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Ohio in the war : her statesmen, her generals, and soldiers (Volume 2) online

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OHIO IN THE WAR:



HER STATESMEN,



GENERALS, AND SOLDIERS.



By WHITELAW REID,



IIST TWO VOLUMSS.

VOL TIME II:
THE HISTORY OF HER REGIMENTS,

OTHER MILITARY ORGANIZATIONS.



1 The real heroes of this war are the great, brave, patient, nameless People."— Gucowski.



PUBLISHERS:

MOORE, WILSTACH & BALDWIN,

25 WEST FOURTH STREET, CINCINNATI.
New York : 60 Walker Street.

1868.



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1867, by

MOOEE, WILSTACH & BALDWIN,

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Southern District of Ohio






-



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CONTENTS.



PAGE.

Introductory 3

Table Showing Leading Facts in the History of each Organization 7

Infantry Begiments 15 — 744

Cavalry Regiments 745 — 827

Independent Batteries 828 — 888

First Light Artillery 889 — 906

First and Second Heavy Artillery 907 — 915

Irregular and Anomalous Organizations :

One Hundred and Twenty-Seventh Ohio, or 5th (Colored) U. S. Infantry 915

Fourth Virginia Volunteer Infantry 918

Independent Companies of Sharp-Shooters 921

Union Light Guard, Fremont Body-Guard 923 — 924

McLaughlin's Squadron of Cavalry, Harlan's Light Cavalry 925 — 927

First, Third, Fourth, Fifth, and Sixth Independent Cavalry Companies 928 — 933

Sherman's Body-Guard, Dennison Guards, Trumbull Guards 934 — 936

Departmental Corps, Captain Bard's Company, Wallace Guards 936 — 937

Second and Fourth Ohio Independent Battalions 938 — 939

Second and Eighth Ohio Batteries (K G.) 939—940

Index 941



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.



PAGE.

Camp Harrison, April, 1861 42

Lookout Mountain 52

The Tennessee at Chattanooga 112

Graves of Ohio Soldiers — Libby Prison 176

Steamboat Scene on the Mississippi 253

Baggage Train Ascending the Alleghanies 292

Bridge at Bridgeport, Alabama 355

Sherman at the Sea 424

Morgan Raiders in Ohio 488

Salisbury Prisons 547

Cavalry Charge 783



fjl'sh? xxx.



THE HISTORY OF OHIO REGIMENTS,



OTHER MILITARY ORGANIZATIONS.



INTRODUCTORY.



THE REGIMENTS AND SOLDIERS OF OHIO.



AT the close of the War against the Eebellion, the State of Ohio had in
the National service two hundred regiments of all arms* In the
course of the war she furnished two hundred and thirty regiments,
besides twenty-six independent batteries of artillery, five independent companies
of cavalry, several companies of sharp-shooters, large parts of five regiments
credited to the "West Virginia contingent, two credited to the Kentucky con-
tingent, two transferred to " United States Colored Troops," and a large pro-
portion of the rank and file for the Fifty-Fourth and Fifty-Fifth Massachusetts.

Of these organizations, twenty-three were infantry regiments furnished for
three months at the outbreak of the war, being an excess of nearly one-half
over the quota allotted to the State.f One hundred and ninety-one were infan-
try regiments afterward furnished in obedience to the several calls of the Pres-
ident — one hundred and seventeen for three years, twenty-seven for one year,
two for six months, three for three months, and forty-two for a hundred days.
Thirteen were cavalry and three were artillery regiments for three years. And
of these three-years' troops from Ohio, over twenty thousand re-enlisted as vet-
erans at the end of their long term of service — to fight till the war should ebb
out in Victory.

In these various organizations, as original members or as recruits, the
State furnished to the National service the magnificent army of three hundred
and ten thousand six hundred and fifty-four soldiers. J The older, larger, and

*Kep. Adj. Gen. of Ohio for I860, p. 67.

t The quota was only thirteen regiments. The Government would not then accept more, and
so the State put them in the field on her own account. The Government finally paid them.

t In this statement I follow throughout the figures of the United States Provost-Marshal-
General in his final report to the War Department (Vol. I, pp. 160 to 164). Nearly all the States
have industriously reckoned up larger totals — obtained by counting those who paid commutation
money as so many soldiers actually furnished, by treating the veteran re-enlistments as so many
new troops, by enumerating their citizens enlisted in the organizations of other States, their
sailors, etc. Much may be plausibly said in favor of counting most of these different classes ;
but, on the whole, it seems to me fairer to reject them, and to accept the figures on which the
War Department acted in apportioning the quotas and enforcing the draft. This gives a less
imposing appearance to the statement of our troops, but it is perfectly free from any possibility
of being charged with the unwise exaggeration to which a morbid State pride has sometimes
led. The Adjutant-General of Ohio, however, in his report for 1864, reckoning most of the
classes we have rejected, had swelled the number of troops furnished by the State (up to Decem-
ber 1, 1864) to 346,326.— Report, p. 47.



4 Ohio in the Wak.

more populous commonwealth of Pennsjdvania gave not quite twenty-eight
thousand more, while Illinois fell forty-eight thousand behind, Indiana a hun-
dred and sixteen thousand, Kentucky two hundred and thirty-five thousand,
and Massachusetts a hundred and sixty-four thousand. Thus Ohio more than
maintained in the army the rank among her sisters to which her population
pointed. Let us not fail to add — in no spirit of detraction to other States, but
with the honest pride which the facts entitle us to entertain — that Ohio fur-
nished, from first to last, more troops than the Government ever required of
her; that, at the end of the war, with a thousand men in the camps of the
State that were never mustered, she still had a credit on the rolls of the "War
Department for four thousand three hundred and thirty-two soldiers bej'ond
the aggregate of all quotas ever assigned her;* and that, besides all these, six
thousand four hundred and seventy-nine of her citizens had paid the commuta-
tion in lieu of personal service; while Indiana was behind her quotas five
thousand four hundred and twenty-five men, Kentucky twenty-four thousand
nine hundred and nineteen, Pennsylvania fifty-thousand three hundred and
sixty, and New York sixty-one thousand one hundred and eighty-nine. f
So nobly through all those years of trial and death did she keep the promise of
the memorable dispatch from her first war Governor: "If Kentucky refuses to
fill her quota, Ohio will fill it for her."

The great army thus put into the field by the State that, half a century
ago, was a wilderness, was enlisted, under the different calls of the President,
as follows :

Under the call of Ohio furnished Her quota being

April 15, 1861, for 75,000 men 12,357 10,153t

July 22, 1S61, for 500,000 men 84,116 67,365

July 2, 1862, for 300,000 men 58,325 36,858

August 4, 1862, for 300,000 for nine months 36,858

June 15, 1863, for militia 2,736

October 17, 1863, for 500,000 32,837 51,465

March 14, 1864, for 200,000 men 29,931 20,595

April 22, 1864, for one-hundred days' militia 36,254 30,000

July 18, 1864, for 500,000 men 30,823 27,001

December 19, 1864, for 300,000 men 23,275 26,027

Totals 310,654 306,322

The period of service of these troops ranged from that of the National
Guards for a hundred days to that of the veteran volunteers for five years.

* Furthermore, she was to have been credited on the next call, had another been needed,
with thirteen thousand and twenty-two years of service not hitherto credited to her on any of
her quotas — for no reason, save that it had been voluntarily offered when the Government had
not been calling for it. — Provost-Marshal-General's Report, Vol. I, p. 164.

tThe States of Illinois and Massachusetts, which, having been included in the previous
comparison, ought to appear in this one, had also more than filled their quotas, and had hand-
some credits.

t No credit was here given, it will be seen, for the extra ten regiments raised for the three-
months' service in April and May, 1861, which the Government refused to accept.



Introductoky. 5

Reduced to the department standard, they represent not quite two hundred and
forty thousand three-years' soldiers.

Even this does not present the full sum of the contributions of men from
Ohio to the National armies. The State was credited with one thousand and
seventy-six men furnished to the gun-boat service on the Western waters, and,
before the department began to give credit for these naval enlistments, there
had been two thousand three hundred and sixty-seven of them. Furthermore,
there were five thousand and ninety-two negro soldiers from Ohio, either cred-
ited to other States or to the "United States Colored Troops," besides some
complete white regiments and large numbers of recruits raised in Ohio, but, in
the varying exigencies of the department, credited elsewhere.

Altogether, reckoning the sum of these various numbers, we may safely
conclude that the army of the State, from the outbreak of the war to its close,
swelled to the noble proportions of a third of a million of men.

Of these, nearly all were volunteers. Only eight thousand seven hundred
and fifty had to be raised in Ohio by the draft throughout the war. But the
volunteers received from the people of the State, independent of Government pay
and premiums, over twenty-three and a half million dollars of local bounties.

Their service was deadly. Eleven thousand two hundred and thirty-
seven of them were killed or mortally wounded in action, of whom six thou-
sand five hundred and sixty-three were left dead on the field of battle. Thir-
teen thousand three hundred and fifty-four died, before the expiration of their
terms of enlistment, of diseases contracted in the service. Thirty-seven Ohio
soldiers out of every thousand fell dead or mortally wounded in battle; forty-
seven more died in the hospitals ; seventy-one more were honorably discharged,
unable longer to do the duty of soldiers, by reason of wounds or sickness
incurred in the Country's service. Let us not, in the fullness of our just
pride, conceal the darker side of the picture : forty -four out of every thou-
sand deserted.*

They fought on well-nigh every battle-field of the war. Within forty-
eight hours after the telegraphic call, two Ohio regiments were on their way to
the rescue of the imperiled capital in the spring of 1861. An Ohio brigade, in
good order, covered the retreat from the first Bull Bun. Ohio troops formed

* It should be remembered tbat many of these desertions were not such in intention, and
that, after a stolen visit to their families, the men went back to the service. The number of
desertions in Ohio troops, however, was small compared with that in the troops in many States.
We have said that in Ohio it was 44 to the thousand. In New York it was 89 to the thousand,
in Pennsylvania 58, in New Jersey 107, in New Hampshire 112, in Connecticut 117, in Kansas
117, in Kentucky 87, in Indiana 37, and in Illinois 51.

The battle mortality compares as follows in some of the States :

In Ohio 37 to the thousand, in Indiana 30, in Illinois 35, in Kentucky 25, in New York 36,
in Pennsylvania 31, in Massachusetts 47. These figures show what troops got into the places
in battle where they lost the most.

The mortality from disease, in the troops from the same States, compares as follows :

In Ohio 47 to the thousand, in Indiana 69, in Illinois 78, in New York 43, in Pennsylvania
34, and in Massachusetts 63. Supposing exposure to be equal, these figures would show which
States had a population possessing the highest vitality, and therefore the lowest mortality.



6 Ohio in the War.

the bulk of the army that saved West Virginia ; the bulk of the army that
saved Kentucky; a large share of the army that took Fort Donelson ; a part
of the army at Island No. 10 ; a great part of the army that, from Stone River
and Chickamauga, and Mission Ridge, and Kenesaw, and Atlanta, swept down
to the sea and back through the Carolinas to the Old .Dominion. They fought
at Pea Ridge. They charged at Wagner. They campaigned against the In-
dians along the base of the Rocky Mountains. They helped to redeem North
Carolina. They were in the siege of Vicksburg, the siege of Charleston, the
siege of Richmond, the siege of Mobile. At Pittsburg Landing, at Antietam,
at Gettysburg, at Corinth, in the Wilderness, before Nashville, at Five Forks,
and Appomattox C. II., their bones, reposing on the fields they won, are a per-
petually-binding pledge that no flag shall ever wave over these graves of our
soldiers but the flag they fought to maintain.

" The real heroes of this war are the great, brave, patient, nameless Peo-
ple." It is to their service through these varied scenes that we now gladly
turn. The Victory was not won through Generalship — it is a libel on the word
to say that Generalship delayed for four years the success of twenty-five mill-
ions over ten millions, or required a million men in the closing campaigns to
defeat a hundred thousand — it was won by the sacrifices, the heroism, the suf-
ferings, the death of the men in the ranks. Their story we now seek to tell.
It will be less picturesque, less attractive, fuller of dry details, fruitless fighting,
tedious marches, labor, and waiting, and weariness. Even such was the life
they led for us ; and its record, wo are firmly persuaded, will never cease to be
cherished by their grateful countrymen.



As it is possible that this second volume of Ohio in the War may fall into the hands of some
who may not have access to Vol. I, the following explanations are here reproduced from the
Preface to the work :

(1.) At the beginning of Vol. II is presented a table, showing at a glance the leading facts
concerning the formation, service, losses, recruits, commanders, and muster-out of all the im-
portant volunteer organizations of the State.

(2.) Prefixed to the sketch of the history of each regiment, battery, or company, is an ex-
haustive Roster of its officers, from which the main facts in their military career may be traced.
The basis of these Rosters is the record on the rolls of the State Adjutant-General at Columhus,
and the Volunteer Register for Ohio, in the War Department at Washington. Both these are
necessarily more or less inaccurate. Every effort has been made to correct them, and great num-
bers of changes have been made. We scarcely dare to hope that the Rosters, as here presented,
are entirely free from errors; but we know them to be incomparably better than any others now
in existence.

(3.) Aside from the information given in the Rosters, Vol. II is devoted to the Men in the
Ranks. Special mention is not therefore habitually made, even of the commanders of regi-
ments. Concerning very many of them, however, full information may be found in the Lives
of the Generals in Vol. I; where also the reader must look for the History of the State during
the War, and for many incidents illustrative of the heroism of private soldiers.



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