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phatically not a moment of volition. And the dis-
tinctive character of volitional spontaneity, whatever
it may turn out to be, is much more likely to be discerned
in what Professor Ladd calls decision, or in any whole-
hearted identification of the self with an impulse acting
upon the self.



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2o6 Appendix

If we regard volition as one of the forms of response
to stimulus, and further as the highest level attained
by the development in nature of causation as response
to stimulus, then we should say that the ideal suggested
by the survey of experience, as the goal of this develop-
ment, is not freedom in the sense of absence of external
stimulus ; it is freedom in the sense of the highest degree
of spontaneity of response, combined with the exertion
of the strongest impulsion of the motive from without

The self-devotion of love would afford the best
example of the living experience of moral freedom.
And freedom itself may be said to bear its full and
true meaning only when it is applied to action of this
type. So that inverting the formula, " Will is a form
of Causation," we might rather say — "other forms of
causation are anticipations in a lower degree of that
spontaneous response to stimulus of which the will of
self-devoted love is the supreme and standard example,"
or, shortly, " Causation is a form of WilL"



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NOTE G {page 62)

On conscience, see Pater, " Marins the Epicurean/
p. 5 : "A sense of conscious powers external to ourselves,
pleased or displeased by the right or wrong conduct
of every act of daily life — ^that conscience of which the
old Roman religion was a formal habitual recognition ; "
p. 9 : " Religion lent sanction to a sort of high
scrupulosity especially in the chief points of domestic
conduct/'

On that general conception of the relation of the
gods to social life which gave meaning to such terms
as "pietas," see Robertson Smith, "Religion of the
Semites," p. 29 : " The circle into which a man was
bom was not simply a group of kinsfolk or fellow-citizens,
but embraced also certain divine beings, the gods of the
family and of the state, which to the ancient mind were
as much a part of the particular community with which
they stood connected as the human members of the
social circle; . • . the worshipper and the gods made
up one natural family, with reciprocal family duties
to one another; . . . the social body was not made
up of men only, but of gods and men."

See also Warde Fowler, " The Roman Festivals," p.
371 : " Fietas, which, as Cicero defined it, was justitia
erga deos, righteous dealing towards the gods, in ex-
pectation of righteous treatment on their part." " In

207



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2o8 Appendix

this pietas we find a very sensitive conscientionsneas,
arising from the dread of neglect or trespass in the
discharge of religious observance, in the trust com-
mitted by family or state to its constituted repre^
sentative."



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NOTE H {page 123)

Of. Mozley, "Essays/' vol. ii. (article on "Blanco
White"), on the Christian search for truth: "Truth
penetrates into him rather than he into Truth ;
Truth finds him out and not he It. He looks out
for Its approach, waits for It, prepares himseK for
Its reception. He knows the signs of Its approach,
and can tell Its features through the distance; he is
alive to the slightest stir of the air, to a whisper, to
a breath. But he looks on It all the while as some-
thing without himself, as something to advance and
act upon him. The tender wax expects its impress,
the air its motion."



209



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INDEX



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>^. ».^ »>■



INDEX



Affection, motive of, 59
mediation in, 66
ultimate motive of, love, 69
AgnosticiBm, podtive element in, 174
" Amoeba witn a will of its own." 202
Analysis of simple into oomplex in

mediation, 94, 98
Arnold, Matthew, quoted, 189
Aristotle, delineates individual cha-
racter, 36
his Logic determines the problem
of moral philosophy, 36
Alt, and human life^ 146
appeals to collective emotion, 30
arises from impulse to maintain
emotion, 144
especially complex emotion,
145
landscape, 145
langua^ as medium of. 150
a reading of universal emotional

fact, 149
the record of the emotions of

humaniti^, 151
sympathetic communication of
emotion in, 147-149
Artist has especially the sense for
complex perceptions of beauty,
145
Assumption, of Philosophy, 4
of experience does not exclude a
Sceptical result, 5
Assurance, 25
of Perception, 94
Mure of, calls for Proof 96
finally restored by Proof, 103
a higher than that of fieujt, given by
Proof, 104
" Automatic " nervous activity, 204

Beaftt, Complex, 141, 143
is disinterested emotion, 139



Beauty, Distinctive emotion of com-
plex, 143
Intellect and will in the apprehen-
sion of, 141
is pleasure in perceiving, 139
is pleasure as a quality in the object,

138
Simple, 140, 143

Vohtion in complex emotion of,
141, 144, 145
Beginning, in Philosophy the critical

point, 10
Bodily Pleasures, 132
Boeanquet (raoted on Judgment, 79,

Bradley quoted, on Feeling, 39
on Fimteness of personality, 21 n.
on InteUectoaUsm, 37
on Judgment, 79

Causal, connection and Science, 114
Whole in Knowledge, 112
includes the knower, 113
World as, demands a Cause of
causality, 118
Causation, a form of WHl, 206
Choice, 200

Christian life a Response, 204
Collective, moral life, Conscience the
organ of^ 24
character of creed, 28
Emotion appealed to by Art, 30
mind in individual judgment, 28
Perception is, 24, 93
standard appealed to in Proof, 104
character ot Science, 28
character of Truth, 27, 103
Common idesl. Loyalty to, as a Social

bond, 160, 161
Communion, in Pleasure intensifies
Pleasure, 137
with Beality, Knowledge as, 37, 119



218



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214



Index



Commonion, with Reality, the nature
of reality, 88
with reality, a soul of, suggested by
Truth, 109
Ck>mplez reality, analyns of simple
into in Mediation, 94, 98
Beauty, 141, 143
emotions, connection of Art with,

145
Pleasures, 134
Pleasures, distinctiye Pleasure of,

136
emotion and Volition, 136, 141
Conation, in all Consciouanees, 50
Conscience, the organ of the Collec-
tive moral life, 24
" Conscientia " and '^pietas," 62, 208
Consciousness, Conation in all, 50
as Consdousnees the subject matter

of Psychology, 192
Discriminating^ 195
and Self-consciousness, 39, Note D,

191
rise of Self-consciousness from,

46flf.
spontaneity essential to, 50
facts of, as to Will, 200
Contemplation, 124
of Love of God passes into emotion,
167
Content, as a term in Psychology, 41
must be a content of something, 78
Creed, Collective, 28

Decision, 201

Deliberate and self-conscious Feeling,

Emotion in, 45
DeHberation, 201, 205
Desffe, Intellectual element in, 54

Judgment of, 52, 55

ultimately of Life, 67, cp. 132

Mediation in, 64

Motive in, 54
Discipline, in Soldier's courage, 160,

ideal of, the bond of Social union,
161
Discriminating Consciousness, 195
Divine Personality, Newman on, 17
Dramatic meaning of Person, 13
Dubitative will not the key to will,

206
Duty, an impulse from without, 56



Duty, judgment of, 52, 56
Mediation in, 64
Motive in, 56
Obedience the ultimate motive of,



Emotion, Art appeals to collective,
30
Art arises from impulse to maintain,

144
Sympathetic communication of, in

Art, 147-149
Art a reading of universal emotion,

149
Beauty, disinterested emotion, 139
of Comjplex beauty, distinctive, 143
a Distmct Self-conscious energy,

127
and Feeling distinguished, 45
merges in Feeling, 125
Finality of, 128

not mere Individual feeling, 153
Individual, the oigan of a collective

emotion, 162
Institutions, the vehicles of, 154
Love the h^hest type of, 153
Pleasure, Feeling as well as, 129
Beligion the embodiment of the

supreme, 31
takes us out of ourselves, 154
the element of social life, 30
will to maintain, 162
Emotional, element in Knowledge,
140
element in Moral Consciousness, 71
element in Perception, 91
element in Proof, 108
life social, 29-^1
fact and volitional fiict constitute

intellectual &ct, 93
element in the apprehension of
Whole, 124
Energy, Pleasures of, 133
English mind, reality of Fellowship
to, 176
reality of Matter to, 173
" Esprit de corps " of School, 161
Existence, in what sense indefinable,

84
Ezperioice, Personality the pre-
eminent Reality in, 12, 170
the one first principle of Ph3o-
sophy, 4



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Index



215



Experience, of the ordinary man the
Btarting-point and test of Philo-
sophy, 4-6

is of Qnalified Things, 79

experiencing itself, Science is, 117

Thing, an element in, 83

Thought, its supposed and real
relation to, 8

Fact, Ineyitableness of, 113
Perception a Judgment of, 79

Faculties, inseparability of Personal,
38, 39, 194
intorpenetration of other, by will,

Famfly, 22, 166, 166, 167

Feeling, implies action and reaction,

Bradley quoted on, 39

and Emotion distinguished, 46

as felt, 74

Emotion mei^ges in, 126

the background of Intellectual life,

73
observed by Intellectual self-
consciousness, 40
Pleasure, emotion as well as, 129
as described by Psychologists, 71
antecedent to self-consciousness, 40
abrupt transition from feeling to

Thought, 73, 80
Thought does not begin with, 73
Fellowship, Personality the capacity
for, 21
the supreme reality to the English
mind, 176
Finiteness of Personality, Bradley on,

21 fk
Force the reality of matter, 176
Fowler, W. W., quoted, 208
Freedom, 203

QoD, as whole in knowledge, 117-124
Love of, 163-170
as motive, passes into Emotion,

166
contemplation of, passes into

Emotion, 167
as consummation of Emotion, 168

Haldane Quoted, Note B. 188
Hegelian doctrine aUudea to, 8, 100,
Note B, 188



H(5ffding on will, quoted by Ladd,

199, 202
Hypostasis, meaning of, in later

QctwSti philosophy, 16

Idea, Intellectual consciousness does

not begin with the, 77

simjple, not a psychological fact 77

Inclusion, of the perceiving self, in

space as a whole of knowledge,

112

in the world as causal whole,

113
in causal connection of science,
116
of the connection of Truth with the
mind on Truth, 117
Individual, character delineated by
Aristotle, 36
the organ of Collective emotion, 162
judgment, relation of, to the Col-
lective mind, 28
view of experience repudiated, 7
feeling. Love is not mere, 163
Society prior to the, 167
Individualism, Phflosophy tends to,

36,36
Individuality, Modem view of Per-
sonality as limited, 18, 21, Note
C, 189
Inevitableness of Fact, 113
Institutions the vehicles of Emotion,

151
Intellectua], life. Collective, 24, 28
element in Desire, 64

Duty, 67
fact constituted by Volitional and

Emotional fact, 93
life, Feeling the background of, 73
self-consciousness, Feeling observed

by,40flf.
operation. Judgment the earliest,

76, 77^ 79, 196
element m Moral mediation, 64
element in final Moral principles, 70
elements in the Social motive, 63
Stage in Volition, not oharacteristi-
caUv Will, 71
Involved, distinguished from in-
cluded, 86

Johnson, Dr., and the Reality of
Matter, 173



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Index



Judgment, Boeanquet and Bradley

quoted on, 79, 196, 197
of Desire, 52, 55
of Du^, 52, 56
the earliefst Intellectual operation,

75, 77, 79, 195
Intellectual, deecribes the Moral

Motiye, 52
of Perception, intimacy o£^ 43
of Perception and Beflection, 75
of Perception, a judgment of fact,

79
of Perception, aasertB Emotional

&ct of Volitional &ct, 92
of Perception, identifies Thing and

Quality, 88
normaL not of Truth as opposed

to folsehood, 79

T^ IKli}<ȴ^ 58

Kkowledqe, as Communion with
reality, 37, 119

emotional appreciation a vital ele-
ment in, 140

experience rounded to a whole,
109-124

in science knows itself as Existence,
119, 120

whole of, anticipated in Mediation,
99

whole of, anticipated in Percep-
tion, 89

of the Moral end, 70

Science as a Whole of, 28, 117

ideal of, involved in Truth, 116

Labd, quoted on Conation in Con-
sciousness, 50
quoted on inseparability of personal

Faculties,39
quoting H5ffding, 199
quotedon will, 199 ff.
Landscape, 145
Language, Collective, 27
Law, a Collective fitct, 23
Legal meaning of Person, 14
Leibnitz on the Assumption of

experience in Philosophy, 4
Logic, AristotJe's, determines problem

of Modem Philosophy, 3iS
Love, one of three types of Emotion,
128
highest type of Emotion, 153



Love, of God» as consummation of

Emotion, 168
of God as motive passing into

Emotion, 165
of GK)d, self-surrender to, consum-
mation of Social Motive, 165
Beligion of, presents an ideal of

Beatity. 169
of Qod, Who is Love, Beligion as,

163
between man and Gk)d, itself the

institution of Beligion, 164
Loyalty, 159, 160
to conmion Ideal as social bond,

160, 161
to Political party, 159
of the Soldier, 160

Mabius the Epicurean, Pater's,

quoted, 207
Mass as term in Psychologv, 42
Matter, reality of to EnSish mind,
173
the reality of, Force, 175
reality of. Dr. Johnson, 173
and Spirit, 175
Mediation, in Affectioni 66
m Desire, 64
in Duty, 64

moral. Intellectual element in, 64
in Pleasure, 136
the first element in Proof, 98
the reality of Science, 99
Modem, view of Personali^as limited
Individuality, 18, 21, Note C, 189
Philosophy, problem of, determined

bv Aristotle^s Logic, 36
Philosophy separates the mind
and Reality, 36
Momerie quot^ 12 m.
Moral Cfonsciousness, Emotional
element in, 71
motive, desoribed by Intellectual

Consciousness, 52
mediation. Intellectual element in,

64
principles, Intellectual element in,
70
Morals, Social view of, 59
Motive, of Afiection, 59
of Desire, 54

ultimate, of Desire, 67, cp. 132
of Duty, 56



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Index



217



Motive, iiltimate, of Daty, 68

Social, 59

altimate Social, loye, 69

Love of Gk>d as ultimate social, 165
Mozley quoted, 209
Must, the uniyersal, 113
Mutual Pleasure, 136

the Tolition of self-surrender in,
138

Newman quoted, on Diyine Person-
ality, 17

Obsdisnce, ultimate motive of Duty,
68

Object, Pleasure described with refer-
ence to subject or, 130

Obligation, Judgment of, 57

Pain, omitted, 129 n.

Pater quoted, 207

Patriotism, 159, 160

Perception, simple, positiTO, assured,

pleasure in, Beauty, 139

collective, 24, 93

asserts the Emotional fact of the
Volitional fact, 92

a Judgment of Fact, 79

not of an Idea, 77

Judgment of, 75

a Judgment of Reality, 80

backpound reality in, 81

Reality assumed in, 81

asserts of thing relation to per-
ceiving self, 86

indudes relation to other things in
its predication, 87

of a Thing, 76

Will in, 89
Personality, Bradley on Finiteness of,
21 n.

Dramatic meaning of, 13

the pre-eminent reality in Experi-
ence, 12

faculties of, inseparable, 38

faculties of internal to one another,
43

realised through the combination
of its faculties, 170

defined as capacity for fellowship,
21, 170

Individual, oflen unrealised, 35



Personality, Legal meaning of, 14
Modem view of, 18
Theological meaning of, 15

Persons, pleasure in, 134

Philosophy, the Beginning the critical
point, 10
is Exp^ence interpreting itself 3,

Experience the one first principle

in, 4
Experience of the ordinary man
tne starting-point and test in,
4, 6
why it tends to Individualism, 35
an expression of Intellect apart

firom Will and Emotion, 36
Leibnitz on the character of

assumption in, 4
Modern, separates the mind from
Reality, 36
Piety, 62, 207

Plato, in protest against decay of the
inJXis, 36
on origin of Society, 59
Pleasure, as a quality in the object
perceived. Beauty is, 138
in perceiving, Beauty is, 139
Bodfly, 132
Complex, 134

complex, distinctive pleasure of, 136
complex, volition and, 136
intensified by Communion in

pleasure, 137
one of the three types of Emotion,

128
an Emotion as well as a feeling, 129
of Energy, 133
of Life, 130

pervades the whole of life, 131
Mutual, 29, 136
in Persons, 134
Political party, Loyalty to, 159
Post-mortem character of Reflection,

42
Predestination and Will, 204
Pre-intellectnal consciousness not

observed by P&ychology, 76
Presentation, as a term in Psychology,

41, 195
Primary and ultimate Reality, 80
Proof, Note A, 181
demanded by failure of Assurance,
96



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Index



Proof, finally restores Assnranoe, 103

giyes a higher Assurance than that
of fact, 104

appeals to a coUectiye standard,
104

Emotional element in, 108

Mediation the first element in, 98

Verification second element in, 102

involves Will, 105-108
Psychological, &ct, simple idea is
not, 77

point of view, 76, 76, Note D, 191
Psychology, Note D, 191

must accept facts, 199

content as term in, 41, 78

mass as term in, 42

stream as term in, 42, 73

Consciousness as Conscioosness,
^e subject matter of, 192

Feeling, as described by, 74

Qualified things, experience is of, 79
Qualitv, Thing with its, the reality
of Perception, 85

Realftt, what is the pre-eminent,
170

to start with over against the self,
173

primary and ultimate, 80

the nature of, Conmiunion with
ReaHty, 88

in perception Common to thing
and self, 85

Mediation becomes the, 99

and the Mind, separated by Modem
Philosophy, 36

Perception is a judgment of, 80

background, in Perception, 81

assumed in Perception, 81

of Science, Mediation, 99

of Perception, the Thing with its
qualities, 85
Beflection, 40

introspective, post-mortem charac-
ter of, 42

judgment of, 75
Relation, to perceiving self, asserted
of Thing in Perception, 86

to other things, included in Pre-
dicate of Perception, 87
Religion, Emotion the principle of,
31



Religion, the embodiment of the

supreme Emotion, 31
of Love, as an Experience presents

anidoalofReaUty, 169
embodies aspiration after moral

fellowship, 24
as the Love of (^od. Who is Love,

163
between man and Qod itself the

Listitntion, 164
and the Social motive, 62
as a Social bond, 162

ScBPncAL conclusion not excluded

by starting from Experience as As-
sumption, 5
School <' esprit de corps," 161
Science, and Causal connection, 114

Collective, 28

is Experience experiencing itself,
117

Mediation the Reality of, 99
Self-consciousness, 39, and Note D,
191

two senses of, 196

rise of, from Consciousness, 46 ff.

rise of from Consciousness, by way
of Volition, 50

Emotion a substantive energy oil
127

Feeling antecedent to, 40

Intellectual, observes Feeling, 40 f).

Moral, 52
Seth quoted on self^bservation as

post-mortem, 42
Simple, Beauty, 140, 143

Aiialysis of, into complex in media-
tion, 94

Pleasures, 132
Social, union an end m itself, 158

character of Desire, 22

unions bound together by ideal of
DiscipUne, 161

life. Emotion the element of, 30

motive. Intellectual element in, 63

character of the moral life, 22-24, 59

motive and Religion, 62

bond, Religion as a, 162
Society, 22

prior to the Individual, 157
" Society," 162
Soldier, Loyalty of, 160
Solipsism, 97, 104



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Index



219



Space, as a form of the world whole,
111
includes the apprehendlDg con-
sciousness, 112

Spirit and matter, 175

Spontaneity essential to Conscious-
ness, 203

Stimulus and Will, 205

Subject, or object, pleasure described
in reference to, 130

Sympathetic communication of Emo-
tion in Art, 147-149

TESTiHOiinr, 26

Theological meanii:^ of Person, 15
Thing, 83
an element in Experience, 84
with its qualities the Reality of

Perception, 85
and Quality identified by Judg-
ment, 88
Thought, its supposed true position
in EtKperience, 8
abrupt transition to, from Feeling,

73,80
begins with Perception, 73
Truth, collective, 27, 103
Bu^ests a soul of Communion with

Reality, 119
becomiug Fact, 117
Including the connection of Truth

itself with the mind« 117
as opposed to falsehooa not the im-
port of the normal judgment, 79
as a whole in Knowledge, 116
and the world, as two wholes, de-
mand a third, 117

Vebificatiok, 94

the second element in Proof, 102

true and &lse distinjpished, 102
Volition, jprimd facie racts of, 53

root pnnciple of, 132

in complex emotions of Beauty, 141

and complex Pleasures, 136

Pleasure and, 131, 132

Self-consciousness rises from Con-
sciousness by way of, 50



Volitional, and Emotional fact con-
stitute Intellectual fact, 93
and Emotional fact identified in
Perception, 92

Wabd, James, quoted, 12 n.
Whole, in knowledge, 109
causal, 112, 113

element of Emotion in apprehen-
sion of, 124
God as, 117

Includes the knower, 112, 113, 115
Space as a form of tiie world

whole. 111
Truth as, 116
element of Will in apprehension

of, 123
Will, essential points in, 53, 204
''will of its own in the Amoeba,**

202
and Intellect in the apprehension

of Beauty, 141
Causation and, 199, 206
facts of Consciousness as to, 200
Dubitative, not the key to will,

205
to maintain Emotion in complex

perceptions of Beauty, 141
to maintain Emotion leading to its

embodiment in Art, 144
to maintain Emotion leading to its

embodiment in life, 152
inteipenetration of other Faculties

by, 202
Intellectual stage in, not charac-
teristically will, 71
Predestination and, 204
Proof involves, 105-108
Stimulus and, 205
World, as Causal whole, 113, 114

demands a cause of causality,
118
the reality of, includes its Truth,

115
as Space, 110
and Truth, as two wholes, demand

a third, 117
as whole in knowledge, 110



PRXMTBD BY WILUAM CLOWBS AMD SONS, LIMITSD, LONDON AND BBCCLBS.



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