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"I conceive that in theso latter times tlie scale upon which wo measure warlike prowess haa been broacht down
too low by the custom of awarding wil.l, violent praise to the common performance of July, and even now and then
to actual misfeasance; so, if I keep from tliis path, it is not bocauao I tliiuk coldly of our army or our navy, but
because I desire— as I am very sure our best olhcers do— that wo should return to our ancient and more severe standard
of excellence. There is another reason which moves me in the same direction: not only is the utterance of mer«
praise a lazy and futile method of attemrtins to do justice to worthy deeds, but it cveu intercepts the honcht crowtb
of a soldier's renown."— Kingi.akeJs Cuim. War, Chap. 29.

"Whoever has committed no faults has not made war."— JIaushal TueeN!»£.




New Yokk : GO Walker Stkeex.


Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1867, by


In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Southern District of Ohio.


T an early date in the progress of tlie War tlie most casual observer of passing events
could not fail to see the conspicuous part the men of Ohio were preparing to take in
its prosecution. Watchful attention to the rapid developments of the time, and the
tremendous issues involved in the great struggle, was sure to intensify feeling already enlisted.

That the doings of Ohio Soldiers and Statesmen in the War should be fitly chronicled and
published in a convenient and permanent form, was a decision more easily made than carried
into execution. The difference in the present instance is measured by an interval of more than
four years, and the labor of not less than two persons during an equal period in preparing this
work for the press.

The collecting of materials in MSS. obtained by correspondence and conference with thou-
sands of people located at widely extended points, with the labor of collating the facts given,
and condensing them into narratives of such proportions as would bring the whole into reasona-
ble compass for publication, has been much greater than could have been readily foreseen, or than
is likely to be appreciated by the inexperienced. To these difficulties are to be added the numer-
ous obstacles which are sure to arise in getting a work of this magnitude through the press in
the time anticipated, whatever allowances for delays may have been originally made, and com-
plicated as in the present case in the destruction by fire of one-half the stereotype plates, when
the volumes were nearly two-thirds finished, and by the fact that the work has grown to be one-
fourth larger than calculated for.

The groups of portraits were engraved from time to time, by Ritchie, Rogers, and other
eminent artists, as photographs were secured from reliable sources from which to produce them.
The original intention was to have these include no person who had not attained the rank of
Brigadier-General (excepting a few heroes of lower rank who had fallen in tlie service); gradu-
ally, however, exceptions were suggested in favor of such as had discharged the duties of their
brevet rank, and finally the sketches were extended to include notices — in many instances far
too brief — of all officers of like rank appointed from the State.

The two volumes contain three times the amount of matter usually published in volumes
of similar size, and in a dress not less attractive, even when as profusely illustrated, and pre-
sent facts equal to what are ordinarily given in a dozen volumes published under Legislati#fe
authority. The prices put upon the work, in its several styles of binding, are the same per vol-
ume as those afllxed by the publishers to "Applelon's Nev? American Cyclopedia" while the style
of publication is more costly and the contents one-half greater. Thus, reliance for remuneration

From the Publishers.

is based upon large sales at moderate prices to the soldiers and their hosts of friends. Only thus
can a return be expected for the twenty-tive or thirty thousand doUars expended in producing
the book, not to speak of profit on the venture. On this score, however, the publishers have no
reason to be especially fearful. Several thousand copies have found purchasers in advance of
publication ; and, as heretofore arranged for, the work will continue to be delivered only to sub-
scribers by duly-authorized agents.

The work is believed to be incomparably more complete than any similar one undertaken
in any other State, and on a phm not attempted elsewhere.

Published to portray the patriotic efforts of the people of Ohio, tiie deeds of her soldiers,
and of those who were at once her sons and the Nation's cherished leaders in the fierce struggle,
the work will be found singularly free from the fulsome and vapid praise which was so striking
a feature in works on the war published during the heat of the contest or at its close, to catch
the svmpaLhies of the public. Oar author, with his careful, fearless, and polished pen, will
doubtless find many eager readers, and be the means of exciting much discussion among the
thinkinsr men of the Nation.


AN effort is made in these pages to present some leading facts in the illustrious record
of the State of Ohio during the war of the Great Rebellion. It is sought, fir^t, to ex-
hibit the home history of the State through the long struggle ; second, to present in
whatever fullness of detail maybe possible, the careers of the General Officers from Ohio, whether
born in or appointed from the State; and third, to trace in outline the history of each regiment
Bent out, with the roster of its officers, and the leading facts in its organization and service.

The work owes its origin to Mr. William H. Moore, the senior partner of the house by wliich
it is published. As early as in the summer of 1863 he visited me in Washington to arrange for
its preparation. Its main features were then agreed upon, and he straightway set about procur-
ing such facts for it as were then accessible. I desire now to add that but for his zeal, courage,
and energy the work would probably have failed of completion.

It was a part of the contract made by Mr. Moore on behalf of the publishers, that they
ehould procure for me all books, documentary matter, personal statements, etc., necessary for the
preparation of the work. In pursuance of this arrangement, they have employed persons of
apparent fitness for such service to visit the armies in the field, and, since the close of the war to
wait upon officers of regiments, Generals, private soldiers — upon any one, in short, who might be
thought able to contribute any fact not yet known or cast light upon any occurrence hitherto ill-

With the material thus furnished my own work began. Many of the statements I was able
to correct or modify from personal knowledge — many more could be verified from published
documents or from official reports on file at the War Department — still others could be compared
with the versions given in the reports of battles and of investigating committees, and in other
documentary matter published by the Eebel Congress, of which I was fortunate enough to pro-
cure nearly complete sets at Eichmond.* And on many points a residence of over a year at the
South since the close of the war had given me additional light.

That these facilities have been used to the best possible advantage I dare not hope; but that
they have been used honestly and conscientiously, I trust the succeeding pages may make clear.
The book has been written without any theories of the war to sustain, and without any pet repu-
tations to build up. I have striven earnestly to write always in the spirit of those golden words
that stand as mottoes upon the title page of this volume — to avoid the custom of awarding wild,
violent praise to the common performance of duty — to remember that whoever has committed
no faults has not made war — to promote the honest growth of a soldier's renown by simply tell-
ing what he did. And if I have had any theory whatever that has influenced my expressions,
it has been that of the gruff, good Count Gurowski, that the real heroes of this war were the
great, brave, patient, nameless People.

It is quite probable that I shall have very few readers to agree with the estimates placed upon
the performance of many of our most distinguished Generals. It is a National habit to go to

* For a general guide as to the events of the war, constant use has been made of 3Ir. Greeley's " .\merican Con-
flict" — a woric with wliich I have not in all cases been able to agree, but which has always seemed to me a marvel of
comprehensiveness and condensation.


2 Preface.

extremes. At fii-st we could endure no comparison for the young commander of the Army of the
Potomac but with Napoleon; after a time we could scarcely hear without impatience any defense
of him from the gross charges of cowardice and treason. At first we denounced the man who
fought Belmont and Pittsburg Landing as a drunkard and an incapable; now we echo the words
of Sherman that he is the legitimate successor of Washington, and believe him the greatest Gen-
eral of the century or the continent. It is not by any reflection of such popular verdicts that
honest History can be written. Yet I have experienced too many proofs of the generous con-
sidei-ation given by our people to honest convictions, to have any doubt as to the kindly reception
they will extend to these frank statements of opinions that have not been formed without much
study, and are not expressed without conscientious care.

It is doubtless impossible, in a work of this magnitude, to avoid errors. No page — not
even the briefest sketch of a cavalry company or independent battery — has gone to the printers
without being carefully revised or rewritten. The rosters of the regiments have been first taken
from the rolls of the Adjutant-General, tlien compared with the War Department Volunteer
Register, and finally corrected and enlarged in almost every case by some oflicer of the organiza-
tion concerned ; every page has been again and again I'evised. After all, in so many names, and
dates, and brief accounts of great transactions, many errors must have escaped notice; but it may
be safely aflirmed that, in the main, the record of Ohio soldiers as here presented, is incompara-
bly more complete and correct than any, official or unofficial, that is elsewhere accessible.
, It has been earnestly desired to add to the work an unique collection of incidents in the
war, narratives of personal experience, sufferings in Southern prisons, and the like — the materials
for which were mostly furnished by Ohio private soldiers. But the work lias already swelled far
beyond the limits to which it should have been restricted; and it becomes an unfortunate neces-
sity to omit this further illustration of the lives and works of the men in the ranks. For the
same reason some mention of the Western gunboat service must be left out.

I am specially indebted to Major Frank E. Miller (of Washington C. II., Ohio) for intelli-
gent and valuable assistance in reducing to shape the vast mass of material placed in my hands
by the publishers. He has also prepared the exhaustive index wliich aceom])anies the volumes.
Hon. William T. Coggeshall, Private Secretary to Governor Dennison (who has since died at his
post as United Stales Minister to Ecuador); Hon. William Henry Smith, Private Secretary to
Governor Brough, and subsequently Secretary of State; F. A. Marble, Esq., afterward Private
Secretary to Governor Brough and to Governor Anderson, and Edwin L. Stanton, Esq,, of the
War Department, have placed me under obligations for valued assistance in many ways. I
have also to thank tiie Adjutant-General and the Governor of Ohio for access to any documents
among the Slate archives wliich it w;us needful to consult. Finally, to a whole host of the sol-
diers of Ohio, for the kindness which loaded me with whatever facts were asked, and for the
delicate consideration which intrusted these to me to be used according to iny own sense of fitness,
I can never sufficiently express my obligations. No General or other officer of Ohio has failed
to furnish whatever I sought; and no one (with a single exception) has asked that any feature
in his career should be concealed or any other extolled.

And now as this labor, which for nearly two years has engrossed my time, is brought to an
end, I lay aside the pen regretfully. Here are many pages, and many effiarts to do some justice
to features in the war history of our noble State. No one can better understand how far they
fall fehort of the noble theme. And yet — who can write worthily of what Oliio has done?

W, K.

CmcTKUATi, December 24, 1867.



Preface ]

Ohio's Part in the War for tue Union 13 — 15

The State at the Outbreak of the War 16— 1!)

Initial AVar Legislation — The Struggle and Surrender of Party 20 — 24


The Opening Acts of Dennison's War Administration 25— 44

West Virginia Rescued by Ohio Militia under State Pay 45 — 51

The Progress and Close of Dennison's Administration 52 — 63

General Features op the First Year of Tod's Administration 64 — 82

Siege of Cincinnati — 83— 98

The Arrest and Trial of Vallandigham 99 124

Armed Resistance to the Authorities 125 — 129

The Organization of the National Guard 130 133

The Morgan Raid through Ohio I34 152

The Vallandigham Campaign I53 171


The Closing Features op Tod's Administration 172—181


4 Contents.

chapter xv.


The Opesinq of Brough's Administration — IIis Care for the Soldiers, and

THE Strifes to avhich it Led 182 — 199

The lasT Recrctting — its Progress and Perils 200 — 207

The Hundred Days' Men 208—220

Brovgh's Troubles with Officers, and his Failure to be Renominated 221 — 230

Close of Brough's Administration 231 — 237

Military Legislation of the State 238 — 244

Ohio Surgeons in the War 245 — 261

The Relief Work; Ald Societies, etc 251 — 272

Ulysse-s S. Grant 351 — 415


Wm. Tecumseh Sherman 417 — 493


George B. McClellan 275-309

William S. Rosecraks •'^H — 350

Philip H. Sheridan 495—560

Jami-s B. McPherson 5G1— 590

O. M. Mitchei 591—616

Q. A. Gillmork 617—655

Ibvis McDowell 650—694

Dos CATivr^ BuELi 695—724

Ror.KHT (I. SCHENTK 725 — 738

JAMyji A. C.AKyn.i.u 7:{9— 764

William B. IIazen 765—769

Jacob D. Cox -^ 770-777

Georob a. Cuoter 778 — 783

Contents. 5


James B. Steedman 784 — 788

Godfrey Weitzel 789 — 795

David S. Stanley 796 — 798

George Crook 799 — 804

Wager Swayne... 804 — 805

Alexander M. McCook 806 — 809

Mortimer D. Leggett 809 — 810


Charles W. Hill 811 815

John C. Tidball 816 820

EoBERT S. Granger 821 — 822

John W. Fuller 823 827

Manning F. Force 827 828

Henry B. Banning 829 — 830

Erastus B. Tyler 831 833

Thomas H. Ewing 834 — 836

Emerson Opdycke 837 839

Willakd Warner , 839 840

Charles E. Woods , 841 843

August V. Kautz 844 848

EuTHERFORD B. Hayes 848 849

Charles C. Walcutt 850 851

Kenner Garrard 852

Hugh Ewing 853—856

Samuel Beatty 856

James S. Eobinson 857

Warren Keifer 858 860

Eli Long 861—862

William B. Woods 863 864

John W. Sprague 864 866

Ben. p. Eunkle 866—867

August Willicii -. 868 870

Charles Griffin 871 873

Henry J. Hunt gy^

B. W. Brice gy^


Egbert L. McCook , 875 879

William H. Lytle ggO 833

William Sooy Smith gg4 gg^-

C. P. Buckingham gg7 ggg

Ferdinand Van Derveer.. ggO g93

George P. Este gQ^ ggy

Joel A. Dewey


Benjamin F. Potts ggg qqq

Jacob Ammen qqj qq^

Daniel McCook qq^ qqq

6 Contents.


J. AV. Forsyth 906

K.VLPH p. BUCKLAXD 907—908

Welliam H. Powell 909—910

John G. Mitchell 911—912

A. S.VNDEKS Piatt 913—915

Eliakim p. Scammox 915—916

Charles G. Harker 917 — 918

J. "W. Reilly 918—919

JosHTA W. Sill 919—920

N. C. McLean 921—922

William T. H. Brooks 922

George W- Morgan 923

John Beatty 924—926

William W. Burns 927

John S. Mason 928—929

S. S. Carroll 930

Henry B. Carrington 931—932

Melancthon S. Wade 932

John P. SLorcn 933

Thomas Kilby Smith 939

B E E YE T B E I G AD 1 E Ft- Ci E N E E AL S.

R. N. Adams, 954 ; Franklin Askew, 957.

William II. Baldwin, 957; W. 11. Ball, 958 ; Gersliom M. Barber, 958; James Barnett, 958;
Robert H. Bentley, 959; J. Biggs, 959; John E. Bond, 959 ; lienry Van Ness Boynton,
959; Rosliff Brinkerhoff, 960; Charles E. Brown, 961; Jefferson Brumback, 961; Henry
L. Burnett, 961 ; Joseph W. Burke, 962.

John Allen Campbell, 962; Charles Candy, 962; John S. Casement, 962; Mendal Churchill, 902;
Henry M. Cist, 962; Benjamin F. Coates, 963; James M. Comly, 963; Henry S. Commager,
963; H. C. Corbin, 963; Benjamin Rush Coweu, 963; Jolin E. Cummins, 965; J. R. Cock-
erill, 965.

Andrew R. Z. Dawson, 965; Henry F. Devol, 942; Francis Darr, 965; Azariah N. Doane, 965.

Charles G. Eaton, 965; John Eaton, jr., 965; B. B. Eggleston, 955; John J. Elwill, 966.

Benj. D. Fearing, 940; J. M. Frizzell, 966; Joseph S. Fullerlon, 966; Edward P. Fyffe, 966.

Israel Garrard, 943; Horatio G. Gibson, 966; William H. Gibson, 967; Samuel A. Gilbert, 967;
Josiah Given, 967; William Given, 967 ; Henry H. Giesy, 967; James H. Goduuin, 967;
C. H. Grosvenor, 952.

William Douglas Hamilton, 967; Andrew L. Harris, 968; James H. Hart, 968; Russell Hast-
ings, 968 ; Thomas T. Heath, 968 ; Andrew Hickenlooper, 937 ; George W. Hoge, 968 ; E,
S. Hoiioway, 969; Marcellus J. W. Ilolton, 969; Horace N. Howland, 969; Lewis C. Hunt,
969; Samuel H. Hurst, 969; R. ?. Ilutcliins, 969; Waller F. Herrick, 969.

John S. Jone«, 948; Theodore Jones, 970; Wells S. Jones, 970.

John H. Kelley, 970; R. P. Kennedy, 970; Robert L. Kimberly, 970; Henry D. Kingsbury,
970; Isaac Minor Kirby, 950.

John Q. Lane, 971 ; E. Bassett Langdon. 971 ; John C. Lee, 972; Frederick W. Lister, 973; B.
C. Ludlow, 934.

CharlCT F. Manderson, 973; William H. Martin, 973; Edwin C. Mason, 973 ; O, C. Maxwell,
973; Jaiius McCleary, 973; Daniel McCoy, 944; Henry K. McConnell, 974; Anson G
MKJook, 974; J. E. McGowan, 974 ; Stephen J. McGroarty, 974; Edwin S. Meyer, 976
Granvill.; Mr.-.dy, 975; John C. Moore, 975; August Moor, 975; Marsliall F. Moore, 975
Samuel li. .^Iott, 975; F. W. Moore, 950; Reuben Delavan Musse;', 975.

Contents. 7

George W. NefF, 977 ; A. B. Nettleton, 977 ; Edward Follensbee Noyes, 978.

John O'Dowd, 979.

Augustus C. Parry, 979 ; Don A. Pardee, 981 ; Oliver H. Payne, 915 ; John S. Pearce, 981 ;
William S. Pierson, 981; Orlando M. Poe, 981; Eugene Powell, 981.

E. W. Ratliff, 981 ;. W. 11. Raynor, 981 ; W. P. Richardson, 945 ; Americas V. Rice, 982 ; Or-
lando C. Rfsdon, 982.

Thomas W. Sanderson, 982 ; Franklin Sawyer, 982 ; Lionel A. Slieldon, 982 ; Isaac R. Sher-
wood, 953; Thomas C. H. Smith, 982; G. W. Sliurtliff, 982; Patrick Slevin, 982; Benjamin F.
Smith, 982; Willard Slocum, 983; Orland Smith, 983; Orlow Smith, 983; Joab A. Staf-
ford, 983; Anson Stager, 983; Timothy R. Stanley, 983; William Steadman, 983 ; William
Stough, 984; Silas A. Strickland, 984; Edgar Sowers, 984; Peter J. Sullivan, 984.

Jacob E. Taylor, 984; Thomas T. Taylor, 984; David Thompson, 984; John A. Tiirley, 984.

Thomas M. Vincent, 947 ; Lewis Von Blessingh, 984 ; Alexander Von Schraeder, 985.

Durbin Ward, 985; Moses B. Walker, 955; Darius B. Warner, 986; Henry R. West, 986;
Horatio N. Whitbeck, 986; Carr B. White, 987; Aquila Wiley, 987; Wm. T. Wilson, 987;
Oliver Wood, 987; Thomas F. Wildes, 951; G. F. Wiles, 946.

Thomas L. Young, 988 ; Stephen B. Yeoman, 949.

Lewis Zahm, 989 ; George M. Zeigler, 989.


Colonel Minor Millikin, 990; Colonel Lorin Andrews, 995; Colonel Fred. C. Jones, 997; Col-
onel William G. Jones, 999; Lieutenant-Colonel Barton S. Kyle, 1000; Colonel John H.
Patrick, 1001; Colonel John T. Toland, 1002; Colonel George P. Webster, 1003; Colonel
Leander Stem, 1004; Lieutenant-Colonel .Jonas D. Elliott, 1095; Lieutenant-Colonel James
W. Shane, 1006; Colonel Joseph L. Kirby Smith, 1007; Colonel Augustus H. Coleman,
1008; Colonel John W. Lowe, 1009; Lieutenant-Colonel Moses F. Webster, 1011.


Assistant Adjutant-Generals, 1012; Additional Aids-de-Camp, 1013; Aids-de-Camp appointed
under Act of July 17, 1862, 1013; Hospital Chaplains, 1013; Judge Advocates, 1013; Signal
/ Corjjs, 1014; Additional Paymasters, 1014; Assistant Quartermasters, 1014; Commissaries
of Subsistence, 1016.



" David Tod 1020

" John Brough 1022

Secretary Edwix M.Stanton 1027

Ex-Secretary Salmon P. Chase IO30

U. S. Senator Benjamin F. Wade ,.... 1033

U. S. Senator John Sherman IO35

Jay Cooke , IO37

8 Contents.




Some of th-". Kotjtes to, and Battle-fields abound, Eichmond 295

The Battle-field of Stone River 331

Chick^vmacga and Chattanooga 341

Battle of Belmont i 360

Pittsbuhg L-vndino and Vicinity 376

vicksburg and surroundings 383

Petersburg and the Flanking Movements to the Left 407

Sherman's Atlanta Campaign 451

Sherman's March to the Sea 468

Sherman's Campaign of the Cabolinas 473

Sheridan's Valley Campaign 524

The Bull Run, Rappahannock, Antietam, and Gettysburg Campaigns 669

Defenses of New Orleans 790


Pontoon Bridge over the Ohio River 92

The Squirrel Hunter 96

Gunboats on the Ohio ■ 136

Feeding Troops, Fifth Street Market Space, Cincinnati 192

GiLLMORE Shelling Charleston 638






LiEOT. Gkn. Uly.ssf.h S. Grant 273

Maj. Gen. AVm. T. Sherman 273

Gkoroe B. McClellan 273

" Don Cari.oh Buell 273


Maj. CJkn. William S. Rosecuanr 273

" Itounirr ('. SfiiKNCK 273

" .Tamk- a. Gaiu'ieli) 273

" Jamj;h J'.. M(;I*irERH()N 273

Okm.^by M. Mitchei 273 I " David S. Stanley 273





Ma J. Gen. Irvin McDowell 495

" James B. Steedman 495

" Philip H. Sheridan 495

" Alex. McD. McCook 495

" William SooY Smith 495


BvT. Ma J. Gen. Samuel Beatty 495

" " R. B. Hayes 495

Surgeon-Gen. Gustav C. E. Weber.. 495

Brig. Gen. Edward F. Noyes 495

John S. Mason.



Maj. Gen. Quincy Adams Gillmore. 617

" Jacob Dolson Cox G17

" Godfrey Weitzel 617

" George Crook 617

" Mortimer D. Leggett 617


Bvt. Maj. Gen. John W. Fuller 617

" " Hugh Ewing 617

Brig. Gen. Nathaniel C. McLean .... 617

" George W. Morgan 617

Bvt. Brig Gen. James M. Comly 617



Maj. Gen. George A. Custer 778

" 'Wiliam B. Hazen 778

" Wager Swayne 778

Bvt. Maj. Gen. August V. Kautz .... 778
" " Kenner Garrard 778


Bvt. Maj. Gen. S. S. Carroll 77

" " Manning F. Force... 77

" " Chas. C. Walcutt ... 77

Brig. Gen. A. Sanders Piatt 77

Bvt. Brig. Gen. Benj. D. Fearing... 77


Bvt. Maj. Gen. Charles R. Woods..
" " William B. Woods.
-' " J. Warren Keifer.
" " John C. Tidball



Brig. Gen. John Beatty 841


Brig. Gen. H. B. Carrington 841

" B. E. CowEN 841

M. S. AVade 841

Bvt. Brig. Gen. Fred'k W. Moore... 841

" " Frank Askew 841


Bvt. Maj. Gen. John W. Sprague....

" " Robert S. Granger.
Brig. Gen. C. P. Buckingham

" Jacob Ammen

" Ralph P. Buckland

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