Weston Arthur Goodspeed.

The province and the states, a history of the province of Louisiana under France and Spain, and of the territories and states of the United States formed therefrom (Volume 4) online

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which, broadened and nationalized, largely through the inlluence
of the West, gradually assumed the Democratic name, wdiich
definitely adoi)ted that designation during Jackson's days in the
presidency, and which has retained it ever since. In 1824, when
there were four presidential candidates, all calling themselves
Repuljlicans, Missouri gave its electoral vote to Clay, wlio becaire
one of tlu- leaders (^f the National Republican party foundeu
shortly afterward, and who became the master spirit of the Whig
party, wdiich was formed in 1834 from a coalition of the National

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Republicans, the Anti-lMasons and elements which Jackson's
strenuous rule sent out of the Democracy.

After 1824 Missouri's electoral vote was always given to the
Democratic party except in 1864, when it went to Lincoln, and
1868, when Grant received it. Many Whigs wx^re sent to the
popular branch of congress from Missouri. In the feud of 1851
between tlie lienton and the anti-Benton factions of the Demo-
cratic party, the Whigs elected Henry S. Geyer to the senate,
and he was the only avowed Whig who was ever chosen from
Missouri to that chamber, although others chosen as Demo-
crats became Whigs afterwartl. The Whigs had many votes
in the legislature at one time and another, and were becoming
an element of considerable consequence in the state just before
the rei)eal of the Missouri comi)romise in 1S54 killed the W^hig
party all over the coimtry and ermted the Republican parly of
toil. IV as the opponent of the 1 )eniocra.\'.

Tlie Rei)ul)licaus and War Democrats controlled Missouri dur-
ing most of the civil war ]jeriod. In both branches of congress
the Missouri Republicans were strong during the war and early
reconstruction days. Thomas C. Fletcher, elected governor in
1864, and Joseph W. McClurg, chosen in 1868, were Republi-
cans. All the rest of INIissouri's elected governors were Demo-
crats except llenjamin Gratz Rrown, Liberal Republican, who
was supported 1)\' the Democrats, elected in 1870, defeating
McClurg. With the election of Silas \Voodson, chosen in 1872,
the Democrats regained control of the state, and they have held
il e\er .siuee, (.■xeepl lliat in llie Repiiblie.ui national lidal wave
Near oi" iSo| iIk' Uepublieans cairied the stair lor minor state
oflicer.^, elected one branch of the legi-latme, and chose ten of
the .state's iifteen members of the popidar branch of congress.

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Starting the State's Political Machinery

AUGUST, i8jt, which eiiilcd Missouri's three years' stni,L;-gle
for admission, saw the state's ])uHlical machinery soiJli run-
ning smoothly. Before the state's representatives had a
chance to take their seats in con,gress in Decemher of that year,
the country liad [(jrs^olten the excitement lif tlie contest, and
all its distnrhiuL;' inlluences IkuI passed away.

The year 18J4, which brought the presidential contest for a
successor to Monroe, also brought to Missouri the necessity for
the election of a new governiir, McN'air's term ending in that
year. The choice was bilween brederick I'.ales of St. Louis (a
native of X'irgiuia and brcilher of i:.K\:ir.l I'.atrs, liuclu's AUor-
lU'V (ieneral of the after time), owe of the must pronuueut Mis-
souriaus of the da)', who had held several ollices in the territory,
state and city, and William II. Ashley, whose exploits by this
time as head of the Rocky Mountain Fur Company had given
him a reputation all over the country. Bates was elected, but
he died on August i, 1825, before he had been in office a year.
John Scott was re-elected to congress. In the latter part of 1824
the legislature re-elected David Barton to the senate for the
term beginning March 4, 1825.

In ilie |jresi(lential contest of 1824 four persons — Andrew
Jackson, John Ouincy Adams, William 11. Crawford and llemy
Clay — all calling themselves Republicans, or Democrats, received
electoral votes, Jackson getting ijij, Adams 84, Crawford 41,
and Clay 37. Missouri's three electoral votes were cast for Clay
In the absence of a majority for any of the canditlates, the con
test went to the house of representatives in February, 1825
which had to choose from the three highest, thus excluding Clay



frnin the list. Clay threw his sui)port in the house to Adams
anil elected him.

iMissouri's rej^iresentative in the house, Scott, voted for Adams
and thus aroused the wrath of lienton, who contended that as
Jackson had more of the popular and electoral vole than any
of the other aspirants, he was entitled to the ollice. "l"or nine
\t\-irs we have been closely connected in our political course,"
wr(jte lienton to Scott the day before the voting in the liouse took
place, but after lienton had learned Scott's choice. "At leng-th
the connection is dissolved, and dissolved under circumstances
which denotmce our eternal sei)aration." "Tomorrow," he ailded,
"is the day for yoiu^ self-immolation. If )iiu have an enemy,
he may go and feed his eyes ui)on the scene ; your former friend
will slum the afllicting si)ectacle." Senator llarton favored
Scott's com-se. and thus brought his own political overthrow at
4he end of the term in 1831, for which be hatl just been electeil.

Scott's \\)W for Adams ended his political career, despite his
abilit)', high character, and the value of the service which he
had rendered to Missouri as a Territory and State. In the
election of 1826 Scott was beaten for congress by Julward Bates,
who was also an Adams man in the i)artisan divergencies of
the time, as distinguished from a Jackson man, Jackson having
already been placed in the field by his friends for the election
of i8_'8, to succeed Adams. Scott retired to his home in Ste.
Genevieve at the end of his service in 1827, gained a wide repu-
tation as a lawyer during the next third of a century, and died
at the beginning of the civil war.

1 atasetU's \isit to St. I .ouis was the chief e\ent in that city's
and Missom-i's soci.d aimals fiM" iS_>5. in obedience to a reso-
lution adopted unanimously by congress in 1824, President
Monroe invited this gallant friend and ally of the y\mericans
during the war of independence to jjay a visit to the United
States, and he arrived in an American vessel at New York on
August 15 of that year. He was received with distinguished
consideration by congress, visited each of the twenty-four states
and most of the important cities in the next twelve months ; was
received everywhere with manifestations of delight; was voted
by congress two bimdred thousand dollars in money, as a return
for his great e.N|)eiiditure in the American cause in tlu' Ki'volu-
tion, and a grant of a tcjwnship of 2_i,()()() acri's cjf tin- public
lands; celebrated his sixty-eighth birthday anniversary in the
While lloUM- on Seplember (>, 1825, as the guest of ['resident
Adams, and saiknl o\\ the following <Iay on the new American



THE PKoiiKcn yixn the states.

fri.qate TiraiidN win : down tlic I'ntoniac airl olT In lM-;mc.', :nvw-
iii-' .11 Uri\T(^ (.11 Ocl'-lirr 5.

I'lniii .\'(\v Dilo.-nr^, ;U wlii'^h Iv.' :uii\-t<! in Ar.iil, iP-.'f,,,
l.aiaycllc wvni up tli.' M I'^-i^-.ini.i \>v s'm ui'lN.ai, slrq.piiio- r>t
CarMnrl.;l-t, which wa^ a ^;•;'a:■at^ town frmn Sf. l.onis inilil
j8v,. on April -'>. r.nrl rcarli,-! St. l.'^nh ",1 \]u- .'•ilii. Mmx llian ,
hall of Ih.-a rif\'s c.oon ])coi.lc, slill lai-;;-ly n\ 1 .a lay-f ;.•';; nalion-
a!il;.. or.xh-l liini^is lio lanfl^d l'r,.in tli- h.:.:d, acrniupani-d hy
liis sr.n, GcT.rirc A\'a>liiii;:lon 1 af.ivrHc. A carriayc awaited him,
into which Iw cnirrcd, ,-'!1cnd;'d hv ?sKn\..r Wihiam Ciivv l.ano.
CoL An'M,-;c (.-hMM!.-;,!!. dw fadwr n! St. 1 r,nis ; pnd Strphdl
] h:inpstcad, an <>\Urrv »[ the Iscvohition, and faahcr oi Ivlward
llcm]istcad. uiic of Mis.-'iuia 'l\Ti-itoi-y'.-; drh,;i;aic.- in (-(rnqrc-s.
Jiscortcd hv a cmp'any of ca^'ah-v and infantrw tlic distin-iii.^hod
visitor rode tn llic rcsidcn-^c of ricrrc Cdioulcan, Sr., at tlio cor-
ner of Locust and Main streets, tlie finest dwelhiiQ- Iiouse in the
city, wh^re lie harl a hrilliant reception. The must notahle fea-
ture of the festivities during- his stay in St^" Louis was the han-
quet and hall at the Mansion Louse, the citv's largest liotel,
whicli was attended 1)\- the leadinq- residents of the city and hy
many orthose of the rest of the state.

The death of Gov. Frederick Lates on Au.^-u^t 1, 1825, made
Ahrahain J. Williams, the president of the senate, e.K-onicio i^ov-
ernor. Le called a S[;ecial elccti.-in. t') he held shortl\- after-
war<l. at which Gen. lohn Miller, received j.;,So voles, William C.
Carr 1..170. and Jud-e David Todd i.113. ^General MilKr hein-
elecied, servi d as ooveiamr thri)UL:h the rem.ainder of th'- teian,
v.hieh ended in iSj!-', and then ^v.as re-elect''il f.,r the ensnin;;
fiuu" \e.ir;. llins siTvinc;' Itm^iM', seven \ears, than ruiy other j;ov-
erii'ir in M is^i .m i's hi.' l'U-\-.

( lener.il Millir \v;is Imni in \'ii-f;ini;i in 17S1, recei\-ed only
a indimentar\- educ.ilion, lemoNed lo ,Su uheuville, ( )., in e;n!v
m;mh".id, I'diled a newsp;ii)er there, wa.s madie a ,L;ener;d in the
sl:ile militia, was a colonel in the arm\- durin;.:;- the war wiiii luie-
l.md in oSi.^ 15, ren.lered L;allaiil s-a \iee, much of the Inne
under ih" eomm.and of ( icai. Wahiam iienr\- Harrison, was on
duly in the armv in IMissouri Teiaalory suhsef|nently, left the
army in 1S17, and luLl ihe ]H,st of register r.f Innds for a few
year-, jnsl pnxions lo hl.s election ;is ,'_;o\ernor in J.'^.if,. I'oui
years aflei" lea\in'e; the i(o\ernorship, or in iS;;'. he was dieted
to con<;rcss ;is a lleuiocrat, served until )S.|;^, a.u<l died nr.ar I'l'if-
ris.mt in \l<.\().

IkTorc Governor Miller v.. is in ofiice a \ia!, or ow Neivemher

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20, 1S36, tliL- l.'.i^i.slalure ni<H i'mt llie first tiiiio in Missouri'? pcr-
niaiK'iit capita!, kffi rson C"ily. rrr\iMiis tn liiis time tlic srat
of i'0\onini'.'iU had Hicccssi vi,-l_\- In m in St. J.or.i^ and St. rhavlc?;
Lnt: in tin- pii:-lun.L;- cf stUlris into llic inu-ri^r of \hc <\:\[c,
even 'A": latlrr place (jni.-l.:!y ccaM'd to l,,' nifiicirnlly crntial, a.nd
(iic site of tlu> prc.M 111 Jcll'.M-on (,'ity w::- s-dfcl-d. Ti-.' ii,\,n
Avps snrvL'yod and la.idi o\it in l"ts in ]|-'.?J, and tin- stair Iiohm-,
wliicli wa.s cm the spot wv: occnpi^'d hy the ::' i\-crnoi'L, re.ddcncr,
was hc.Qiin in'iSjj; an ! linisiicd in iSjo, at a ci-sf C'f f v.^/it-c-five
thousand (lollai'.s. Th(; stale hou^e \\as hu;-n.''i down in 1S37;
llic new one. on its jMesen,! siie, was start(di in i83''^. ^vas com-
pleted in i8.|r, enlar.q-ed in 188;", has ce1^t alioni six Inuidied thou-
sand doUars in the aL^-t^rcgate. and has few superiors in archi-
tectural beauty among- the state capcitals of the country. Jeffer-
son City, which consisted larg^el}' of Iol; hou-es when the legis-
lature llrst met there in 1826, tocUiy has all the nio Jern ideas in
the way of buildin^^s and mctliodis of Iransijortation. and had
IO,ono inhabitants at the time the census of lyoo was taken.

One of the most important of the legislature's acts during its
first session, in i8_''), in the state's new seat of govcrmuent, was
the re-election of I'-enton to the senate, in which bod}', through
successive extensions of tenure, he: remained until 1851.

The }ear 1828. in which a president, state olTicers, and a rep-
resentative in congress were to be chosen, saw the most exciting
canvass wdiich Missouri had known al'ncf to that tiiiie. Thongh
the popular design.itions in national p'jhties were still "Adams
men" and "Jackson men," a definite di'.i.Mon into parties was
beginning to tak'e sha|ic. The strong central government section
of Jefferson's ]\epnblican ]iarly — the section which wcuUl h.ave
been b'edieralist if there had. been a I'ederali.st jiaity at that time-
bad rallied aroniid I'res. John fjniiic\ Adams and his sec-
retary of Mate, Henry CU\\ in 18. '5-28, and began calling them-
selves N'.alional Ue|-ufilicans. v.bile (be larger clement of Jeffer-
son's ]iaily, taking Jackson's side in the cnnle>t, began calling
th(Miisei\-es Democi.il.s early in Jaci<son's presidency, \vhiih was
a n;nne which had been used inlei changeabl\- with Kepnblicans for
many )-ears befoie that time. 'fbe. Xational Kcpubliruns becamo
the nucleus of that coalition o\ Anti-Masc-^ns, Anli-Jacl;srm Demo-
crats and the rest of die clenicnls of the O[iposition wIuj, in l8,vi,
adopted the Whig name.

Jack-son's adherents, in J.annary. i8-?8. put up I~)r. John Unll
of Hovv-ard county, Col. Henjamin O'Fallon of St. Lotus, and


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'k\^.»- Ralph Dougherty of Cape Girardeau, for Missouri's three presi-
'■" 'i ' dential electors, while the supporters of President Adams in
'h-iv; (i March of that year nominated Benjamin H. Reeves of Howard,
'• f ' Joseph G. Ih-own of St. Louis and John Hall of Cape Girardeau
■ as electors. In the election in the latter part of that year, Jack-

son carried Missouri by a large majorit)-, his electors receiving
' - 8,272 votes, as compared with 3,400 for the Adams men. The

•'■'•-.■•'■ Democrats carried Missouri for the presidency in every election
^'' •■ to this day except in 1864, when the state went to Lincoln, and
■■ ' ' in 1868, when it gave its sup])ort to Grant. In the country at
'■^■^^'o- large in 1828 Jackson's electoral vote was 178, against 83' for
'"'*'/'' ■' Adams.

'' ' ' In the election lor governor in i8_'8, Adams' party's candidate

"'■''*•"' left the field before the close of the canvass, and Governor Mil-
''•'■■■' ler, the Jackson nominee, was chosen by a virtually unanimous
■' '''vote. In the same year Spencer IVltis, Democrat, defeated
rM;:i\,'. Edward r.ates. National Rei)ublican, for congress. IJales stepped
*' down on March 4, 1829, and though he served in the legislature

and held other posts afterward, lie did not re-enter national office
' again until he went into Lincoln's cabinet in 1861.

The Democratic wave, which took on i)owerful impetus at this
time, swept David Barton, National Republican, out of the sen-
ate, in an election held in the legislature in November, 1829,
and put Alexander Jiuckner, Democrat, in his place. When Bar-
ton left tile senate in iMarch, 1831, his career ended. He was
a caudidah' for the house of repre.sentali ves against I'etlis in
183^), and was bealeii, and ihe m.iii who a few \ears eaiiier was
the niosl potent oi .Missoiuians dropped into obscurity, and died
near Jioouville six years after he left the senate.

In a duel shortly after the election of 1830 between Pettis and
Maj. Thomas Hiddle, pavmasler in the armv, and brother of
Nicholas lliddle, bead of the liniled Slates Ma'nk, which Jackson
fought, and also brother of Connnodore Biddle of the navy,
both were mortally wounded. This necessitated a special elec-
tion, in which Gen. William H. Ashley (then a National Repub-
lican, and a Whig when the Whig party was founded in 1834),
the fur trader, and a man of vast pers.Mial po])u!arily, was chosen'
to succeed Pettis, and, by re-elections, servetl from i8?i to

Jackson was always stronger than his i^artv in Missouri, as
he was in several other Wesleni slates. He carried Missouri
bv a large majority in 1832. In that election the state had four


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electoral votes, one being- gained under the ai)i)ortionmcnt based
oil the census of 1830. The national enumeration of tliat year
showed that Missouri had 140,455 inhabitants, as compared
with <')''),557 in 1820. The state had much more than doubled
in the decade, and had advanced from the twenty-third place
among the states to the twenty-first. The negro population had
increased even faster than the whites, expanding from 10,569 in
1820, to 25,660 in 1830, all but 569 of whom were slaves.

In tlie election of 1832 Daniel Dunklin, Democrat, of Washing-
ton county, was elected governor to succeed Miller. Dunklin
was born in South Carolina in 1790, emigrated to Kentucky in
1807, moved to Missouri in 1810, settling in Potosi. held one
or two local offices in his county, and was a member of the con-
vention of 1820 which framed Missouri's constitution, and was
chosen lieutenant governor in 1828, in the year in which Miller
was chosen governor the second time. Governor Dunklin
resigned a month before the expiration of his term in 1836, to
lake the post of >urve\()r general of Illinois, Missouri and .\rkan-
sas, olfered him by President Jackson, held that office for sev-
eral years, and died in 1844. !'"' "

Dr. John Hull, of Howard county, a former Jackson man, ■^' ,',
hut now acting with the National [Republicans, was elected to "; '*■'
congress in 1832 as a colleague of Ashley, the apportionment '•"■7""'
under the census of 1830 giving Missouri an additional mem- ^ '/';'■
ber of the house of representatives. He served only one term, '^ ;'• "^
however, and was succeeded 1)\' Albert ("i. llairison, Democrat. "''

In the summer of 183J St. Louis bad its first visitation of '
Asiatic cholera. It crossed the .Atlantic from lauope, ravaged '

New York, Philadelphia, Pallimore and other cities on the
coast, invaded the South and West, and lasted five weeks in
St. Louis. During part of this time the deaths averaged thirty
a day, the aggregate mortality out of the city's 8,000 inhabitants
being al)out 500. Other places in Missouri, notably St. Charles,
Ste. Genevieve and Cape Girardeau, were assailed by the mal-
ady in 1832 and 1833. It returned to St. Louis in the summer
of 1836, but did less damage than in 1832, anil made another
visit in l8.|(), in wJiicli seasf)n the total deaths from the scourge
in St. Louis were- (jver 4,000 out of a populalion of about 70,000.

Among the deaths from the cholera of 1832-33 was Sen.
Alexander lUukner, who had held office only two years. P>uck-
iK'r was born in Indi.ana, removed to Missoiui in 1818, was a
niriiiber of the convention of l8j() vvliich framed the stall' con-

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stitnlion, served in the Icg-islatiire, ami was one of the Ijest known
of the state's citizens at tlie time he was elected to succeed J5ar-
ton in the senate. Buckner was succeeded in the senate hy
r3r. Lewis V. Linn, also a Democrat, who was born in Ken-
tucky in 1796, who served as a surqeon in the latter part of the
war of 1S12-15 against England, removed to Missouri soon
afterward, settling at Ste. Genevieve, and served in the legisla-
ture for several years. During ten }ears, until his death in 1843.
while he was a colleague of Benton, he was one of the most active
and efficient rejjresentatives IMissonri ever had in the United
States sen.ite.

The first dozen jears of the life of .Missouri as a state, which
saw the comminiity make great gains in population, wealth and
the extent and variety of its industries, also saw the creation of
its oldest representative of the higher learning, the St. Louis L^ni-
versity, \vhich ilates from 18J9. The Ihnversity of the State
of Missouri, the largest of its educational institutions, was estab-
lished at Columbia in 1840, and Washington University was
founded in St. Louis in 185.^. Of the other prominent Mis-
souri universities or colleges of today, William Jewell, of Liberty,
was founded in 1849; Westminster, of Fulton, 1853; Central,
of Fayette, 1855; La Grange, of the town of that name, 1858;
Central Wesleyan, of Warrenton, 1864; Pritchett, of Glasgow,
1868; Drury, of Springfield, 1873; Park, of Parkville, 1875;
Pike, of Bowling Green, 1881 ; and Missouri \'^alley, of Mar-
shall, 1889. Li ratio of colleges to inhabitants Missouri has
always stood bidow Ohio. Illinois and one or two other states in
the Mi>sissippi valley, bill she ranks fairly well with the rest of
the Western states.

By the end of those dozen years Missouri's steamboating inter-
ests began to assume proportions of some importance. The Gen-
eral Pike, Capt. Jacob Reid, which tied up at the foot of Mar-
ket street on August 2, 1817, and the much larger vessel, the
Constitution, Capt. R. T. Guyard, which arrived just two months
later, the first and second steamboats, respectively, which ascended
the Mississippi beyond the mouth of the Ohio, blazed a path
which many vessels of their class followed in the next few years.

The Missouri Rcpitblicaii, of St. Lt)uis (successor to the Mis-
souri Gazette and predecessor of the St. Louis Repuhlie of
today), on April 19, 1822, said at that time [\\n: steamboats were
cngajuil in the trade betwei-n St. Lftnis and Fever river, in the
lead mminf; region- (he Indiana. Shanii(.(k, liamillon, Mus-

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kin,miin and Mechanic. The numlx-r and toiuiagc of the steam-
boats from St. Louis kept on growini,^ fnjm that time till the
civil war closed the lower Mississippi and maile navigation on
the Missouri dangerous. The Virginia, the First steamboat to
reach the Mississippi's upper waters, arrived at Fort Snelling,
in the jiresent Minnesota, in May, 1823. That was twenty-six
}ears before the organization of Minnesota as a territory and
thirty-five >ears before its admission as a state.

On the Missouri the development of steam navigation was
necessarily nuich slower, on account of its comparative lack of
important towns, than it was on the Mississippi. The Indepen-
dence, the first steam])oat which entered the Missouri, left St.
I.ouis on May 15, 1819, arrived at Franklin, on the Missouri,
(in May 28, and, after a few days delay, went on to old Chari-
ton, and was back in St. Louis on June 5, from which she took
freight to Louisville. The Western Fugineer, with the Jefl'er-
son, Fxpedition and Johnson, entered the Missouri a few days
after the liidLpendeiice had left it, and the- first named boat went
up as far as (jld Council lUurfs, in Nebras!<a, a few miles be\'ond

Online LibraryWeston Arthur GoodspeedThe province and the states, a history of the province of Louisiana under France and Spain, and of the territories and states of the United States formed therefrom (Volume 4) → online text (page 4 of 53)