Wilfrid Richmond.

The Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 online

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banks, and a Carnegie Library. Pop. (1910)
4,829. Fred A. Dodge,

Editor The Hartford Sentinel

Hanfstangl, Franz, frants hanf'stengl,
German lithographer: b. Rain, Germany, 1804;
d. 1877. He studied art at the Munich Acad-
emy, and in 1826 went to Dresden where he be-
gan his series of lithographic copies of pictures
in the Dresden Gallery, which he completed in
1852. During the latter part of his life he
devoted himself to photography and kindred
processes.

Hang-Chow, hang'chow, China, the capital
of the province of Che-kiatig, on a plain at the
southern terminus of the Imperial Canal, and
within two miles of the head of the estuary of
the Tsien-tang River, about 40 or 50 miles from
its mouth, nearly 100 miles southwest of Shang-
hai It is a strongly fortified city of oblong
form, surrounded with high well-built walls
about eight miles in circuit, enclosing many
large vacant spaces. The streets are well paved
and clean, and there are numerous triumphal
arches, monuments to great men, and gor-
geous Buddhist temples. The stores and ware-
houses are npted for their size and the quantity
and quality of the goods displayed. More than
100,000 persons are employed in silk manufac-
tures, and among other industries are the weav-
ing of cotton, manufacture of tapestries, carv-
ing in ivory, the making of lacquered ware,
fans and screens, etc The houses generally are
one story high. A large portion of the inhabit-
ants reside in the suburbs, and in boats on the
waters around them. The governor-general of
Che-kiang and Fe-kien resides in this city, and
also the governor of the nrovince. With their
courts and troops, in addition to the great trade
passing through, and its activity as a centre
of literary and ecclesiastical life, Hang-Chow
is one of the most important and richest cities
in China. The river, opposite the city, is about
four miles broad at high-water, and is crowded
with vessels of all descriptions, being the chan-
nel by which vast quantities of merchandise are
received from and exported to the southern
provinces. The extensive Lake of Si-hou, HVest
Lake,* close by the city, is celebrated for its
natural and artificial beauties. Chapu, the sea-
port of Hang-Chow, is 20 miles down the river.
Hang-Chow is the celebrated *Kinsai 9 of Marco
Polo — the capital, in his time, of Southern
China. It was captured by the Taiping rebels
in 1861, and deserted by all its rich or respect-



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HANGING — H ANNAY



able inhabitants. A disciplined force of Chi-
nese, under the command of French officers,
united with the Imperialist troops, recaptured
the city on 31 March 1864. By the Treaty of
Shimonoseki (1895) it was opened to foreign
trade, and a district platted for a foreign settle-
ment. Pop. estimated at 700,000.

Hanging, a form of capital punishment
inflicted under the common law; also a mode
of death sometimes lawlessly visited upon a
person, or occurring from accident, or by sui-
cide. In cases of hanging, death seldom results
from pure asphyxia, but is usually in some de-
gree owing to apoplexy and injury to the spinal
cord. In attempted suicide, bleeding from the
jugular vein and artificial respiration may be
tried for resuscitation. In difficulty of inducing
artificial respiration, laryngotomy and trache-
otomy should be performed, and the lungs in-
flated through the opening in the neck. In
judicial hanging, the noose ought to be so ad-
justed as to produce immediate dislocation of
the spinal column, death in that case being in-
stantaneous. In New York State electrocution
as capital punishment is substituted for death by
hanging, and it has to some extent been tried
in other States. (See Electricity, Cause of
Death by.) In several American States inflic-
tion of the death penalty is forbidden by law.
Hanging, drawing, arid quartering were once
the punishment of treason in England. See
Capital Punishment.

Hanging Rock, Battle of, fought 6 Aug.
1780. It occurred on Hanging Rock Creek,
S. C, between Col. Sumter's Americans, some
800 in number, and about as many Loyalists
commanded by Maj. Carden. After driving
back the Loyalists, the Americans, becoming dis*
organized while plundering the enemy's camp,
were in turn put to flight. The American. loss
is unknown; that of the Loyalists, in killed,
wounded, and missing, is recorded as 269. Con-
sult Lossing, < Field- Book of the American Rev-
olution. }

Hankow, han-kow' (*Mouth of the Han»),
China, a town and river-port in the province of
Hu-peh, at the junction of the Han with the
Yang-tse-kiang, 688 miles above the mouth of
the Yang-tse, which is navigable for large ves-
sels up to the town. On the opposite bank of
the Han is Hanyang, on the other side of the
Yang-tse is Wuchang, the three together form-
ing one immense city. In addition there is a
large floating population, the Han being densely
crowded with junks for about half a mile above
its mouth. In 1857 the city was almost totally
destroyed by the Taipings. The port was opened
to foreign trade by the Treaty of Tientsin, rati-
fied in i860; and soon became the chief empo-
rium for the tea trade of the central provinces.
A concession of about 90 acres of land apart
from Chinese jurisdiction is laid out like an
English town. The residents of the British con-
cession are formed into a municipality, with a
council empowered to levy taxes. There are
also German, French, and Russian settlements.
The foreign trade of this port is one of the
most important in China. The imports are
brought almost exclusively from Chinese ports
(about one half from Shanghai), and consist
partly of foreign produce, Such as cottons, wool-
ens, and opium; partly of native produce, such
as tea, silk, cotton, etc. Pop. about 850,000.



Han'na, Marcus Alonzo, American politi-
cian: b. New Lisbon, O., 24 Sept 1837; d. 15
Feb. 1004. In 1852 his family moved to Cleve-
land, where he was educated in the public
schools and he also took a year's course of
study in Western Reserve University. He left
college to enter the grocery trade with his
father, and later had entire control of the
business. In 1867 he became a partner with
his father-in-law in the firm of Rhodes & Co.,
engaged in handling coal and iron; he soon
mastered the details of the business, greatly
extended the work of his firm, and was the
first to build steel steamships for the lake
trade. In 1877 he became the controlling part-
ner of the firm, the name of which was
changed to M. A. Hanna & Co., and acquired
large interests in lake navigation. He also wis
for a time manager of a theatre, and president
of the Union Rational Bank of Cleveland, and
of the Cleveland City Railway Co. In 1880
he organized a business men's political clui>,
and from that time was active in politics. In
1884 he was sent as a delegate to the Repi4>-
lican National Convention, and in the next con-
vention (1888). was John Sherman's political
manager. He first gained a national reputation,
when he obtained the nomination, of McKinley
fox President at the Convention of 1896, and
as chairman of the Republican national com-
mittee, conducted the Presidential campaign,
which resulted in a large plurality for McKin-
ley. In this campaign he adopted the methods
which had made him successful in business,
studying the situation and its needs, and care-
fully attending to details. In 1897 he was
appointed United States Senator to succeed
Sherman, who resigned before the completion of
his term of six years. In 1898 he was elected
to a full term, and < in 1904 re-elected, but <W
before taking his seat. In 1900 he again con-
ducted the Presidential campaign. As a large
employer of labor, Senator Hanna had a number
of questions to settle with his own employees,
and as a rule won their respect and confidence
by his fairness and willingness to listen to their
claims. He was a firm believer in arbitration
between labor and capital, and was active in the
organization, in 1901, of the National Civic Fed-
eration, a non-partisan organization formed to
consider such topics as trusts, tariffs, taxation,
etc., becoming its president, and a member of a
permanent committee appointed to consider and
settle labor disputes.

Han'nay, James, Canadian historian and
j ournalist : b. Richibucto,N. B., 22 April. 1842 ; d
12 Jan. iqio. After many years of editorial work
upon influential Canadian journals, he was chief
editorial writer on the Brooklyn, N. Y„ Dotty
Eagle (1885-7), and editor of the St. John,
N, B„ Daily Gazette (1888-92), and St John
Daily Telegraph (1892-1900). He was also
official reporter of the New Brunswick
Provincial Parliament Besides reports of the
New Brunswick Supreme Court, -he published
<Nine Years a Captive> (1875); <History of
Acadia> (1879); 'The History of the Loyal-
ists> (1893); ( The Story of the Q^*
Rangers in the American Revolution ( l ™pi
<Life and Times of Sir Leonard Tilley
(1897); ( The History of the War of 1812* ;
( New Brunswick: Its Resources and Advan-
tages ) (1002).. *



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HANNIBAL



Han'nibal, Carthaginian soldier: b. 247
'B.C.; d. probably 183 B.c. He was the son of
Hamilcar Barca (q.v.) and at the age of nine
his father made him swear at the altar eter-
nal hatred to the Romans. He was a witness
of his father's achievements in Spain; but Ham-
ikar having fallen in battle in Lusitania, in 228
B.c, and his son-in-law Hasdrubal having been
appointed to succeed him, Hannibal returned
home. At 22 he returned to the army at the
request of Hasdrubal. The soldiers perceived
in him the spirit of Hamilcar, and in three cam-
paigns his talents and his courage were so con-
spicuous that the army, on the murder of Has-
drubal in 221, conferred on him the chief
command by acclamation. In 219 b.c he laid
siege to Saguntum, a town which had concluded
an alliance with Rome. In eight months Sagun-
tum fell The Romans, alarmed by this, sent am-
bassadors to Carthage to demand that Hannibal
should be delivered up. The demand being re-
fused, they declared war. Hannibal raised a
powerful force, and conceived the design of at-
tacking the Romans in Italy. After providing
for the security of Africa, and having left his
brother Hasdrubal with an army in Spain, he
began his march with 90,000 foot-soldiers, forty
elephants, and 12,000 horsemen, traversed Gaul
in the depth of winter with incredible rapidity,
and reached the foot of the Alps. In nine days
hie crossed these mountains, probably by the
pass leading over the Little St. Bernard. The con-
quest of the Taurinians and the capture of their
chief city encouraged the people of Cisalpine
Gaul to join him. These auxiliaries would have
been still more numerous had not Publius Scipio
approached at the head of a Roman army, which
had landed at Pisa. On the banks of the Ticinus
the armies engaged, and a charge of the Numid-
ian horse left Hannibal master of the field (218
B.C.) Scipio avoided a second battle, and re-
treated beyond the Trebia, leaving the strong
town of Clastidium in the enemy's hands. Mean-
while Sempronius arrived with a second army,
hut Hannibal soon provoked his impetuous ad-
versary to an engagement, disposed an ambus-
cade near the Trebia, and surrounded and de-
stroyed the Roman forces. The Romans lost
their camp and 26,000 men. Hannibal now re-
tired to winter quarters among his allies in Cis-
alpine Gaul; and at the opening of the next
campaign (217) found two new armies await-
ing his approach in the passes of the Apennines.
He determined to engage them separately, and
destroy Flaminius before the arrival of his col-
league. He deceived him, therefore, by feigned
marches, crossed the Apennines, and traversed
the Clusian marsh. He then employed every
means to compel Flaminius to a battle. He
wasted the whole country; feigned a march to
Rome; but suddenly formed an ambush in a
narrow pass surrounded by almost inaccessible
rocks. Flaminius, who followed him, was imme-
diately attacked. A bloody engagement took
place near the Lake Trasimenus. Assailed on
every side, the Roman legions were cut in
pieces. Hannibal now armed his soldiers in the
Roman manner, and marched into Apulia,
spreading terror wherever he approached. Rome,
in consternation, entrusted her safety to Fabius
Maximus, the dictator, who determined to ex-
haust by delay the strength of the Carthagin-
ians. He attacked Hannibal with his own
weapons, and hung upon him everywhere with*



out attempting to overtake him, convinced that
the Carthaginians could not long hold a deso-
lated territory. Hannibal marched into the
plains of Capua, with the design of separating
the terrified cities from their alliance with the
Romans, and drawing down Fabius from the
mountains. But suddenly he found himself in
the same toils in which Flaminius had perished.
Shut up between the rocks of Formiae, the sands
of Liternurn, and impassable marshes, he was
indebted for his safety to a stratagem. Having
collected a thousand. oxen, and fastened burning
torches to their horns, he drove the animals at
midnight into the denies guarded by the Ro-
mans. Panic-struck at the terrible sight, the
Romans abandoned the heights, and Hannibal
forced his way through their ranks. Minutius
Felix, master of the horse, was then made col-
league of Fabius in the dictatorship. Eager for
combat, he fell into an ambush at Geronium, and
would nave perished but for the aid of Fabius.
After this campaign the other Roman generals
seemed unwilling to trust anything to chance,
and imitated the delay of Fabius. Hannibal
saw his army slowly wasting away, when the
new consul Terentius Varro, an inexperienced
and presumptuous man, took the command of
the legions. Hannibal had occupied Cannae, and
reduced the Romans to the necessity of risking
an engagement (216), JEmilius Paulus, the col-
league of Varro, wished to put off the battle,
but Varro chose the day of his command, and
directed the attack. The Roman army was de-
stroyed, and Hannibal now marched to Capua,
which immediately opened its gates. In 215
Hannibal sustained, at the hands of Marcellus, a
repulse before Nola — the first check which he
had received in the open field— but in 212 B.G
made an important acquisition in the capture of
Tarentum. Capua, however, was invested by
two consular armies, and was on the point of
surrendering. Hannibal marched to Rome, and
encamped in sight of the capitol, 211 b.c; but
the Romans were not thus to be discouraged;
Capua fell. This success gave the Romans a
decided superiority, and nearly all the people of
Italy declared in their favor. Held in check
by the consul, Claudius Nero, Hannibal could
not effect a union with his brother Hasdrubal,
who had set out from Spain with reinforcements,
but after having passed the Apennines was at-
tacked and defeated by Nero on the Metaurus
in 207. Hasdrubal himself fell, and his bloody
head was thrown into the camp of HannibaL
The latter then retired to Bruttium, where, sur-
rounded with difficulties, he yet maintained the
contest with inferior forces against victorious
armies. But Scipio now carried the war into
Africa, and Hannibal was recalled to defend
his country. He reluctantly embarked his
troops, and in 203 left the country which for
16 years he had held in spite of all the efforts of
Rome. He landed at Leptis, gained over a part
of the Numidians, and encamped at Adrume-
tum. Scipio took several cities, and reduced
the inhabitants to slavery. Pressed by his coun-
trymen to come to a decisive engagement, Han-
nibal met Scimo at Zama, and was defeated
with 20,000 loss. Peace was concluded in 201
b.c. Hannibal, accused by his enemies of stir-
ring up Antiochus the Great to war against the
Romans, went to Ephesus, to the court of An-
tiochus. In the ensuing struggle with Rome,
Antiochus was signally defeated, and obliged to



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HANNIBAL — HANOVER



conclude a peace, one of the terms of which
was that Hannibal should be delivered up. Han-
nibal, again obliged to flee, went to the court of
Prusias, king of Bithynia. Prusias, to whom
the senate had sent ambassadors to demand the
person of Hannibal, was on the point of com-
plying with the requisition, when Hannibal pre-
vented the disgrace by swallowing poison, which
he always carried about in his ring.

Hannibal, Mo., city in Marion County, on
the Mississippi River, and on the Missouri, K.
& TV the Chicago, B. & Q the Wabash, and
the Saint Louis, K. & N. W. R.R.'s ; about 90
miles northwest of St. Louis and 15 miles south
of Quincy, 111. Hannibal was settled in 1819
and incorporated in 1839. It is situated in an
agricultural region. The chief manufactures are
foundry and machine-shop products, flour, lum-
ber, cigars, lime, cement, stoves, car-wheels,
shoes, and furniture. It is an important trade
centre, as it has the advantages of several rail-
roads and steamboat connection with the cities
and towns on the Mississippi. A steel bridge for
railroad cars and wagons crosses the river from
Hannibal to East Hannibal, 111. The trade is
' acco, lumber flour, potatoes,
ig, dairy products, and the city
has a free circulating library,
high schools, the Douglas col-
and a number of fine public
ty charter of 1845, revised in
r the annual election, by the
r and a certain number of the
chool board. The officials of
: departments are under the
iyor. The electric-light plant
>ntrolled by the city. Pop,

Hanno, han'6, or Anno, German mediaeval
prelate: b. not earlier than 1000; d. Siegberg,
near Bonn, 1075. The emperor, Henry III.,
made him his chancellor, and presented him to
the archbishopric of Cologne, to which he was
consecrated in 1056. After the death of Henry
III., Hanno made himself master of the person
of Henry III.'s young son Henry IV., and
secured for himself the administration of the
empire (1062). His energetic government and
his holy life, his paternal care for his see, his
zealous reformation of monasteries and founda-
tion of churches, gained him the character of a
saint. The hymn in his praise is by some
thought to have been written soon after his
death; by others about 1183. It is one of the
most important monuments of the early German
national literature. The best version of it is to
be found in Miillenhofl and Scherer's <Denk-
Tialer deutscher Poesie und Prosa ) (1864).

Hanotaux, Albert Auguste Gabriel, ai-bar
o-giist ga-bre-el a-no-to, French politician: b.
Beaurevoir, Aisne, 18 Nov. 1853. He chose for
himself the profession of the law, took a scien-
tific course in the Ecole des Chartes, and after-
ward became a teacher in the Ecole des Hautes
Etudes. In 1879 he received an appointment in
the French foreign office; in 1S82 became a
member of the cabinet, and was sent to Con-
stantinople as ambassador in 1885. From 1886
to 1889 he was republican deputy; and in May
1804 received a portfolio in the second Dupuy
cabinet. He has published: <Les Villes Retrou-
Y6es > (1880); <Origines de llnstitution des



Intendftnts de« Provinces* (1884) ; c Hemi Mar-
tin, Sa Vie, Ses CEuvres, Son Temps* (1885) ;
<Etudes Historiques sur le XVIe. et le XVIIe,
Siecle en France 5 (1886) ; <Histoire du Car-
dinal de Richelieu 5 (1893).

Han'over, Germany, the northwesternmost
province of Prussia, prior to 1866 an independ-
ent kingdom. It borders on the North Sea, and
has an area of 14,870 square miles. In the south
the Harz mountains attain an altitude of over
3,000 feet ; the rest of the country is an alluvial
plain with a gentle slope to the sea. The Elbe
on the northeast boundary, the Ems, and the
Weser, with its tributaries, the Leine and Aller,
are the principal rivers. Coal and lignite, rock
salt, iron, copper, zinc, silver, and gold, are
found in the mountainous districts, and there
are large peat beds in the north. Over one
fourth of the area is arable land, producing
large quantities of grain and flax. The keeping
of bees is generally practised on the moors, and
a breed of superior cattle is raised along the
marshy coast land. Forests of hardwood and
pine, extensively used in smelting, occupy one
sixth of the surface. The manufactures are
extensive, and include iron goods, machinery,
woolens, linens, cottons, leather, paper, beet-root
sugar, beer, spirits, and numerous domestic com-
modities. Hanover has over 1,500 miles of rail-
roads, numerous canals, and an extensive traffic
is carried on at its several ports, among which
are Geestemilnde, Emden, and Harburg, although
practically its chief port is the free city and port
of Bremen (q.v.). The capital is Hanover
(q.v.). For administrative purposes, the prov-
ince is divided into the six districts of Hanover,
Hildesheim, Liineburg, Stade, •Osnabriick and
Aurich. The highest court is in Celle. The
province sends 36 members to the Prussian
Chamber of Deputies, 10 to the Upper House,
and 19 to the German Reichstag. Education is
compulsory and free ; chief of the higher institu-
tions of learning is Gottingen University. The
majority of the inhabitants are Lutheran Prot-
estants. Roman Catholics inhabiting Hildesheim
and Osnabriick constitute about ope seventh of
the population. Hanover was long connected
with the Brunswick family, a scion of which,
Ernest Augustus, in 1692, became the first
Elector of Hanover. He married the daughter
of the Elector Palatine, granddaughter of James
I., and niece of Charles I. of England. He was
succeeded in 1608 by his son George Louis, who
in accordance with the Act of Settlement (q.v.),
became George l. { king of England, at the death
of Queen Anne in 1714. The connection with
England continued during four reigns, and in
1814 the Congress of Vienna raised Hanover to
the rank of a kingdom, George IV. and William
IV. thus being kings of Great Britain and of
Hanover. On the accession of Queen Victoria,
however, by the Salic law, the Hanoverian crown
passed to the nearest male heir, Ernest Augustus,
Duke of Cumberland, and at his death in 1851
to his son George V. In 1866 Hanover sided
with Austria in the Austro- Prussian contest ; the
capital was occupied by Prussian troops; the
king lost his throne, his estates were seques-
trated, and Hanover was annexed to the Prus-
sian dominions. Pop. (1900) 2,590,336.

Hanover, Mass. (1) Village in the town
of Hanover in Plymouth County ; on a branch of
the New York. N. H. & H. railroad; about



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HANOVER— HANOVER COLLEGE



** miles east by north from Brockton and 25
miles southeast of Boston. It is the seat of
Hanover Academy. It is situated mi an agricul-
tural region* and the chief industries are con-
nected with agricultural products. Its chief
manufactures are tacks and nails. (2) The town
of Hanover contains several villages, and the
chief manufactures are shoes, nails, tacks, and
dairy products. Pop. of the village is about 420 ;
of the town 2,200.

Hanover, N. H., town in Grafton County;
on the Connecticut River, and on the Boston &
M. railroad, about 72 miles northwest of Con-
cord. It is situated in an agricultural region
and its industries are connected chiefly with
farm products and lumbering. It is a summer
resort, but is, known principally as a college
town, being the seat of Dartmouth College
(q.v.). It contains also the Mary Hitchcock
Memorial Hospital. Pop. (1910) 2,075.

Hanover, Pa., borough in York County;
on the Western Maryland and the Pennsylvania
R.R/s ; about 32 miles south of Harrisburg. It
was settled about 1729 and incorporated in 1813.
It is in a rich agricultural section of the State,
and nearby are iron-ore mines. The chief manu-
factures - are shoes, machine-shop products,
cigars, carriages and wagons, gloves,- and leather.
Hanover is the commercial centre of a consider-
able part of York County; the trade is largely
in agricultural and dairy products, the manufac-
tures of the borough, and in live stock. The
government is vested in a burgess and borough
council Pop> (wo) 7,057. .

Hanover, Prussia, the capital of a prov-
ince, and formerly of the kingdom of Hanover,
in an extensive plain northeast of and dom-
inated fcy Mount Linden, at the confluence of
the Ihme with the Leine, 44 miles by rail west
by north of Brunswick. It consists of an old
town, intersected by the Leine, and of various
modern suburbs. The old town is unattractive,
but the new quarters are regular and well built.
The principal features are the Markt church,
of antique appearance; the Kreuz church;



Online LibraryWilfrid RichmondThe Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 → online text (page 100 of 185)