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Reaching the capital, its commanding officer reported to the Secretary of War, and was as
signed to duty in and around the city, a strong detail being placed near the President's house,
the Treasury Building, War Office, and other public buildings. In this description of duty the
Union Light Guard served through 1863-4-5, and part of 1866, when it was sent home to Ohio,
paid, and mustered out of the service. Its original strength was one hundred and three men.



924 Ohio in the Wae.



FREMONT BODY GUARD.



THIS guard was a body of cavalry selected from a host of applicants on account of the
high intelligence, the fine physique, and the manifest aptitude of its members for mil-
itary service. Without question it was one of the finest bodies of cavalry ever seen in
the United Slates service; made up of ardent young Americans, mainly from Ohio and Ken-
tucky, including only thirty foreigners.

The guard especially distinguished itself at the battle of Springfield, Missouri, where num-
bering one hundred and fifty men under Major Zagoni, it routed a force of two thousand Rebels.
It advanced cautiously against the Rebels until within half a mile; then halted and drew sabers;
and a moment later the men were dashing toward the enemy, shouting, " Hurrah for Cincinnati !"
"Old Kentucky forever!" "Remember the Queen City, boys!" , "Fremont and Union!" They
were exposed to a terrific fire, and fifty-two men, over one-third of the entire number fell upon
the field. Four officers out of nine were wounded, but still the guard pressed on. Zagoni was
at the head of the column, and every man seemed to struggle to be foremost. The Rebels soon
broke and fled with a loss of one hundred and seven men killed and thirty captured. Among
the dead were one Colonel and several Captains ; and among the prisoners was one Lieutenant-
Colonel. The field of battle gave distinct evidence of the fierceness of the conflict. In one
place not ten yards square lay four dead horses, and near them their fearless riders. This vic-
tory was achieved after a march of one hundred and five miles in forty-eight hours, upon one
meal, principally of salt beef.

When these young heroes returned to St. Louis they were met by an order to disband them
"for sentiments expressed at Springfield;" so the official document read; and the offensive sen-
timents were, "Fremont and Union." No explanation was vouchsafed. The brilliant victory
was ignored, and those men, returning triumphant from their first battle-field, were insulted out
of the service. They were refused rations, forage, clothes, and pay; and were reduced to the
extremest suffering. General Sturgis went to review them before mustering out, but he was so
much impressed by their appearance that he declared himself unable to discharge such men, and
so the ceremony was postponed. Price appeared again on the line of the railroad and the guard
were at once above par. Compliments were heaped upon the men ; the most advantageous offers
were made to them if they remained in the service ; and it was even proposed to incorporate
them into the regular army. But the men felt too keenly their former insults, and accordingly
they were mustered out.

The Fremont Body Guard occupies but one page in history, and none save its slanderers need
blush at what is written thereon. It has been the subject of a graceful little volume, entitled
" The Story of the Guard," written by Mrs. Jessie Benton Fremont.



McLaughlin's Squadron of Cavalry



925



MCLAUGHLIN'S SQUADRON OF CAVALRY.



EOSTES, THREE YEABS' SERVICE.



Major

Do

Do

Captain

Do

Do

Do

Do

D(

1st Lieutenant
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
2d Lieutenant
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.



DATE OF BANK.



Wh. McLaughlin Sept.

Gayxord McFali Illlv

Ricuauo Bice );i

Gaylord McFali Nov.

Sanniel B. Duckmaster De

Richard Rice May

Samuel H. Fisher July

•lolui Dalzell Jan.

John L. Skegga Feb.

Enoch Smith Xov.

lienj. B. Lake Dec.

John L. Skegga Sept.

George W. Pouieroy Fell,

Krastus P. Coates

Jacob O. Stmt

Enoch Smith

Samuel H. Fisher

Samuel B. Buckmastcr ,

Herman A lieu ran ,

John L. Skegga

Erastus P. Coates

John Dalzell

George W. Pomeroy

Ross R. Cowan

Jacob 0. Stout

Anthony Linibird



July
Oct.
Nov.
Oct.
Dee.
July

Sept.

Jan.
Feb.

July



28, ISfil
19. 1M52
17, 1663
26, 186]



19,
17, 1863
2j, "
20, 1861
ti, "
20, 1862
17, 1863

25, "
13, 186-1

3, 1S61

26, "
10, "

6, "

19, 1862

20, "
15, "
17, 1863
26, "
17, "
13, 1864



COM. ISSUED.



Dec.
Sept.

Feb.
Dec.

July-
Sept.
Fell.



Oct.



July
Dec.



1861 Died July 19, 1862.

1862 Besigned January 17, 1863.

lsr,:i Mustered out November 19, 1864.

1861 Promoted to Major.

" Resigned May : ; 6, 1862.

1862 Promoted to Major.



1863

1861



1862

186,3



1864
1861



Sept. 5
Oct. 21
Jan. 20
Feb. 18
March 31



1862
1863



July 13, 1864



Transferred to 5th O. V. Car.
Resigneil December 12, 1864.
Besigned September 20, 1862.
Resigned February 17, 1863.
Promoted to Captain.
Resigned May 10, 1864.
Transferred to 5th O. V. Cav.
Honorably discharged Mav 2, 1865.
Promoted to 1st Lieutenant.
Promoted to Captain.
Promoted to Captain.
Resigned September 15, 1862.
Promoted to 1st Lieutenant.
Promoted to 1st Lieutenant.
Promoted to Captain.
Promoted to 1st Lieutenant.
Transferred to 5th O. V. Cav.
Promoted to 1st Lieutenant.
Mustered out May 15. 186">.



MCLAUGHLIN'S SQUADRON OF CAVALRY.



IN the latter part of October, 1861, the Secretary of War, at the request of the Governor
of Ohio, issued a special order to Major William McLaughlin of Mansfield, to raise a
force of cavalry, which should be an independent command, and named McLaughlin's
Squadron. Major McLaughlin was an old citizen of Mansfield, and had participated in the
Mexican War. He was quite advanced in years, of rough exterior and iron will, and just the
man to take to the field and successfully carry through an independent command of this kind.
He was patriotic in the extreme, and was always at his post in the hour of battle. The exertions
and privations of his last service were, however, too much for one of his years, and, in July,
1862, he went to his rest, in the field, on the Big Sandy River, in Kentucky. His remains were
sent to his home in Mansfield, and buried with the honors of war.

The squadron left Mansfield for the field in the latter part of November, and was sent to
Eastern Kentucky to look after Humphrey Marshall's Rebel command, then near Paintville. It
operated with the command of Colonel Garfield of the Forty-Third Ohio, and was with that com-
mand at the battles of Middle Creek, Pikeville, and Pound Gap. The squadron was then sent to
Gladesville, Western Virginia, across the Cumberland Mountains, and, after burning Gladesville,
it surprised and captured a Rebel regiment, just being formed by Colonel Caudle.

The movements above described consumed nearly two years of service, the greater part of
which was taken up with scouting, forced marches, and skirmishing with the enemy.

In August, 1863, the squadron left Eastern Kentucky and joined the Twenty-Third Army



926 Ohio in the War.

Corps, under General Hartsuff, then marching for Knoxville in Eastern Tennessee. While at
Knoxville it performed escort and picket-duty, -with occasional skirmishes with the enemy, until
January 10, 1864, at which time it re-enlisted, and returned to Ohio to enjoy its veteran furlough
of thirty days.

During its stay in Ohio the squadron was recruited up to its maximum. About the 1st of
May it moved from Camp Dennison, and joined a brigade of cavalry at Nicholasville, Kentucky,
under command of Colonel Capron of Illinois. Moving through Kentucky and Tennessee, it
joined General Sherman's forces at Big Shanty, Georgia, and formed a part of General Stone-
man's command in his raid to Macon. In this raid the squadron suffered severely in killed,
wounded, and missing. The remainder of the squadron marched back to Marietta, where it
rejoined General Sherman's forces, in the latter part of July, 1864.

Colonel Israel Garrard of the Seventh Ohio Cavalry having superseded General Stoneman,
the squadron marched in company with his command, and operated in Sherman's flanking move-
ments toward Atlanta. "Atlanta taken and fairly won," it joined General Kilpatrick at Mari-
etta, Georgia, and operated with Sherman's forces from that point to Savannah. Thence it went
with the National forces through North and South Carolina, participating in the fight at Benton-
ville, and the brisk skirmishes of Blackville and other points on the march up to Raleigh,
North Carolina.

The squadron was then sent up to Lexington and Concord, North Carolina, returning to
Raleigh in July, 1865. At this place it was consolidated with the Fifth Ohio Cavalry.

It remained here up to the latter part of October, was then sent to Salisbury, North Caro-
lina, and was mustered out of the service at that place on the 1st of November, 1865. Then,
returning to Ohio, it was paid off and discharged at Camp Chase on the 17th.



HARLAN'S LIGHT CAVALRY.*



THIS company was organized under an order from the Secretary of War, Simon Cameron,
authorizing Colonel Josiah Harlan to raise an independent regiment of cavalry, the inten-
tion being to have companies from twelve different States. It was subsequently found, how-
ever, that the laws of Congress did not authorize the recruiting of single companies in a State.
This body of Ohio men was, therefore, attached to the Eleventh Pennsylvania Cavalry. It was
composed of citizens of Marion, Crawford, Meigs, and Wyandotte Counties, and was at first ofli-
cered by N. M. Runyan, as Captain; Wm. H. Kilmer, as First Lieutenant, and Gerard Rey-
nolds, as Second-Lieutenant. It was mustered into the service at Camp Chase, August 31, 1861,
and it proceeded at once to join the Eleventh Pennsylvania Cavalry at Hesterville, a suburb of
Philadelphia. It was designated as Company M.

Captain N. M. Runyan was promoted to Major, First-Lieutenant Wm. H. Kilmer resigned,
Second-Lieutenant Gerard Reynolds was promoted to Captain, and Company Quartermaster-
Sargent S. N. Titus to First-Lieutenant. Lucien F. Prudhomme, of Philadelphia, was ap-
pointed Second-Lieutenant.

From Philadelphia the company was sent with its regiment to Ball's Cross-roads, Virginia,
where it went into camp. In November it proceeded to Annapolis, and thence to Fortress Mon-
roe where it lay for six months. In March detachments of the regiment, including Company
M, were sent to Newport News, in General Mansfield's command, where they remained until the
fall of 1862. Its active campaigning commenced on September 15, 1862. It was at the siege of

* Enlisted in Ohio, but attached to the Eleventh Pennsylvania Cavalry



Harlan's Light Cavalry. 927

Suffolk by Longstreet, from 1st of April to 11th of May, Company M being stationed at South
Mills as an outpost, guarding the approach in that direction. During this whole year's service
Company M, in connection with the regiment, constantly scouted over the country on the left bank
of the Blackwater and Chowan Rivers, from the James to Albemarle Sound, keeping the coun-
try clear of the enemy, capturing many prisoners and considerable property. It is estimated
that each company marched three hundred miles per month during this period.

On June 21, 1863, the regiment and company marched to Portsmouth, and there embarked
on transports for White House, on the Pamunkey River. A rapid march brought the command
on the 26th to the Virginia Central Railroad bridge over the South Anna River, near Hanover
C. H. The enemy's works were immediately attacked in the rear by a mounted and dismounted
charge, in which Company M participated, resulting in the capture of one hundred and twentv-
five Rebel prisoners, the Rebel Brigadier-General W. H. F. Lee, seven hundred horses and
mules, eighty wagons, and other property. The expedition, however, failed in its main object —
the severance of railroad communication between Richmond and Lee's army, then near Gettys-
burg—but on the night of July 4th Companies M and G destroyed the railroad bridge, station,
and public property at Ashland. The remainder of 1863 was devoted to daring raids around
Richmond and into North Carolina, in which Company M performed effective service.

After re-enlisting, Company M, early in February, 1864, joined its regiment and partici-
pated in Brigadier-General Wistar's expedition for the surprise and capture of Richmond.
After the failure of this effort, it returned to Portsmouth, Virginia, and on May 5th accompa-
nied Brigadier-General A. V. Kautz in his operations against the Weldon Railroad, Danville
Railroad, etc. At Jarrett's Station Company M lost one man killed, and Lieutenant Prud-
homme and ten men wounded.

On June 10th, after a rapid march to the rear of Petersburg, the division made an attack,
carried the works, and with Company M in advance entered the town. On the 16th Company M
participated in the attack which resulted in the capture of the main line of works around Pe-
tersburg. It thereafter joined Kautz and Wilson's raids for the destruction of the Danville and
South Side Railroads, and lost one of the best officers of the regiment — Captain Reynolds, of
Company M, killed. Company M also lost three men captured, and afterward starved to death
in Rebel prisons. The vacancy caused by the death of Captain Reynolds was filled by promot-
ing First-Lieutenant S. N. Titus to Captain, to date from July 1, 1864. Second-Lieutenant L.
F. Prudhomme was promoted to First-Lieutenant, and Seargent John Bacon to Second-Lieutenant.
The company and regiment were attached to the great army in its several movements against
the Weldon Railroad. At Ream's Station the company and regiment engaged the enemy for
three days, almost without intermission, with some loss. On August 29th the company and reg-
iment joined in the attempt to surprise and enter Richmond from the north by the cavalry, while
the infantry made an attack on the Fort Harrison side. The fort was taken, but the night attack
of the cavalry failed, owing to the troops losing their way in the darkness.

On the morning of October 7th the right flank of the army was turned by a heavy force of
the enemy, and the command was driven back with the loss of its artillery. Major S. N. Titus,
formerly Captain of Company M, was severely wounded in the right arm and taken prisoner.
Captain Bacon, of Company M, was also captured and held in Rebel prisons. Both were ex-
changed February 22, 1865. T. G. Elliott, formerly Seargent of Company M, was about this time
made Captain of Company F, Eleventh Pennsylvania Cavalry. During the remainder of Oc-
tober and November the regiment operated in General Butler's attempts to turn the enemy's left.
In March, 1865, it crossed the James and Appomattox Rivers, and followed the fortunes of Sher-
idan's command during the short but brilliant campaign culminating in ihe surrender of Lee at
Appomattox C. H.

On the 1st of April, at the battle of Five Forks, the Eleventh Pennsylvania Cavalry (in-
cluding Company M) had the advance of the division which was ordered to attack on the extreme
right of Sheridan's forces. A mounted and dismounted charge was made, and the enemy driven
from his position in confusion, notwithstanding his superiority of numbers. On April 9ih it was



928



Ohio in the Wak.



with Mackenzie's command of Sheridan's cavalry, and had the honor of opening the attack of
the final action of the war at Appomattox C. H., by a movement of cavalry and infantry that
resulted in driving the enemy nearly a mile to the slope of the hill overlooking the main Rebel
position. While in this position hostilities were suspended, terms agreed upon, and the final
surrender made. The next day (10th of April) a squadron of the Eleventh Pennsylvania Cav-
alry, under Captain Elliott, found and took possession of fifty-four pieces of artillery which the
Rebels had buried at Red Oak Church. In this short campaign the Eleventh Regiment bore a
conspicuous part.

On the 19th of April, 1865, the regiment was discharged and paid at Camp Cadwallader,
Philadelphia.



1st OHIO INDEPENDENT CAVALRY COMPANY.



ROSTER, THREE MONTHS' SERVICE.



Captain

1st Lieutenant



Win. II. Bimlsall.
Minor Millikin....



2d Lieutenant 0. B. Hunt.



DATE OF HANK.



June 5, ISfil



COM. ISSUED.



June 30, 1S61 h

30, " ;• Mustered out.
" 31), " J



FIRST INDEPENDENT COMPANY OF CAVALRY.



THE recruiting of cavalry was not, at the commencement of the war, asked for by the
General Government. The State, however, considered it necessary to the success of the
other arms of the service, and authorized the recruiting of several companies as inde-
pendent commands.

The First was raised by Captain Wm. H. Burdsall of Cincinnati; largely aided by the en-
ergy and lavish use of private means of the lamented Minor Millikin. It was composed of ex-
cellent material— young men of the counties of Hamilton and Butler — who entered the field from
the purest patriotism and love of country.

This company was sent to Western Virginia, and was used with excellent effect in that wild
region of country. It proved literally, in the well-known language of General Rosecrans, "the
eyes of the army." During its term of three months' service its members were almost constantly
in the saddle, guarding trains, scouting the wild passes of the mountains, and frequently meeting
organized and unorganized bands of the enemy in hand-to-hand encounters.

At the end of its term it was disbanded; most of its members joining the First Ohio Cavalry,
which was then recruiting its ranks for the three years' service.



Foukth Ohio Independent Cavalry.



929



3d OHIO INDEPENDENT CAVALRY COMPANY.



— ■ ■ i —



ROSTEE, THKEE YEARS' SERVICE.



DATE OF RANK.



COM. ISSUED.



Captain Philip Pfan

Do Frank Smith

1st Lieutenant Frank Smith

Do. jjonas Seaman

Do. Wildenian G. Wahle..

2d Lieutenant Frank A. Dessman...

Do. j Frederick Smith

Do. Wildenian U. Wahle.



July 4, 1861 Aug. 20, 1861 Resigned March 10, 1802.
March 10, 1862 June 14, 1>62 Mustered out July 11, 1864.
| July 4, 1861 1 Aug. 20, 1*61 Promoted to Captain March 10, 1862
" Jan. 24, 18n2, Resigned December. 7 ), 1863.
July 25, 1864 Discharged.
Aug. 20, 18*1 {Resigned March 12, 1862.
June 24, 1862;Dischar2ed.
Promoted to 1st Lieutenant.



March 10, 1862

Dec. 5, 1863

July 4, 1861

March 12, 1862



THIRD INDEPENDENT COMPANY OF CAVALRY.



THIS company was purely a Cincinnati organization, recruited early in 1861 under the
personal supervision of its commander. A few days sufficed to prepare it for the field,
and early in May it was sent to Western Virginia, and attached to the forces already
in the field under General McClellan.

"While there, Pfau's Company of Horse was noted for the energy and success with which it

performed the work of scouting arid skirmishing marked out for it by the commanding General.

It was mustered into the three years' service near the end of its three months' term, but was

shortly afterward absorbed into the early cavalry organizations raised in the latter part of 1861.



4th OHIO INDEPENDENT CAVALRY COMPANY.



ROSTER, THREE YEARS' SERVICE.



DATE OF RANK.



COM. ISSUED.



Captain 'John S. Foster

Do John L. King

let Lieutenant Wm. II. Hannah

Do. Thomas J. Thompson
Do. Joseph F. Thomas

2d Lieutenant Stephen D. Porter

Do. j'JL'humas C. Yates



July
Sept.
July
Aug.

Sept.

July
Jan.



9, 1861

8, 1864

9, 1861
9, 1864

30, "
9, 1861
18, 1865



Aug.

Sept.
Aug.

Sept.
Aug.
Jan.



13, 1861
8, 1864
13, 1861
y, 1864
30, "
13, 1861
18, 1865



Mustered out at expiration of service.

Mustered out May 28, 1865.

Resigned May IT, 1864.

Declined.

Mustered out May 2*, 1865.

Mustered out at expiration of service.

Mustered out May 28, IS65.



FOURTH INDEPENDENT COMPANY OF CAVALRY.



THIS company was organized at Georgetown, Ohio, on the 9th of July, 1861. Each
man furnished his own horse and horse equipments, and was armed with sabers and
carbines at Georgetown. On the 10th the company started for Camp Chase, where, in
a short time, it acquired great proficiency in drill. On the 10th of August it was ordered to St.
Louis, Missouri, and it arrived at that point on the 21st. It spent a few days at Camp Benton.

Vol. II.— 59



930 Ohio in the War.

and was then ordered into the city as provost-guard. The company, by its promptness and effi-
ciency, did much toward preserving order. It was sent, on one occasion, to suppress a riot. In
less than five minutes after the order was received the men had saddled and mounted and were
on their way to the scene of disturbance.

In September the company was ordered to Syracuse, and while stationed there it was sent
into the country to press horses, mules, and wagons. In three days it returned with a large
number. The company marched to Springfield, then returned to Syracuse, when it was trans-
ferred to General Pope's command.

During the months of December, 1861, and January and February, 1862, it was engaged in
scouting over western and northern Missouri. It participated in many skirmishes and in the
battle of Silver Creek, in which it lost one man killed and one officer and six men wounded. In
February it returned to Benton Barracks, and on the 1st of March it was taken into St. Louis,
and placed on duty at General Halleck's head-quarters. On the 9th of April it accompanied
General Halleck as escort up the Tennessee to Pittsburg Landing. It continued to act as escort
during the siege of Corinth. It joined the pursuit of Beauregard, and after that remained on
duty at department head-quarters until Halleck was transferred to Washington City. Next came
miscellaneous service in Western Tennessee, under McClernand, Logan, and Lawler ; and there
was scarcely a cross-road or by-path in all that country with which the company was not familiar.
On the 1st of September it participated in the battle of Britton's Lane, and was honorably men-
tioned in the official report of the General commanding. It lost one man killed and two
wounded.

In November the company was appointed escort to General McPherson. It moved on Gen-
eral Grant's expedition down the Mississippi Central Railroad, and then returned to Grand Junc-
tion. It moved to Memphis, and proceeded down the Mississippi to Lake Providence, and thence
to Milliken's Bend, where General Grant's army concentrated for the Vicksburg campaign.
About the last of April the company moved on this campaign, and participated in the battles of
Port Gibson, Raymond, Jackson, Champion Hills, Big Black Bridge, and in the siege of Vicks-
burg. The company remained at the head-quarters of the Seventeenth Army Corps, moving oc-
casionally on some expedition, until the 1st of February, 1864, when it joined Sherman's Meri-
dian raid. On this expedition it lost five men captured. Soon after returning to Vicksburg the
company moved with General McPherson to Chattanooga, and entered on the Atlanta campaign.
It continued with the army until the Chattahoochie was reached, and as its term of service was
about to expire, it was ordered to be mustered out. General McPherson bade the company fare-
well in a complimentary order, and on the 16th of July, 1861, it was mastered out at Cincinnati,
with an aggregate of twenty-seven men.

From the organization of the company to the 1st of August, 1862, it received twenty-two
recruits, and lost in killed, discharged, and deserted, forty-tiro men. During the months of Au-
gust and September, 1862, the company received sixty-eight recruits; thus at the expiration of
its term of service there were about fifty men who had from one month to one year to serve.
These men were left at General Mcpherson's head-quarters, and in August and September, 1861,
John L. King, who had been a sergeant in the original organization, recruited the company to
the maximum number, and was commissioned as Captain. This company participated in the
inarch to the sea through Georgia, and in the campaign of the Carolinas. It was present at the
grand review in Washington City, and was mustered out on the 28th of May, 1S85, and was
transported to Camp Dennison, where it was paid and discharged.



Fifth Ohio Independent Cavaley. 931



FIFTH INDEPENDENT BATTALION OF CAVALRY.



"ULY, 1863, was a gloomy month for those who were doing battle for the Union. The
Eebel army, under General Robert E. Lee, was marching northward, overcoming all op-



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