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The Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 online

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***



The Americana

Frederick Converse Beach,

Scientific American, inc, George Edwin Rines



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ttf&anu anite ou ,^*KiU.vinU



THE



AMERICANA



A Universal Reference Library



COMPRISING THE ARTS AND SCIENCES,

LITERATURE, HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY,

GEOGRAPHY, COMMERCE, ETC.,

OF THE WORLD



EDITOR-IN-CHIEF

FREDERICK CONVERSE BEACH

MANAGING EDITOR

GEORGE EDWIN RINES

ASSISTED BY MORS THAN TWO THOUSAND OP THE MOST EMINENT SCHOLARS
AND AUTHORITIES IN AMERICA AND EUROPE



ILLUSTRATED



Scientific American Compiling Department

225 FIFTH AVENUE, NEW YORK



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Univ. Library, UC Santa One 200)



Copyright 1912

BY

FREDERICK CONVERbB BEACH



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fir

5
£251



THE AMERICANA



DEPARTMENT AND ADVISORY EDITORS



ASTRONOMY

SIMON NEWCOMB, Ph.D., LLD., D.Sc.
PHILOSOPHY

JAMES E. CREIGHTON, A.M., Ph.D.
Professor of Philosophy, Cornell University

PHYSICS

ROBERT S. WOODWARD, Ph.D., LLD.
President of Carnegie Institution

PURE MATHEMATICS

CASSIUS J. KEYSER, M.A., Ph.D.

Adrain Professor of Mathematics, Columbia

University

EDUCATION

ANDREW SLOAN DRAPER, LL.D.
Commissioner of Education, State of New York

ZOOLOGY

DAVID STARR JORDAN, Ph.D., LL.D.
President of Leland Stanford Jr. University

ENGLISH LITERATURE

WILLIAM P. TRENT, A.M., LL.D.

Professor of English Literature, Columbia

University

WILLIAM T. BREWSTER, A.M.

Professor of English, Columbia University

AMERICAN LITERATURE

EDWARD EVERETT HALE, S.T.D., LL.D.
Author of "The Man Without a Country"

CLASSICAL LITERATURE

JAMES H. KIRKLAND, Ph.D., LL.D.
Chancellor of Vanderbilt University

ARCHITECTURE AND THE PINE ARTS

RUSSELL STURGIS, F.A.I.A.
Author of "Dictionary of Architecture"

RELIGION AND THEOLOGY

SYLVESTER BURNHAM, D.D.

Dean of Hamilton Theological Seminary,

Colgate University

REV. P. A. HALPIN
Saint Angela's College, New Rochelle, N. Y.

MEDICINE

SMITH ELY JELLIFFE, M.D., PkD.
Editor " Medical News."

CHEMISTRY

ALLAN DOUGLAS RISTEEN, PfaJD.
Hartford, Conn.

MINERALOGY

GEORGE LETCHWORTH ENGLISH
New York

LAW

HENRY M. EARLE

New York



ELECTRICITY

WILLIAM MAVER, Jr., C.R
Consulting Electrical Engineer, New Yotk

ENGINEERING AND MACHINERY

WILLIAM MOREY, Jr., GE.

Consulting Civil and Mechanical Engineer

New York

STEEL

ALBERT SAUVEUR, S.B.

Professor of Metallurgy, Harvard University

JUDAISM

ABRAM S. ISAACS, A.M., Ph.D.

Professor of Semitic Languages, New York

University

HISTORY OF THE NATIONS

UNITED STATES

Andrew c. Mclaughlin. a.m.

Editor of "American Historical Review "
CANADA

GEORGE McKINNON WRONG, A.M.

Professor of History, University of Toronto

CHARLES WILLIAM COLBY, A.M., Ph.D.

Professor of History, McGill University

MEXICO

ELISHA HOLLINGSWORTH TALBOT
Author "Commercial and Industrial Mexico"

GREAT S&ITAnr
HALFORD JOHN MACKINDER, M.A.
Director of the School of Economics and Polit-
ical Science in the University of London

OEBXAKY

HUGO MUNSTERBURG, Ph.D., LLD.

Professor of Psychology, Harvard University

FRANCE

HON. HILAIRE BELLOC

M.P. for Salford (Eng.) ; Author of ■" Danton,"

"Robespierre," "Paris/' etc.

ITALY •

J. S. KENNARD, Litt.D., D.C.L., L.H.D.
Author of " Italian Romance Writers," " Studi-

Danteschi," " Romanzi e Romanzieri Italian i,"

"Les Femme dans le Roman Italien," "The

Fallen God," etc

JAPAN
GEORGE TRUMBULL LADD, D.D., LL.D.
Emeritus Professor of Philosophy, Yale Urn-

versity; Lecturer on Philosophy, Western

Reserve University; Lecturer on Education

in the universities of Japan.

AUSTRALIA

HON. JOHN GREELEY JENKINS
Premier of South Australia 1001-5; Agent-
General in London for South Australia



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KEY TO PRONUNCIATION.



ch



a far, father

a late, hate

a or & at, fat

a air, care

a ado, sofa

a all, fall



choose, church



£ bpI, we

«

e or H bed, end

e her, over : also Fr. e, as in <te; *«,

as in neuf; and o*u, as in boeuf,
coeur; Ger. 6 (or <?*), as in
ckonomie.

c befall, elope

e agent, trident

ff off, trough

g gas, get

gw anguish, guava



h hat, hot

h or h Ger. ch, as in trifht, wacht

hw what



i

i or I

I

J

kw

*



file, ice
him, it

between 9 and i, mostly in Oriental
final syllables, as, Ferid-ud-dm

gem, genius

quaint, quite

Fr. nasal m or *, as in embonpoint,
Jean, temps



Span, n, as in cafon (can'yon), pinion

(pen'yon)



ng


mingle, singing


nk


bank, ink


o


no, open


o or 6


not, on


6


corn, nor


6


p.tom, symbol





book, look


oi


oil, soil ; also Ger. eu, as in beutel,


6 or oo


fool, rute


ou or ow


* allow, bowsprit


8


satisfy, sauce


sh


show, sure


th


thick, thin


fh


father, thither



|i mute, use

u or u but, us
fc pull, put



u



z
zh



between u and c, as in Fr. sur, Ger.
Muller



of, very

(consonantal) yes, young

pleasant, rose
azure, pleasure



(prime). * (secondary) accents, to indicate
syllabic stress



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CONTENTS OF TIIE DEPARTMENT OF GREAT BRITAIN



i. Introductory ,..,.,.*.....» ,. ,......, Thb Editor

s. Gbographical Environment .'. . j '. . j ;. t The Editor

3. Thb Conquests *. . * .' T Thomas Hodqejn

Author of • Italy and Her Invaders,' ' Political History of England,' etc.

4. Mbdijbval Enoland Thomas Frederic* Tout

- r . - 1 r Professor of Medieval and .Modern History, University of Manchester

5. Thb Reformation^. . ... 1 ..'..., .v -j • Albert Frederick PoLLARb

Professor of Constitutional History, University College, London

-6. English Histort of thb Sbvbntbenth Century William A. Shaw

Editor of the ' Calendar of Treasury Records * at H. M. Record Office

7 (a). Thb Eightbbnth Century — Historical Sketch Lilian Knowlbs

Appointed Lecturer in Economic History, University of London

7 (ft). French Wars of the Eighteenth Century J. Holland Rosb

Author of 'A Century of Continental History,' * The Revolutionary and Napoleonic Era.' etc.

8 (a). The Nineteenth Century — Historical Sketch J. Holland Rose

6 (b). Political Parties Sir Thomas Raleigh

Fellow of All Souls' College, Oxford, formerly Legal Member of the Viceroy's Council in India

•9. Parliament Sir Courtney Iibert

Clerk of the House of Commons, formerly Legal Member of the Viceroy's Council in India

to. Crown and Cabinet Edward Jsnks

Fellow of King's College, Cambridge; Principal and Director of Legal Studies of the Law Society

li. Thb Judicial System William Blake Odgers

Bencher of the Middle Temple, Recorder of Plymouth, Director of Legal Studies at the Inns of Court

la. Local Government Sidney and Beatrice Webb

Joint authors of * The History of Trades Unionism,' ' Industrial Democracy,' etc.

13. Civil Service Graham Wallas

Member of the London County Council ; Lecturer at the London School of Economics

T4. Scottish History P. Hume Brown

Professor of Ancient (Scottish) History and Palaeography, University of Edinburgh

15. Irish History The Rev. T. A. Finlay

Professor of Political Economy, University College, Dublin

*6. Wales Edward Anwyl

Professor of Welsh and Comparative Philology, University College of Wales, Aberystwyth

.17. National Financb Edwin CaNnan

Appointed Teacher of Economic Theory in the University of London

«S: Banking Sir Felix Schuster

Governor of the Union of London and Smiths' Bank Limited, and

Ernest Sykbs
Secretary of the Institute of Bankers, and of the Central Association of Bankers

f 9 fa). Commbrcb, Eighteenth Cbntury Lilian Knowles

39 W. Commbrcb, Prbsbnt Day A. J. Sargent

Appointed Teacher of Foreign Trade in the University of London

*o (a). Navigation Acts Lilian Knowles

so (6). British Shipping Russell Rea, M. P.

si. Railways W. M. Acworte

Lecturer on Railway Economics in the London School of Economics and Political Science

32 (a). The English Land Laws J. Fisher Williams

Fellow of New College, Oxford; Barrister-at-Law
as (b). Thb Eighteenth Cbntury — Agriculture Lilian Knowlbs

33 (c). AORICULTURB A. D. H ALL

Director of the Rothamsted Agricultural Station

-93. Fisheries Sir Herbert Eustace Maxwell

Lord Lieutenant of Wigtownshire; President of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland

34. Thb Mining Industry Richard Augustinb Studdbrt Redmaynb

Professor of Mining in the University of Birmingham

35 (a). Industrial Revolution Lilian Knowlbs

as (6). Industrial Organization .William Albert Samuel Hbwins

"ormerly Director of the London School of Economics and Political Science

.36. TRi Sidney and Beatrice Webb

27. Th: ilitics Edward R. Phase

A f e Fabian Society; Trustee and Member of the Executive of the Labor Party

38. Th r Henry W. M acrosty

cs at the School of Economics and Political Science, University of London

•99. Fa< Sidney and Beatrice Wbbb

30 (a). > The Rev. Arthur Cagley Hbadlam

je, London; Dean of the Faculty of Theology in the University of London

30 (&). The Rev. John Brown*

Pormerly Chairman of the Congregational Union of England and Wales

30 (<;). English Roman Catholics Monsignor Bernard Ward

President of St. Edmund's College, Old Hall, Ware; Roman Catholic Canon of Westminster

30 ((f). Judaism Israel Abrahams

Reader in Talmudic and Rabbinic Literature in the University of Cambridge

31 (a). Education Graham Balfour

Director of Education to the Staffordshire County Council

31 (&). Medicine Francis E. Frbmantlb

Medical Officer of Health for Herts County

31 (c). Engineering David Sing Capper

Professor of Engineering, King's College, London
3 2. Society Edith Lytteltqn

33. Sport The Right Hon* Alfred Lytteltow

Formerly Secretary of State for the Colonies; Recorder of Oxford

34. The Fine Arts A.J. Finbbro

Author of * English Water Color Painters *

35. Newspapers J. Alfred Spbnder

Editor of ' The Westminster Gazette *

36. The Trend op Thought and Litbraturb in thb Nineteenth Century Sidnby Lbs

^ „ Editor of the * Dictionary of National Biography *

37. Thb British Navy -. .Carlyon Bellairs

_ _ Lieutenant Royal Navy; M. P.

38. Thb British Army H. O. Arnold*ForsTbr

_ M. P.; Formerly Secretory to the Admiralty, and Secretary of State for War

39 (a). England and Europe „ George Peel

Author of ' The Enemies of England,' ' The Friends of England •

39 <©). Foreign Policy in India Sir Waltbr Roper Lawrencb

Formerly Private Secretary to Lord Curson of Kedleston, Vicoroy of India

40. The Free Trade Movement John St. Loe Strachey

Editor of * The Spectator *

41. Thb British Tariff Movement .» J. L. Garvin

Editor of * The Outlook '; author of * Economics of Empire '

43. Thb Reaction of British Imperialism on thb Mother Country. . J. L. Garvin

Vol. 10 — i



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GREAT BRITAIN:
HISTORY AND MODERN DEVELOPMENT.



INTRODUCTORY.

The following series of articles, dealing with British nation, and so to sketch them that they
various aspects of the life of the United are seen to be the natural outcome of history.
Kingdom, is intended to present a co- m The fifty-five articles which follow fall into
herent account of present British conditions eight groups. First we have a group concerned
and activities, and of the historical cir- with the Making of England, the senior and
cumstances which have led up to them. On a predominant partner in the United Kingdom,
balance of considerations the usual encyclo- Here the history of Britain, and especially of
paedic arrangement in alphabetical order has England, is told with a definite object. There
been abandoned. Encyclopaedias are used by are some episodes and some aspects of history
two classes of people — for reference by those which have chiefly an archaeological value,
who have access to other books, for reading Their results no less than their causes are past,
by those who must live in the main removed But there are others whose results have en-
from books. For purposes of reference there dured, and are embodied in the features of to-
is no doubt much to be said for the alpha- day. Bagehot somewhere compared the different
betical order of arrangement But knowledge standpoints in history to the different group-
is organic; no fact can be understood in ing of the monuments of the same city when
isolation, or fully understood apart from the seen from two different towers. The perspec-
general scheme and atmosphere of the depart- tive of these articles is that of the social and
ment of knowledge to which it belongs. Even economic observer of to-day, who seeks to ex-
for reference it is therefore likely that matter P^in the present in the light of the past rather
grouped according to some natural order, if than the past in the light of the present. We
supplemented by an alphabetical index, will con- have nine articles in the first group, viz. :—
vey the truer impression. For continuous read- .

ing there can of course be no question of the „ A.— the making of England.

sunprinritv of <;nrh an order *• Geographical Environment The Editor.

superiority Ot sucn an or<ier ; . 3. The Conquests Dr. Thomas Hodgkiii*

The characteristic of British Institutions IS 4. Mediaeval England Prof. T. F. Tout.

that it is impossible to understand them apart f- The Reformation E* 0F ;„ A - F * Pollard.

from their history. They rarely have logical £ JJS xvinVa^wi .....Dr. William A. Shai*

consistency, for the English suspect ideas, not- (a) Political Sketch D*. Lilian Kkowlb*

withstanding the fact that in certain depart- <*) The French Wars... Dr. J. Holland Rose.

ments the world owes great ideas to some * ™ } KtmcA^sSScH Da. J. Holland Rose.

Englishmen. The typical Englishman suspects <fc) Political Parties Sir Thomas Raleigh.

an idea because he is impressed with the com- T n t h e secon( i group we ij ave a description

plexity of experience. He is a creature of habit, f t h e Mechanism of British Government, both

not so much from inertia as from caution. His Central and Local. Historical considerations

political wisdom does not express itself m such nave not been, and indeed could not be wholly

phrases as ^Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity,* excluded, but the aim of the articles in this

but in practical and limited expressions such as group is to explain the system, so far as there

"Freedom of Speech,* or ^Freedom from Ar- j s a sys tem, and the habits of British Govern-

rest » and in such working laws as that «the ment The point which will probably strike an

remedy of grievances must precede supply* He American ac characteristic of the whole machine

is willing to change his habits, but only when j s its centralization. The sharp distinction and

they have become inconvenient to him because counterbalance of legislative, executive, and

of changed conditions. ^ judicial functions, and of local and central

The British constitution has never been re- powers, are unknown. So far as natural laws
duced to writing. It is matter of habit, and and the prejudices begotten of history permit,
throughout history has been in a state of flux. Parliament is omnipotent. Within Parliament
Thus the English manage to combine a curious the House of Commons, and within the Corn-
conservatism with a way of advancing in some mons the Cabinet, and within the Cabinet the
matters ahead of the rest of mankind. They Prime Minister count for more than any other
have little feeling for symmetry, and are not force.* It is within the power of no court of
hurt by anomalies, hence their practical sense law to declare that Parliament has acted ultra
of compromise, and their trust in the curative vires, and the local authorities have no rights
power of time. Though the least consciously which cannot be overridden by Act of Parlia-
historical of all the great races, their institu- ment. In this second group we have five
tions are only explicable with the aid of history, articles :

Therefore the aim set before the contributors — . ' 4 A . . ... A , . 4 . - . ...

. .. n ... , .. * A , . « 1 «. « # ThU statement is not invalidated by the fact that

to the British section of this Encyclopaedia has ^^ mero bera of the Cabinet, and sometimes even the

been to sketch the leading characteristics of the Prime Minister, are chosen from the House of Lords,



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; Q»BAT BRITAIN— INTR<^PUCTORY



R—THE MECHANISM OF GOVERNMENT.

9. Parliament • Sir Courtenay Ilbert.

10. Crown and Cabinet. Prof. Edward Jenks.

xi. Tub Judicial System Dr. Wm. Blake Odgers,K. G

12. Local Government. .Sidney and Beatrice Webb.

13. The Civil Service.. Mr. Graham Wallas.

Then there follows a small group of articles
dealing with the peculiarities of the three Junior
Partners in the United Kingdom. Scotland was
a Centralized Monarchy, long allied with France
in hostility to England. She retains her own
law and churches, but similarity of race and of
resources have permitted of her blending with
England into a single economic organism. Ire-
land has never been a single independent state,
yet geographical, religious, and economic causes
have always held her apart from England, not-
withstanding the strategical necessity which has
prevented and prevents her separation. Wales
has had even less of national history than Ire-
land, yet the Welsh race has maintained a
separate vitality, although expressed rather in
literary than political institutions. There is per-
haps no greater political anomaly in the world
than the peculiarly illogical — characteristically
British — relations of the four nationalities
which form the United Kingdom. The articles
of this third group are as follows :

C. — THE JUNIOR PARTNERS.

14. Scotland Prof. P. Hume Brown.

15. Ireland The Rev. T. A. Finlay.

10. Wales Prof. Edward Anwyl.

From political government we turn in the
next group of articles to the Control and Move-
ment of the National Wealth. The banker and
the merchant, the ship-owner and the railway
chairman compete in these days with the politi-
cal statesman for the control of humanity. In
this department also of the national life of
Britain centralization is characteristic. English
banking and railway management are central-
ized in London, and in a less degree the same
is true also of British shipping and commerce.
Though some banks and railways and marfy
shipping companies have their head offices out-
side the Metropolis, yet the banking and rail-
way clearing houses, and Lloyds, the chief seat
of shipping insurance, are within it. Even the
Scottish and Irish banks depend ultimately on
the gold reserve of the Bank of England. Bri-
tain, in other words, is a single compact organ-
ism with a metropolitan nucleus containing one-
sixth of its population. No other imoortant
centre is at a greater distance than can be tra-
versed by an express train between the morn-
ing and the evening meal. Thus it comes about
that a relatively small group of leaders, known
either directly or indirectly to one another, go
near to controlling all departments of the na-
tional life. In other words, Britain is essentially
an oligarchy limited by democracy. This fourth
group consists of seven articles:

D. — THE CONTROL AND MOVEMENT OF WEALTH.

17. National Finance Dr. Edwin Cannan.

18. Banking and Currency .. Sir Felix Schuster and

Mr. Ernest Sykes.
10. Commerce:

(a) XVIIIth Century.. Dr. Lilian Knowles.

(b) Present Day Mb. A. J. Sargent.

30. Shipping:

(a) Navigation Acts... Dr. Lilian Knowles.

(b) Present Day Mr. Russell Rj^, M. P.

«t. Railways Mr. W. M. Acworth.



We then turn to the fifth group which deals
with the Production of British Wealth. Here
necessarily there is greater decentralization
for we come closer to the soil, the mines, and
the coasts. The great staple industries of Bri-
tain are away from the Metropolis, and in the
industrial districts we find a new socul and
intellectual atmosphere. The three minor na-
tionalities and the Industrial North of England
are the democratic forces which compete with
the agricultural, commercial, and administrative
oligarchy in London. The articles of this group
are:

E. — THE PRODUCTION OF WEALTH.

22. Agriculture:

(a) The Land Laws Mr. J. Fischer Wil-

liams.

(b) XVIIIth Century Dr. Lilian Knowles.

(c) XlXth Century Mr. A. D. Hall.

23. Fisheries Sir Herbert Max-

well.

24. Mining Prof. R. A. S. Red-

mayne.

25. Industries:

(a) Industrial Revolution Dr. Lilian Knowles.

(b) Existing Industries. . Mr. W. A. S. Hewins.

The institutions discussed in the next, the
sixth group, are chiefly products of northern
industrial thought. ^ The trade unions and the
industrial co-operative societies have originated
in the north, and have there reached their most
efficient and general development. From that
region, also, has come the stimulus for factory
legislation. The articles in the sixth group are
as follows:

F. — INDUSTRIAL RE-ORGANIZATION.

26. Trade Unionism Sidney and Beatrice Webb.

27. The Labor Political

Movement Mr. E. R. Pease.

28. Cooperation Mr. H. W. Macrosty.

29. Factory Legislation . Sidney and Beatrice Webb.

The articles in these six^ groups have dealt
with political and economic power. In the
seventh group we turn to what may be described
as the ideal life of the nation — its religion, its
education, and its amusements. But even here
one cannot help being struck by the essential
unity of English life. The churches and society
are intimately^ concerned with politics. No



Online LibraryWilfrid RichmondThe Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 → online text (page 1 of 185)