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iment was posted on the extreme left, and guarded the flank during the remainder of the battle.
Immediately after this the regiment entered on the Knoxville campaign, and returned again to
Lookout Valley on the 17th of December. This campaign was made in the dead of winter,
without tents or blankets.

On the 1st of January, 1864, three hundred and nineteen men in the Fifty-Fifth re-enlisted,
and on the 10th the regiment was on the way to Ohio. It arrived at Norwalk on the 20th;
on the 22d of February it re-assembled at Cleveland, and on the 4th of March again encamped
in Lookout Valley. About this time the Eleventh and Twelfth Corps were consolidated, and
denominated the Twentieth, and the regiment formed a part of the Third Brigade of the Third
Division.

The regiment started on the Atlanta campaign on the 2d of May, and participated in all the
battles in which the Twentieth Corps was engaged. At the battle of Resaca, on the 15th of May,
it suffered severely, losing upward of ninety men. It was engaged also at Cassville, Dallas, New
Dope Church, Marietta, and Kenesaw. On the 20th of July the regiment crossed Peachtree
Creek about five miles north-west of Atlanta, and took position on the right of the Fourth Corps.
The enemy attempted a movement on the flank of the Fourth Corps, but in the maneuver exposed
his own flank. The Third Brigade of the Third Division of the Twentieth Corps moved upon
the exposed point, and the enemy was compelled to fall back with heavy loss. During the siege
of Atlanta the Fifty-Fifth occupied its place in the lines, sometimes on the right and sometimes
on the left, assisting in the gradual but sure advancement of the parallels toward the city. Dur-
ing the movement of the army against Jonesboro' the Twentieth Corps fell back to the Chatta-
hoochie, and covered several ferries. The Third Brigade was stationed at Turner's Ferry, where
earthworks were constructed hastily, in the form of a semicircle, around the ferry. On the 2d
of September a reconnoiteiing party moved in the direction of Atlanta; the fortifications were
found deserted, and the troops entered the city without difficulty. The Fifty-Fifth left Lookout
Valley with about four hundred men, and during the campaign lost over two hundred. The
Twentieth Corps was stationed at Atlanta, and the troops erected comfortable quarters. About



334 Ohio in the War

the 1st of November the Fifty-Fifth received two hundred drafted men and substitutes, and about
the same time those who were not veterans were mustered out. A scarcity of provisions was
occasioned by Hood cutting the railroad between Atlanta and Chattanooga. Foraging expedi-
tions were sent out from time to time, and the regiment did its full share of this kind of duty.

The regiment left Atlanta on the 15th of November and moved toward the sea-coast. On
the 21st of December it entered Savannah and camped near the city on the north-west. Here it
remained until early in January, 18G5, when it was thrown across the Savannah River. It
marched inland a short distance, and after a few days moved to Hardeesville, on the Charleston
and Savannah Railroad. On the 29th of January the regiment started fairly on the campaign
of the Carolinas. No incident worthy of particular notice occurred until the 16th of March ;
when, at the battle of Smith's Farm, the Fifty-Fifth lost thirty-six men killed and wounded ;
and again on the 19th it was engaged and lost two men killed, one officer and twenty-three men
wounded, and seven men missing. On the 24th of March the regiment reached Goldsboro', and
with the corps passed in review before General Sherman. The regiment moved from Goldsboro'
on the 10th of April, and on the 13th arrived at Raleigh. On the 30th it commenced the march
to "Washington. It reached Richmond on the 11th of May, and on the 18th camped in the
vicinity of Alexandria. On the 24th it crossed Long Bridge, and participated in the grand
review, after which it went into camp near Washington. Upon the disbanding of the Twentieth
Corps the Ohio regiments belonging to it were organized into a Provisional Brigade, and were
assigned to the Fourteenth Corps. On the 10th of June they proceeded to Louisville, Kentucky,
where, on the 11th of July, the Fifty-Fifth was mustered out of the service. The regiment was
transported to Cleveland, Ohio, where it was paid and discharged on the 19th of July.

During its term of service the regiment enrolled about one thousand three hundred and fifty
men, and of these about seven hundred and fifty were either killed or wounded in battle. Ten
officers were wounded once or more, and eight officers either died of wounds or were killed in
battle.



Fifty-Sixth Ohio Infantry.



335



56th REGIMENT OHIO VOLUNTEER INFANTRY.



EOSTEE, THREE YEARS' SERVICE.



DATE OF RANK,



COM. ISSUED.



Colonel

Do

Do

Lt. Colonel

Do

Do

Do

M;ijor

Do

Do

Surgeon

Do

Do

Do

Ass't Surgeon

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Chaplain

Captain

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

1st Lieutenant

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.
2(1 Lieutenant

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.



PETER KINNEY....

WM. II. KAYNOK

HENRY E. JONES

WM. II. RaYNOR

SaMTSON E. Varner....

Henry E. Jones

James C. Stimmel

Sampson E. Varner....

Chas. F. Reinsigeb

Wm. G. Snyder

W. N. King

James I'. Alcorn

David Williams

P. M. McFarland

W. 0. Payne

A. F. Maukle

N. II. Fishe r

1'. Bt. IIcFarland

J. S. Pollock

Jonathan S. Thomas...

Masehil Manning

Chas. F. Reinsiger

Win. B. Williams

Daniel B. Lodwick

F. Herbert Evans

George Wilheni

Isaac Fullerton

Lansing V. Applegate..

Ed. Kinney

lohn Cook

A. L. Chenowetli

Henry E. Jones

Thomas W. Kinney

lohn Jochem

lames C. Stimmel

Wm. D. Wood

Wm. G. Snyder

Levi M. Willetts

Moses Rite

Benj. Roberts

Christian Schaefier

Jno. K. Combs

Henry E. Jones

W. S. Houston

John Jochem

Jeremiah P. Woods

Wm. 1). Woods

Chas. W. Veach

Moses Rite

Henry Hants',

James C. Stimmel

Chas. Soule, jr

Thomas Lowry

Martin Owens

Thomas Brown

Wm. L. Porter

John D. Neswanger

Chas. D. Veach

Thomas W. Kinney

Erastus Gates

Joseph Patterson

Wm. G. Snyder

Benj. Roberts

Oratio Do Wolf

Clias. Seiner

John J. Marldiam

Henry 31. Goldsniitli ...

.John K. Combs

Orry H. Wadswortli

Christian Sehaeffcr

James Vaudervoort

Thomas J. Williams

Stephen I). Thohurn....

Harvey M.B'elwoll

I'liumas Brown

Chas. Seiner

Benj. Roberts

Coleman Gilliland

Murty W. Lodwick

James K. Campbell

John T. Morton

Benj. B. Allen

A. L. Chenowetli

Wm. II. Palmer

Thomas W. Kinney



Sept.
April

Sept.
April
Jan.
April

Sept.
April

Oct.

Dec.
April
Oct.
April

Aug.
July

Sept.
Aug.



Oct.
Feb.



April
May



1801
1S("{
1866
1861

lsi;:j

ISC.'i
1866
IS61
1802
1800
1S61
1x02
l.Sli.1
1800

1861

1802



Jan.

May

April

Feb.

May

Jan.

April

Feb.



1802
180.'
186*
18fi2

iso:j

180."
186f
(862



1863

1802
1861



April 2U
Feb. 4
Nov. 6.
Dec. 23
April 20
Feb. 4.
April
May
Sept.
July
Sept.
Feb.



21.



21,



18tK :
1802

1803
1861
1801



7,
7,
U,
20,
21,
2S,

12,
24,

3,
6,

14,
2,

16,



Aug.

Nov.



March
April

Sept.
Oct.
Nov.



Jan.

Nov.

Oct.

Feb.

Dec.

April

Feb.

May

Juno

Way



Dec. 24,

.March 1.1,

May 0,

" <5i

July 10,

May 9.

Aug. 10

Nov. 23.

Jan. 18

March 2'.i

April 20
20.

Feb. 5



1801

IS* - )



18C,:;

1802
1803



1804
1863
1864



Aug.

Nov.

Jan.

May

Jan.

Feb.

April

Oct.

Nov.



Dec.
June



June
Nov.
Dec.
April

May
June
Sept.

May
Aug.
May

Aug.
Nov.
Jan.
May
Jail.
Feb.
April
Feb.



1800
1804



1866

1802



Resigned April 2, 1S63.

Mustered out.

Blustered out as Lieutenant-Colouel.

Promoted to Colonel.

Mustered out.

Promoted to Colonel.

Mustered out as Captain.

Promoted to Lieutenant-Colonel.

Mustered out.

Mustered out as Captain.

Revoked.
Mustered out.

Resigned April 8, 1S62.

Declined.

Deceased.

Promoted to Surgeon.

Declined; commission returned.

Mustered out.

Blustered out.

Promoted to Major.

Mustered out.

Resigned July 27, 1S63.

Mustered out.

Mustered out.

Resigned February 14, 1803

Resigned February 0, 1803.

Resigned October 3, 1802.

Died May 22, 1863.

Blustered out.

Promoted to Lieutenant-Colonel.

Blustered out.

Blustered out.

Promoted to Lieutenant-Colonel.

Declined promotion.

Not mustered.

Blustered out, exp. of service, December, 1865,

Declined.

Blustered out with regiment.

Blustered out with regiment.

Blustered out with regiment.

Promoted to Captain.

Resigned December 27, 1863.

Promoted to Captain.

Dead.

Blustered out.

Blustered out June 2, 1802.

Declined promotion ; mustered out.

Blustered out.

Promoted to Captain.

Resigned June 10, 1802.

Honorably discharged October 3, 1862.

Resigned July 22, 1863.

Resigned June 18, 1803.

Assigned to Gen. Rosecrans' staff at his req'st.

Blustered out.

Resigned September 10, 1804.

Promoted to Captain.

Resigned July 22, 1803.

Promoted.

Promoted to Captain.

Promoted to Captain.

Blustered out.

Blustered out.

Blustered out.

Revoked.

Promoted to Captain.

Honorably discharged May 10, 1865.

Promoted to Captain.

Blustered out December, 1865.

Blustered out with regiment.

Blustered out with regiment.

Blustered out with regiment.

Promoted to 1st Lieutenant.

Promoted to 1st Lieutenant.

Promoted to 1st Lieutenant.

Honorably discharged July 31, 1862.

Resigned September 5, 1802.

Resigned September 0, 1802.

Honorably discharged June 2, 186Z

Resigned September 7, 1862.

Promoted to Captain.

Resigned August 31, 1862

Promoted to 1st Lieutenant.



336



Ohio in the Wae,



2d Lientenai
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.



Joseph Patterson

Rrastus Gates

James L. O. HnstOD..

(x. W. Manning

Wm. G. Snyder

Oratio D. Wolf.

A. S. Chute

John J. Markham

Henry M. Goldsmith.

Heury Schumpe

John Iv. Combs. ...

< hristian Schaetfer

Henry Bell reus

.lames Vanderat

Jumea Aleshire

Thomas J. Williams..
Stephen D. Thohuru..

Harvey B!. Bid well

■iului 11. Morris



DATE OF RANK.



Aug.


31,


1862


Sept.


9,


Sept.


5,


'*


'*


IS,


*'


B


*'


Oct.


•">,


July


31 .


"


Die.


24,


Sept.


7,


•*


**


-'•«,


Juno


2,


**


M


24,


Oct.


3,


41


**


24,


.March


1",


isra


April


y,


Jan.


1,




June


i*i


March


l"i


"


"


15,


Feb.


14


••


"


29,


May


16,

Hi,


..


July
Aug.


1",
10,


June


IK,


*■


Sept.


1,


May


16,


"


"


1,


Jan.


18,

l.s,


18«ft


Jan.


IS,


May


31,

31,


»


May


31,
31,



COM. ISSUED.



Promoted to 1st Lieutenant.

Promoted to 1st Lieutenant.

Honorably discharged March 18, 1853.

Killed .May 1H, l»i3.

Promoted to 1st Lieutenant.

Promoted to 1st Lieutenant.

Killed May IS, 1*3.

Promoted to 1st Lieutenant.

Resigned.

.Mustered out.

Promoted to 1st Lieutenant.

Promoted to 1st Lieutenaut.

Mustered out.

Mustered out.

Mustered out.

I'ronioted to 1st Lieutenant.

Promoted to 1st Lieutenant.

Promoted to 1st Lieutenant.



FIFTY-SIXTH OHIO VOLUNTEEH INFANTRY.



THE organization of this regiment was undertaken at a very unpropitions time for the
raising of recruits. The country around Portsmouth (Scioto County) had been well
drained of men already, and few seemed left among whom to operate; but the officers,
nothing daunted, determined to fill up the ranks. After much solicitation the order was given
to organize the regiment. Peter Kinney, of Portsmouth, was appointed Colonel, Wm. H.
Raynor, Lieutenant-Colonel, and Sampson E. Varner, Major.

On the 8th day of October, 1S61, the camp was organized at Portsmouth, and the officers
went vigorously to work raising recruits. Men came in steadily, but not rapidly. By Decem-
ber 12, with the utmost labor, the regiment was filled to the minimum number. The transition
from civil life to the soldiers' camp, and the miserable winter weather of that year began to
tell upon the health of the men. Measles appeared among the recruits, and some two hundred
and fifty cases occurred within a few days, which, although it did not kill at once, rendered them
unfit for the spring campaign, and eventually laid many of them in soldiers' graves.

On the 10th of February orders were received to report at Paducah, Kentucky. This was
joyful news; and on the 12th the regiment took its departure on transports for its destination.
The morning of the 16th of February found the regiment in line of battle before the rifle-pits
of the enemy at Fort Donelson, Tennessee, assisting our victorious forces to receive the surren-
der of thirteen thousand Rebel prisoners of war.

After many changes the Fifty-Sixth was brigaded with the Twentieth, Seventy-Sixth, and
Seventy-Eighth Ohio, under their Colonel, Chas. R. "Wood, and attached to the Third Division,
under Major-General Lew. "Wallace. About the middle of March it moved to Pittsburg Land-
ing, where our forces were being concentrated. Tin* Fifty-Sixth arrived there March 17th, and
Wallace's division went into camp at Crump's Landing, three miles below Pittsburg Landing.
Sickness was rife in the regiment at this point, over sixty being sent to the general hospital at
Paducah. Late in March the brigade was ordered to Adamsville, some six miles from the river.
On the 6th of April, early in the morning, the booming of artillery and crash of musketry
announced that the battle of Pittsburg Landing had commenced. The brigade, in line of battle,
waited until two o'clock P. M. for orders to join the strife, but none came. The brigade per-
formed good service, however, in guarding an important road to the river, and picking up strag-



Fifty-Sixth Ohio Infantry. 337

glers from the National army, sending them back in an organized body of eight hundred men to
assist their gallant comrades.

On the advance of our forces toward Corinth the regiment was with the right wing, and par-
ticipated in most of the warm skirmishing of that advance. After the evacuation of Corinth the
division to which the Fifty-Sixth belonged was ordered to Memphis, Tennessee, and marched
one hundred and ten miles through the enemy's country. This march was very trying to the
men, as they were frequently compelled to make thirty miles a day in order to reach water, and
the intense heat caused many to fall in the ranks. On the 13th of June, six days after the cap-
ture of the place, the division arrived at Memphis. While at this place, company B, of the regi-
ment, was detailed as a guard to the train engaged in taking out men and material for re-building
a bridge burned by the enemy, making daily trips to and from Memphis. Returning from the
city on the 24th, the train was thrown from the track, a portion of it having been torn up by the
enemy, the cars burned, and a number of company B, with Colonel Kinney, captured.

On the 24th of July the regiment embarked for Helena, Arkansas, under command of Major
Varner, Lieutenant-Colonel Raynor being sick in hospital. Colonel Kinney had succeeded in
escaping from the enemy, and was at home in Ohio on furlough. The fall and winter were spent
in fortifying Helena, the regiment rendering important service in building Fort Curtis and
felling timber for abattis, work familiar to the men, most of them being from the furnace region
of Southern Ohio. A number of expeditions were made by the regiment from this point up
White River into Arkansas, in one of which they routed a force of Rebel cavalry, capturing
their arms and camp equipage, and at Eunice Landing, Louisiana, they took possession of a
large and valuable wharf-boat and brought it to Helena, where for many months it was of valu-
able service to Government. While at Helena the regiment suffered severely from disease, some
fifty men dying, among them Assistant-Surgeon Fisher, a young man of fine acquirements, and
a good officer.

On the 10th of April ill health compelled Colonel Kinney to resign, when Lieutenant-
Colonel Raynor was promoted to Colonel, Major S. E. Varner to Lieutenant-Colonel, and Cap-
tain C. F. Reinsiger to Major. On the 11th of April the regiment left Helena for the vicinity of
Vicksburg to join General Grant's forces, then concentrating for his march on that place. It
was here placed in the division commanded by General A. P. Hovey, having for its corps com-
mander Major-General John McClernand. This corps marched across the country from Milli-
ken's Bend to Grand Gulf, and lay in the stream on transports during the bombardment of that
place by the gunboats, ready to land and attack the rifle-pits of the enemy as soon as the bat-
teries were silenced. This not being accomplished, the corps landed and marched below, while
the gunboats and transports ran past the batteries, and at once began transporting the army
across the river to Bruinsburg.

On the last day of April, 1863, General Grant's grand flanking movement on Vicksburg
commenced, and at daylight on the 1st of May the battle of Port Gibson was fought. In this
battle the Fifty-Sixth Ohio charged and captured two guns and one hundred and twenty-five
prisoners in the face of two Rebel regiments, with a loss of forty killed and wounded. On the
16th of May, in the battle of Champion Hills, the regiment again distinguished itself, losing one
hundred and thirty-five, killed, wounded, and prisoners. Among the killed were Lieutenants
Chute and Manning, two valuable officers. Captain Wilhelm, wounded and a prisoner, turned
on his guard, captured and brought him in. At the crossing of Baker Creek, another regiment
being ordered to dislodge the enemy, hesitated, when the Fifty-Sixth was called for, and per-
formed the work in a gallant manner, eliciting great praise. After encountering the hardships
of that great march, the Fifty-Sixth, with our victorious army, entered Vicksburg on the day of
its surrender to General Grant.

But little rest was allowed. The enemy was in force under the Rebel General Jos. John-
ston at Jackson. The regiment was ordered there, and, with its brigade and division, took an
honorable part in the capture of the capital city of Mississippi and the discomfiture of the Rebel
army. On the return of the regiment to Vicksburg, in a violent storm, Color-Sergeant William
Vol. II.— 22.



338 Ohio in the War.

Roberts took shelter under a tree, which was struck by lightning, hurling him to the ground,
paralyzing his left side, and stripping the flag from its staff as with a knife. Roberts never
recovered the use of his side.

The division next moved to Natchez, resting there a few hours, when orders were received
to proceed further south, to the Department of the Gulf, under the command of Major-General
N. P. Banks. After a few weeks of rest and refitting, they commenced the Teche campaign,
leaving New Orleans on the 13th of September, 1863; from New Orleans to Berwick Bay by
Opelousas; thence by marches over the beautiful plains of Western Louisiana, through Franklin,
New Iberia, Vermilionville, back to Opelousas, having skirmished with the enemy for nearly
one hundred miles without bringing them to a stand. During this long march the Fifty-Sixth
had not a sick man on its rolls, and many that had but recently left the hospitals were fully
restored to vigorous health. Finding it impossible to bring the enemy to a stand, the General
commanding ordered a retrograde movement, the Rebels following obstinately in the rear.
While General Burbridge's brigade of the Fourth Division was three miles to the rear, encamped
on Bayou Cotto, the enemy in force attacked and captured the camp. The Fifty-Sixth Ohio was
ordered to his support. The regiment went over the prairie at double-quick, charged through
the flying National forces, and came upon the Rebels while in the act of rifling our camp, scat-
tering them in the utmost disorder.

The army next moved back to Vermilionville, offering every inducement to the enemy to
give battle, but without avail. Strategy was called into play, and retaliation made for capturing
five of the Fifty-Sixth while out foraging, by a night march on one of the Rebel camps at Span-
ish Lake. The surprise was complete, and one hundred and ten Rebels quietly " bagged," with-
out the loss of a man on the National side.

Without tents, and nearly devoid of clothing, the men suffered very much from the cold,
which, in this far southern clime, though not of a very low temperature, had more effect than at
the North. This was in November. On the 17th of December orders were received to proceed
to New Orleans, a distance of one hundred and seventy-five miles, which was accomplished in
six days, bringing in, without loss, a large and valuable train filled with much-needed forage.
The regiment went into camp at Algiers, opposite the city, for a few weeks. On the 22d of Jan-
uary the division received orders, and proceeded across Lake Pontchartrain to Madisonville,
where they were for some weeks engaged in building fortifications. While at this place more
than three-fourths of the men re-enlisted as veterans, thus declaring that they were determined
to see the end of the contest.

On the 1st of March the division was ordered to return to New Orleans to prepare for the
Red River campaign. After the arrival of the Fifty-Sixth in the city, Lieutenant-Colonel Var-
ner was detached and placed in command of the post of Algiers, with a temporary battalion,
composed of the non-v*erans of the division, numbering about six hundred men. Major Rein-
siger was also detached and put in command of the camp of paroled prisoners, leaving Colonel
Raynor in charge of the brigade and Captain Manning of the regiment.

On the 7th of March the Red River campaign commenced by way of Opelousas. After
many delays at different points, on the 4th day of April the enemy was encountered, and the
battle of Sabine Cross Roads was fought, resulting in a disastrous defeat to the National army.
In this battle the Fifty-Sixth lost forty killed, wounded, and missing. Falling back in disorder,
harassed at almost every step by the exultant Rebels, the National forces gained the village of
Mansfield, threw up breastworks, and prepared 1o give the enemy battle. On the 8th of April
the Rebels arrived in front of the National intrenchments, made a furious attack, and were
repulsed with heavy loss. The enemy thus vigorously checked, the National army was able to
fall back more leisurely, and took position at Grand Ecore, to enable the National gunboats to
descend Red River without being destroyed by Rebel batteries along its banks. In this position
it was not unfrequent for regiments, on their own responsibility, to throw up breastworks to pro-
tect their camps. The Fifty-Sixth Ohio was so engaged one day as Major-General F rode

along. The General stopped and said to a member of company G, who was hard at work witb



Fifty-Sixth Ohio Infantry. 339

the spade: "My man, it is of no use to do that; we can whip the enemy on this ground." The
soldier replied: "General, we have been whipped once, and we are now determined to do our
own generaling."

The Fifty-Sixth were entitled to return to Ohio on the thirty-days' furlough granted to those
who had re-enlisted. While at Alexandria the order was received to return to New Orleans,
and there take transport for New York, en route for Ohio. The regiment embarked on the
steamer John Warner, in which they were to run the terrible gauntlet of Red River. Cotton
bales were arranged on the upper deck to protect the sharp-shooters, who were compelled to be
constantly on the watch against the enemy. The trip was in truth a fiery ordeal, but the men of
the Fifty-Sixth had their thoughts" on home, and determined to get through to New Orleans, if
possible. The majority of them had not been at home for three years, and had faced the enemy
too often to turn back now, when there was a prospect of seeing the loved ones there.

Proceeding down the river, at a certain point the Rebels opened fire on the boat with a bat-
tery and two regiments of infantry. An attempt was made to run through, but an unlucky shot
disabled the machinery, and the boat swung round to the opposite shore. The enemy still con-



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