Copyright
Wilber John Fraser.

Dairy conditions and suggestions for their improvement online

. (page 1 of 3)
Online LibraryWilber John FraserDairy conditions and suggestions for their improvement → online text (page 1 of 3)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


- :V



Ri-i m



s&^VM jXi ,%;



LIB RARY

OF THE

UNIVERSITY
OF ILLINOIS



630.7
1Kb

no.Gl-84










v< - <w r






>



S> ^m^T ' W9 w,

RP^'^V^









KS ! *5. < VS^

^.-i jfciyJ 5* f\ ^-bvTi



.^v^^^







UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS

>-

Agricultural Experiment Station.



URBANA, FEBRUARY, 1903.



BULLETIN NO. 84.



DAIRY CONDITIONS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR
THEIR IMPROVEMENT.



BY WILDER J. FRASER, M. S., ASSISTANT PROFESSOR IN DAIRY HUS-
BANDRY, COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, AND CHIEF IN DEPARTMENT
OF DAIRY HUSBANDRY, AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION.



SUMMARY.

Investigation shows that from a sanitary standpoint there is
need of improvement in many dairy conditions.

No other food will absorb bad odors so quickly as will dairy
products, or deteriorate more rapidly under adverse conditions.

Milk being- an excellent medium for the growth of bacteria, it
is of special importance that it be kept as free from germs as pos-
sible.

No other food is produced under conditions where it is so diffi-
cult to prevent contamination.

Since the largest amount of contamination comes from the ud-
der during milking it is important that all udders be washed before
milking. In the production of milk for direct consumption this is
imperative.

577



578 BULLETIN NO. 84. [February,

The average weight of dirt which falls from muddy udders
during milking is 90 times greater than that which falls from the
same udders after washing, and when udders are but slightly
soiled it averages 22 times greater.

It is essential to the production of clean milk that the cows be
kept out of the mud. The barn yard should have natural surface
drainage and should be covered with a coat of gravel or cinders
sufficiently deep to form a hard surface at all seasons of the year.

Stables of costly construction are not necessary, but they
should be provided with numerous windows and an efficient system
of ventilation which will furnish a good supply of fresh air with-
out creating a draft on the cows.

Whitewash being one of the best disinfectants, the stable
should be whitewashed at least once a year. In order to accom-
plish this successfully the sides and ceiling must have a firm tight
surface to which the witewash can be applied.

The floor of the milking stable should be smooth and solid.
The platform on which the cows stand should be of such length
that all droppings will fall into the gutter, thus preventing the
cows from becoming soiled when lying down. The stables should
be cleaned regularly each day.

As soon as drawn milk should be removed from the stable to a
clean room provided for the purpose and aerated and cooled at once
to 60 F. or below.

All dairy utensils and everything with which the milk comes
in contact should be rinsed, thoroughly washed, and sterilized after
each using.

Bottles used in delivering milk for direct consumption must be
thoroughly washed and sterilized after each using to avoid the
danger of carrying disease from one house to another.

Every creamery, cheese factory, dairy, and milk depot should
have a solid impervious floor. The floor should be well drained by
being properly pitched to a gutter which is connected with a good
system of well trapped sewerage.

The walls for at least three feet above the floor should be of
some smooth impervious 1 material; if of wood above this, they
should be kept well painted to facilitate cleaning.

Milk should be conveyed through open conductors whenever
possible. When a pump and closed pipes are used they should be
so constructed as to be easily taken down and cleaned each day.

Milk cans should be washed, and sterilized with steam at the
factory, and some other receptacle should be used to return the
skim milk or whey to the farm. If the cans are used for this pur-



1903.] DAIRY CONDITIONS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR THEIR IMPROVEMENT. 579

pose they should, by all means, be emptied as soon as they reach
the farm, thoroughly washed and scalded, and placed on a rack in
an inverted position with the covers off.

Dairy markets should be developed by selling 1 products of
known standards put up in such forms that the consumer will get
the original package and know its grade or quality.

PRESENT CONDITIONS.

The Department of Dairy Husbandry, of the Illinois Agricul-
tural Experiment Station, has for the past six years been investi-
gating the dairy conditions of the state. The results show that in
some particulars the conditions are ideal while in others they are
far below the proper standard. Prom a sanitary standpoint there
is need of improvement in many of the dairy practices not only in
Illinois but in all parts of the United States and, in fact, in all
countries of the world.

Dairy products are not consumed to the extent they would
be were it not for their too frequent poor quality. Under existing
conditions it is* in many places, almost if not quite impossible to
obtain on the open market any really good butter or cheese. It is
also difficult to obtain milk that is produced in such a manner as to
make it a safe and wholesome food for infants and invalids, if indeed
for healthy adults. When milk is ordered even at our best hotels
and restaurants, dirt is frequently found at the bottom if it is al-
lowed to stand for a short time. This is not appetizing to say the
least and many persons who like milk now use as little as possible
on account of the careless manner in which it is produced and the
fear that it may contain dirt if not disease germs.

The commercial value of dairy products is determined very
largely by their flavors and odors. They are usually judged by
the smell which is so extremely delicate that it takes but an ex-
ceedingly small amount of a substance giving off a bad odor to
make the product of low or inferior quality. No food is more sus-
ceptible to defects or more subject to contamination than dairy
products and yet the protection of their purity until they reach the
consumer is nothing more nor less than cleanliness. This would
seem to be a simple matter yet it is one greatly neglected but when
faithfully performed will more than repay the efforts made.

Many people when handling milk seem to forget that they are
dealing with food products. There is a tendency for certain un-
fortunate practices to invade the dairy business. If filth is allowed
to get into milk or it becomes tainted at any point of its production,
no amount of care either before or after can make amends for the



580



BULLETIN NO.



[Ft bruary,




H s



> H

s
< c



M 5



9 J

Z J

W >

X *

<%

W W



20

3

2 B
D H



Z >

o

33

en c

< a
. H



IQ03- J DAIRY CONDITIONS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR THEIR IMPROVEMENT. 581




582



BULLETIN NO. 84.



[February,




1903.] DAIRY CONDITIONS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR THEIR IMPROVEMENT. 583




584 BULLETIN NO. 84. [February,

difficulty. A man may be careful and correct in all of his dairy
operations but one, and yet this one be the cause of his producing- a
low grade product. This one mistake not only injures his product
but the dairy market as well. This being- true, it is clear that the
greatest care should be exercised in every step of production, man-
ufacture, and delivery of dairy products to the consumer. Only
those dairymen who exercise such care can hope to secure the trade
of people who desire a product of superior quality and are willing
to pay an advanced price.

The real foundation of the whole dairy business lies in the
milk producer. The chief necessity then in improving- the dairy
conditions is to give the producer such a knowledg-e of the right
methods of handling- and caring- for milk that he will not only see
the necessity for such methods but may also know how best to ac-
complish this purpose.

Some dairymen think if they do not g-et a g-ood price for their
milk at the creamery that the fault lies with the creamery; but the
patrons produce the butter, the creamery only separates it. Pat-
rons should not forget that the interests of the creamery and their
own are the same. Dairy education has benefited creamery opera-
tors more than it has the patrons. The statement was recently
made by one of our best informed dairy and creamery men that,
"Milk does not come to the creamery in so clean a condition today
as it did twenty years ago." Before the day of the separator, milk
was not accepted unless it reached the creamery in fairly good con-
dition. Now, if it is not sour enough to clog the separator, it is
received at the weigh-can of many creameries. When every man
made his own butter on the farm and sold it himself, he came into
closer touch with the trade and was more particular about the
cleanly methods of its production. Since the creamery has come
in between the milk producer and the butter market there is a ten-
dency to become more careless in the production of milk. When
milk is delivered in poor condition at a creamery or cheese factory,
no butter or cheese maker however skilled can make the best product
from it. If all of the patrons but one bring milk that is clean and
in good condition, the man bringing dirty milk spoils the whole.

The condensing factories have been the greatest factor in rais-
ing the standards of milk production upon the dairy farms of the
state. They make certain requirements in regard to the methods
used in the production of milk delivered at their factories and have
inspectors to see that their instructions are carried out.

The particular points touched upon in this bulletin are the
ones found to be most commonly at fault in actual practice.



1903.] DAIRY CONDITIONS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR THEIR IMPROVEMENT. 585

The object of this bulletin is to show how these may be remedied
and to point out the essentials of good dairying-. It must not be
inferred, 'however that the Experiment Station recommends expen-
sive buiiding-s and equipment in the production of clean sanitary
dairy products, for these are not essential. It costs little more to
be clean than unclean. It does, however, require a little more
labor.

LOCATION OF BARN AND CARE OF YARD.

In the production of clean milk no one thing- is o more im-
portance than keeping- the cows out of the mud. Many yards into
which dairy cows are turned each day for their drink and exercise,
are knee deep with mud and manure during- the winter and spring-,
if not nearly the entire year. In summer when the cows are on
pasture they would keep comparatively clean were they not oblig-ed
to wade through a filthy yard in g"oing- to the stable.

In locating- a dairy barn care should be taken to have a g-entle
slope from the barn in at least one direction, affording- g-ood nat-
ural drainag-e for both barn and yard. If the barn is already built
and poorly located, draining- and grading- will do much to remedy
the evil. In most cases it would take but a small amount of labor
with plow and scraper, when the ground is in suitable condition to
handle, to give the surface of the yard a slope from the barn suffi-
cient to carry off the surface water. Even if dirt has to be hauled
in from outside the yard to accomplish this it will not be expensive.
Tile drainag-e alone under a yard is not sufficient as the tramping
of the cattle soon puddles the surface, preventing- the water from
passing- down to the tile.

After the grading- is done the yard should be covered with
gravel or cinders. By putting- the coarser in the bottom and the
finer on top a g-ood hard yard can be obtained and at a compara-
tively small expense where material of this kind is available. If
this cannot all be done in one year, it is of the utmost importance
that a beginning- be made by grading- and graveling a portion of
the yard next the barn, so that the cows may have some place on
which to get out of the mud and filth. By grading a part of the
yard each year and applying a thick coat of gravel or cinders to
the graded part, the entire yard will, in a few years, be in good
condition. When gravel does not contain enough clay to pack
hard, a small amount of clay should be mixed with the top layer.
It will then form a firm surface.

A portion of the yard should be bedded, thus affording the
cows a place to lie in the open air on pleasant days. If straw is



586



BULLETIN NO. 84.



[Fefruary,




M

5z

< &

x <

Q-

td W



3s

& c

O B!

a &



POT

O
H
H

<
O

q



P

U



1903]. DAIRY CONDITIONS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR THEIR IMPROVEMENT. 587




U



588



BULLETIN NO. 84.



I February,




ffi w
, Q



M (4
g w

5 >

< O



Qc/D



W <

M

s "



B*
O

w
w

2



O

U



H
P
U



1903.1 DAIRY CONDITIONS AND SUGGFSTIONS FOR THEIR IMPROVEMENT. 589




*C

si



1



O Q

O z



590



BULLETIN NO. 84.



[February*



scarce the cleanest of the soiled bedding- from the stable will
answer for this purpose. When the straw and manure on this
bedded portion of the yard become too deep and soft it should be
hauled into the field and the bedding 1 commenced again on the
solid yard.




CUT 9. A SOURCE OF HUMAN FOOD. CLEAN EVEN IN MID-WINTER.



1903.] DAIRY CONDITIONS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR THEIR IMPROVEMENT. $gl

It is advisable to haul the manure directly to the field from the
barn, but if this is not feasible it should be removed at least 100
feet from the barn. In no case should it be allowed to accumulate
against or near the dairy barn and no swine pen should be nearer
than 200 feet on account of the odors being- readily absorbed by
milk.




CUT. 10.



AFTER A RUN OF THREE WEEKS ON PASTURE.
THE FILTHY CONDITION DURING WINTER.



IMAGINE



592



BULLETIN NO. 84.



{February,



1 w



w



p

- -s.

Sg

<l

H

at o

W Z

gs

2

H W

i

o^
& -
<

u



fc

o

eo

H

2

O

?=
<



O

z
e <



o

C/3 W
H



* __ X

a M ^

2 3

Q < H

w ^ Q.

P Q>
W t?
G<
Q Z



U

O
b
U

-a



> OS
Q W
Q H

"s

s^

X

a .
Q o

Q X

^s

en

5|



H

O

(Si
u






u



IQ03-] DAIRY CONDITIONS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR THEIR IMPROVEMENT. 593

CLEANLINESS IN MILKING.

To determine definitely the amount of filth that gets into milk
during- the process of milking- and how much this can be lessened
by washing the udders the following work was done:

It was determined after several trials with three different milk-
ers on thirty cows that it requires an average of 4^ minutes to
milk a cow. A glazed dish eleven inches in diameter, the size of an
ordinary milk pail, was placed in the top of a pail and held under a
cow's udder in the same position as when milking. For 4^ min-
utes the milker then went through motions similar to those made
in milking but without drawing any milk. The amount of dirt
which fell into the dish during the operation was, of course, approx-
imately the same as would have gone into the milk during the
milking process. The dirt caught in the dish was then brushed
into a small glass weighing tube, the udder washed and the pro-
cess repeated. The dirt which fell from the washed udder was
also carefully brushed into a weighing- tube. Both tubes were
then placed in a desiccator and after drying- twenty-four hours
were accurately weighed on a chemical balance.

Sixty trials were made at different seasons of the year. With
udders that were apparently clean it was found that an average of
3% times as much dirt fell from the unwashed udders as from the
same udders after they were washed. With soiled udders the aver-
age was 22 and with muddy udders the average was 94 times as
much dirt from the unwashed udders as from the same udders
after washing.

BARNS AND STABLES.

Costly barns or stables are not essential to the production of
clean milk or to the maintenance of a dairy herd at its highest
efficiency. To obtain the best results it is important, however,
that the cows be kept comfortable at all times. To do this there
are several essentials with which a barn must be provided. It
must have a roof that does not leak; sides that do not allow the
wind to blow through; and doors that will close tightly.



594



BULLETIN NO. 84.



[February,




Q 2:

H -



> o

sg
SB

Q*^*
w .

H H

X X

o o



M w

2

x <

H H



PQ



< o
Q ^

^ 2



3






S
O

u



1903.] DAIRY CONDITIONS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR THEIR IMPROVEMENT. 595




z
y. w

w a
PH PQ
Oco



o w

1-1



si



o z



35



H

^

<! W






u



D

U '



BULLETIN NO. 84.



[February,




H
U





H

u



H C
K Z

J H



as z

< <
=3 as



o



IQ03.] DAIRY CONDITIONS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR THEIR IMPROVEMENT. 5Q7




8



en _.

S
O O



X
H

>o
H

U



BULLETIN NO.



[February,




H

Xeo



U

^ at



Pu
<
U
X
U
Q
O


O



1903.] DAIRY CONDITIONS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR THEIR IMPROVEMENT.




6oo BULLETIN NO. 84. [February,

Exterior and interior views of a cheap stable are shown in cuts
17 and 18. This stable is 16x42 feet with ten foot posts and will
hold 14 cows. It was built in 1897, the material costing- $120.00.
This stable was built by the owner; had the work been done by a
carpenter the expense would not have exceeded $50.00 making 1 the
total cost $170.00.

What this stable needs to make it sanitary is a tight floor
overhead, ventilators, five times the amount of light and the in-
terior whitewashed, all of which could be done at an expense not
to exceed $30.00. Making- the total cost of a sanitary stable for
fourteen cows $200.00.

A stable for a double row of cows could be built cheaper in
proportion; for it would not be necessary to have it twice as wide,
the same feed alley answering 1 for both rows. If more loft room is
desired for storage of roug-h feed, this could be provided by putting
the roof higher at but slig-ht additional expense.

Two thing's almost universally lacking 1 , or at least inadequately
supplied, in dairy barns are light and pure air. These are easily
obtained and although absolutely essential to the best health of the
herd and the economic production of clean milk they are rarely ap-
preciated.

Cuts 12 and 19 show dairy barns containing sufficient win-
dows. These are in striking contrast with others shown in this
bulletin and seen throughout the State. If a barn is already built
and has insufficient light more windows can easily be provided.
There should be from three fourths to one and one half square feet
of glass for every linear foot of outside wall in a dairy barn.

Many barns are not provided with any system of ventilation
whatever, as bat few dairymen realize that pure air is just as
essential to the economic production of untainted milk as is the
feed a cow consumes. Digestion and assimilation, like the burn-
ing of coal in a stove, are processes of combustion. The stove may
be filled with coal but if the drafts are kept tightly closed the coal
will not burn, as sufficient oxygen is not provided. Neither can a
cow's feed be properly digested and assimilated without an abun-
dance of oxygen, and unless this is supplied a great waste of food
as well as impaired health of the cow will result.

Much has been said about the number of cubic feet of air space
that should be allowed for a cow, but this is of little consequence
in comparison with the more important question of ventilation, or
change of air. In order not to get a greater degree of impurity in
the air than is permissible with good results each cow should be
supplied with 3,540 cubic feet of air per hour. The size of the



1903. ] DAIRY CONDITIONS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR THEIR IMPROVEMENT. 6oi




602



BULLETIN NO. 84.



[February,




1903.] DAIRY CONDITIONS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR THEIR IMPROVEMENT. 603




UT 21. THE KING SYSTEM OF VENTILATION IN DAIRY BARN, SHOWN IN CUT 20. FRESH

AIR is CARRIED BETWEEN JOISTS OVERHEAD TO CENTER OF BARN; FOUL AIR DRAWN

OUT FROM NEAR FLOOR BY FOUR LARGE VENTILATORS CARRIED ABOVE ROOF,

CAUSING A CONTINUOUS CHANGE OF AIR WITHOUT CREATING A DRAFT ON

THE Cows. VENTILATOR SHOWN AT "A."

ventilating- flues to be provided will depend upon the number of
cows in the stable. About four square feet is a good size for a
ventilating- flue and if so constructed as to cause the air to travel
300 feet a minute this will furnish ventilation for twenty cows.
Two flues this size would be sufficient for forty cows and five would
be required for one hundred cows.

To be sanitary a dairy barn should be whitewashed at least
once a year. An interior like the one shown in cut 23, with a few
boards laid overhead at irregular intervals, with hay hanging-
through and with the sides in no better condition, cannot be prop-
erly whitewashed. The ceiling 1 should be tig-ht, excluding 1 all dust
and chaff from above, and sides smooth, thus affording- a firm sur-
face to which the whitewash can cling.



604



BULLETIN NO. 84.



[February




W
-

K
>

O
Q

a

j

Cli

U



1903.] DAIRY CONDITIONS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR THEIR IMPROVEMENT. 605




U



606 BULLETIN NO. 84. [February,

It is not necessary to ceil the barn with surfaced lumber, in fact,
the whitewash will adhere better if the surface is not too smooth.
The boards must, however, be reasonably clean before the white -
wash is applied, otherwise it will be of little use for it will soon
shell off with the filth; and besides this, filth simply covered is
not removed.

Whitewash is one of the cheapest disinfectants and can be
easily and rapidly applied with a spray pump. It must be carefully
strained before using- in, the pump as any lumps will clog- the
spray nozzle.

A cement floor is the most sanitary for a cow stable and when
put down it should be left rough under the float to prevent the
cows from slipping 1 . An objection often made to cement floors is
that they are cold in winter, but as the temperature in a dairy barn
should never get below 40 F. this objection is largely overcome,
if the cows are properly bedded. When a plank floor is used it
must be renewed as fast as it wears or rots out.

It is of the utmost importance in keeping- cows .clean that the
platform on which they stand be of the proper length. If it is too
short the cows cannot lie down comfortably and if too long- the
droppings will fall on the rear of the platform and the cows will
become soiled when lying- down. As cows vary in leng-th the plat-
form should be longer, from the manger to the gutter, at one end
of the barn and gradually taper to six or eight inches shorter at the
other end. When large herds are kept the platform on one side
of the barn may be longer than on the other side and the cows ar-
ranged accordingly. A still better arrangement is some form of
movable manger so that the length of the platform can be adjusted
to suit each individual cow. With this arrangement all can be lined
up on the gutter, which will be a great help in keeping the cows
clean.

THE CARE OF MIL.K.

As soon as it is drawn milk should be removed from the stable
to a place provided for the purpose and there aerated and cooled to 50
or 60 F. This should be done either by setting the cans into a
tank of cold water and stirring occasionally or by passing the milk
over a cooler. The latter method is to be preferred if the cooling
can be done in a pure atmosphere free from dust. It is of great
importance to have a small milk house or some clean room away
from the'odors of the stable in which to care for milk. A good
cheap milk house is shown in cut 37.



1903.] DAIRY CONDITIONS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR THEIR IMPROVEMENT. 607

The sooner milk is thoroughly cooled after it is drawn, and the
lower the temperature to which it is taken, the better. Bacteria
that get into milk during- the process of milking- develop very rap-
idly so long- as milk remains at about the temperature at which it
was drawn, but as soon as cooled to 60 they develop slowly, and if
cooled to 40 their action is almost entirely stopped. Milk cooled
to this temperature as soon as drawn and held there will remain
sweet and in good condition much longer than if cooled to only 70
or 75.




CUT 24. DAIRY UTENSILS IN THE BATTERED CONDITION OF CAN ON LEFT, AND

WITH TIN OFF IN MANY PLACES INSIDE, CANNOT BE KEPT CLEAN

AND SHOULD BE DISCARDED.

CARE OF DAIRY UTENSILS.

One of the first essentials in keeping dairy utensils clean is to
have a smooth surface. This fact should be kept in mind when
purchasing, and if all seams are not flushed smooth with solder



608 BULLETIN NO. 84. \February,

this should be done. As soon as the tin is worn off on the inside,


1 3

Online LibraryWilber John FraserDairy conditions and suggestions for their improvement → online text (page 1 of 3)