Joaquin Lain,
who had been with Rivera fifteen years before, was employed to
guide the expedition. Leaving Santa Fe ]\\\y 29 they pursued a
general northwesterly direction, crossed the southern boundary
of Colorado in what is now Archuleta comity, and August 5 came
to the San Juan river. A number of streams and mountain
chains were named by Fscalante, and some of the names have
been retained to the present tlay. After crossing the White river,
near the ])lace where it enters Utah, they turned west mitil they
reached Liali lake. l'"i-om there they pmsue(l a southwi'Sterly
cour.'.c pa'i ..rvicr l.il.e lo williin a few miles of the Colorailo
river wlu n ihey gave uj) the idea oi establishing an overland



Ivjiilj jiio jrji, '
y/iB 1; Jji'l



->Ik>./ . . t....i i ■ c



EAULY ElliNTS IN COLORADO. 369

route and rciurned to Santa Fo. Although the expedition failed
I to accomplish the object for which it set out Escalante's account

was the first to give a i)erspicuous description of the parks,
streams and mountain ranges of Western Colorado.

In 1803 all that part of Colorado lying north of the Arkansas
river, and east of a line drawn due north from the source of that
stream, became the territory of the United States by what is
generally known as the Louisiana Purchase. Three years after
the acquisition of this territory General Wilkinson sent Lieut.
Zehulon M. Pike to exitlore the country about the head waters
of the Arkansas river, and if possible ascertain the sources of the
Red river. Pesitlcs being charged with the duty of exploration
Pike was entrusted with the safe return of a number of Kaw
Indians whom General Wilkinson had rescued from a hostile tribe
and had promised to restore to their people. Pike's com|)any
consisted of twenty-one white men and about fifty friendly
Indians. He left St. Louis July 15, ascended the Missouri river
in boats to the mouth of the Osage where he landed, purchased
horses from the natives, and after delivering the Indian captives
to their friends crossed the country to the Arkansas river. He
ascended the Arkansas without adventure until November 13
when he first saw the dim outlines of the peak of the Rocky
mountains that bears his name. An hour t)r so later the whole
range came into view, the little cavalcade halted u])on an elevated
piece of ground, and the men gave "three cheers for the Mexican
mountains."

Although it was late in the season Pike pushed on, but it was
not until November J() that he reached the base of the range. In
his rejiort he says of their day's march, November 17, "we
marched with the idea of arriving at the mountains, but night
found no visible difference in their appearance." On the 27th he,
with Doctor Robinson, the surgeon of the expedition, and Privates
Miller and P>rown, started to ascend the peak. After considerable
difilculty they reached the summit of the mountain known as
Cheyenne mountain, and saw the great peak still towering far
above them. Pike gave it as his o])inion that no (jne would
ever be able to reach the pinnacle of the mountain, which he
described as being barren and snow-covered.*

Subse(juent events showed, lirnvevcr, that Pike was mistaken.
An expedition luidir Maj. S. 11. Loiig, was sint out in 1819 by



IV



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370 'i'lll'^ I'KOriNCli AND Tim ST.lTJiS.

John C. Calhoun, tlicn sccrulary of war, "to visit and rci)Oit on
all the country drained by the Missouri, Arkansas and I'latle
rivers." I-oni; passed the winter of iSiy-.^o at I'uuncil r.lull>.
The next spring he ascended the Platte to the conlUience of the
north and south forks, arriving there a few days after the middle
of Jime. Choosing the suulh fork he followed it to its source,
reaching the South Park by an entirelv different mute from that
taken by Pike fourteen years Ik fi^-e. Jul)' 14. while the party was
encamped near Colorado Springs, Dr. l-Ldwin James, with four
men, started to ascend "the highest iJcak." Nightfall overlook
them behjre they were near the top, but undaunted they camped
upon the mountain side and early the next morning renewed the
ascent. IW two o'clock in the afternoon they hatl reached such a
height that the rarefied air compelled them to halt for a little while.
A rest of thirty minutes was taken, at the end of which tiiiic
Doctor James says they "arose much refreshed but benumbed with
the cold." At four o'clock they stood ni^jn the summit and Pike's
prediction that no one would ever reach the pinnacle was shown
to be without foundation.'* After an hour at the toj) they be^aii
the descent. Again they were compelled t(j spend a night upon
the side of the mountain, and thcjugh it was intensely cold they
managed, by keeping up a good tire, to pass the night in compara-
tive comfort, and to rejoin their friends, who were becoming a
little anxious on account of the long absence.

Long's account of the region was .mvthing but encouraging.
lie described all the country for live hundred mites east of the
Kocky mountains, from the ^^t)lli parallel to tlie Pritish poSse>-
sions, as being nothing but a desert of sand, unht for cultivation,
and therefore uninhabitable. It was this rei)ort that caused the
great plains west of the IMissonri river to be tirst marked upon the
maps as the "Great American Desert," and there is little doubt
that it retarded for many years the settlement of the country.

The year following Long's explorations a private expedition
led by Hugh Glenn, an Indian tnider, made the journey overlaiul
to the Rocky mountains, following the .Arkansas river, and si)ent
the winter in what is now the state of L'olorado. A few year.s
ago Dr. Elliott Cones, of VVashingtt)n, D. C, came into pos.sessioii
of and published the journal of Jacob Fowler, one of the twenty
men constituting the Glenn expedition, p-owder's grammar and
orlh. .graphy were not always exemplary, as the folk. wing extracts
V ;| how, but li.ad the journal been published imiue.li.ately after



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;!. •.!/:•; .,- ■■ ] Hiiihd ft



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E.IRLV l^l'H^fTS IN COLORADO.



371



tile Soutli Side which


W


iii;uU' for it — Crossed


ail


it two miles \\\) it from


tl



it was written it mii^lit have done much to counteract the pes-
simistic views of }\lajor Long-, f(,»r in s(jme cases it f^ives rather
{^dowing- descriptions of the country. Novemher 13, 1821, Fow-
ler wrote:

''Seen a branch IHitiuL,'' in from the South Side which We
sopose to he Tikes first forkc aiK
Camped in a strove oi I'ushes aho
River We maid Eleven miles W^est this day."

The stream discovered at this time and designated as Pike's
first fork was the Purgatory river. While the party were
eiicami)ed there, one of their numher, a man named Lewis Daw-
son, was killeil hy a griz/ly hear, h'owler gives an account of
the fight with the hear, and of the death and hnrial of Dawson,
who was in all prohahility the lirst .'Vmerican citi/en to find a
grave in Ciflorado. Ten days aftt'r the discovery of the Purga-
tory river the journal contains an account of a council with the
letan Indians. The chief was evitlently disappointed at not
receiving goods in the way of presents from the white men. Con-
cerning this part of the council I-'owler says:

"Put When lie Was told that there Was no Such goods lie
Became in a great Pashion and told the Conl" (meaning Colonel
Glenn) "that He Was a Iver and a theef and that he Head Stolen
the goods from llis farther."

Trouhle was averted hy the timely arrival of a large ])arty
of friendly Arapahoes, and the expedition was allowed to proceed
without molestation. In I'Vhruary, i8_'j, thev were in the Huer-
fano v.dlev. .\ moiilii later llie\' were near the preNcnl site of
San Juan C"it\, and in June they were in what are mnv 1 .as Ani-
mas and Baca counties.

This expedition, and the opening of the Santa Fe trail two
years later, attracted the attention of Indian traders toward
the upper Arkansas valley. In 1826 the four Bent brothers, Will-



Online LibraryWeston Arthur GoodspeedThe province and the states, a history of the province of Louisiana under France and Spain, and of the territories and states of the United States formed therefrom (Volume 4) → online text (page 39 of 53)