Wilfrid Richmond.

The Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 online

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is also the author of ( Northern Georgia
Sketches* (1900).

Harbin, Manchuria, a city on the Sungari
River at the point where the Manchurian
branch of the Trans-Siberian railway crosses
that stream. The Chinese eastern branch of
the railway, running to Dalny (Talienwan)
(q.v.) and Port Arthur (q.v.) begins here.
Prior to the Russian occupation in 1900 (see
Manchuria), Harbin was a small Chinese vil-
lage. On account ^ of its geographical and
strategical position it was chosen as a military
centre, and very quickly it became also head-
quarters for railway and governmental affairs.
Commerce and manufacture have also greatly
developed, although not originally considered in
the promotion of Harbin; and here more than
elsewhere Russia gradually asserted its inten-
tion of becoming an active industrial force in
the Orient. Every system of protection that
could be devised has been employed by the gov-
ernment to advance its commercial prestige.
Harbin consists of the old town, three miles
distant from the central depot; Prestin, the
river town, the present commercial portion ; and
the administration town, about the railway.
Only Russians and Chinese are allowed to hold
land, construct buildings, or enter any perma-
nent enterprise. The territory for many miles
surrounding has been secured so as to make it
impossible for any foreign interest or influence
to obtain a foothold or profit near to the city.
The principal railway engineer is the chief ad-
ministrative official. A census of 1903 showed a
population of 60,000 exclusive of soldiery; of
these all but 700 were Russians.

Harbor, a rece9S or inlet of the sea, a
lake, or other large body of water, either land-
locked or protected from winds and waves by
artificial means, so as to be a secure haven for
vessels in all weathers. In selecting or con-
structing a harbor regard is also had to con-
venience in loading and unloading vessels. The
two chief classes are harbors of refuge and com-
mercial harbors. Often the latter are merely
tidal, only to be entered by vessels as the tide
serves, and where with the tide they rise and
fall. Harbors of refuge or shelter are accessible
in all conditions of tide. Sometimes there is a
combination of the harbor or haven with a
capacious protected roadstead outside of it, as at
Cherbourg, France, and other places.

Construction. — In the construction of har-
bors the great desiderata are sufficient depth of
water and perfect security for the vessels likely
to frequent them, together with the greatest
possible facilities for ingress during any weather,
while the chief obstacles to be surmounted are
the action of the waves upon the protecting piers
and breakwaters, and the formation of sand-

banks and bars,' which dimmish the depth of
water at the entrance and also within. All good
harbors should possess the following character-
istics: A deep, broad entrance-channel, which
can be kept by ships of all kinds in all sorts
of weather ; an ample anchorage, free from rocks
and shoals, with good holding-ground, and pro-
tected from winds and waves. Commercial har-
bors should also be supplied with adequate
constructions and appliances for loading and dis-
charging vessels.

Ground-plan. — In designing the ground-plan
of harbors, some rules should be kept in view:
(1) the entrance should always be kept sea-
wards of the works of masonry, care being taken
that the direction of the piers does not throw
the sea across the entrance; (2) there should
be a good *loose,* or point of departure free of
rocks or a lee shore; (3) spendlng-beaches in-
side should be provided to allow the waves that
pass in to break and spend themselves (a har-
bor-basin surrounded with vertical quay-walls
becomes a ^boiling pot B ), but this is a point
frequently overlooked by engineers ; (4) the re-
lation of the width of entrance to the area of
a harbor should be a matter of careful study,
as upon this depends the tranquillity of the in-

Anchorage. — The anchorage of a harbor
should be large enough to afford shelter to the
maximum number of vessels seeking it. The
space required by a vessel at anchor is, roughly,
a circle whose radius is six times the depth of
water plus the vessel's length. First-class har-
bors should have a depth of at least 40 feet, to
admit and give secure anchorage to the largest
ships now existing. An available depth of 25
feet is sufficient for ordinary transatlantic freight
and passenger steamers. Coasting vessels rarely
have a draft of more than 20 feet.

Natural Harbors. — Some of the best known
natural harbors are those of Queenstown, Ire-
land ; Rio de Janeiro, Brazil ; Portland, Me, ;
Boston, Mass.; Narragansett Bay, R. I.; New
York, N, Y.; Old Point Comfort (Norfolk),
Va. ; Port Royal, S. C. ; Havana, Cuba; San
Francisco, Cal. ; Puget Sound, Wash.; King
George's Sound, and Princess Royal Harbor, in
southwestern Australia.

Artificial Harbors, — These are as old as
naval warfare, and may almost be said to date
from the birth of commerce. The Phoenicians
protected their little strip of the Levant coast.
Tyre and Sidon were well provided with har-
bors, having effectual breakwaters, mainly built
of loose rubble. Carthage, Greece, and Rome,
each in its own way, utilized their harbors for
commercial and warlike purposes. That of
Carthage was artificial, those of Greece but
slightly so, nature having provided so many
navigable inlets that little remained to be done
by man. The great harbors of Rome, con-
structed in the solid and workmanlike manner
of her practical race, may still be studied with
profit, for the coasts of Italy yet show how
well the Romans understood both the principles
and the practice of this branch of marine en-
gineering. One of their finest and most com-
plete constructions of this nature was the port
of Ostia. at the mouth of the Tiber, now more
than two miles inland. The Romans were dis-
tinguished in harbor-making by the open of

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arched mole or enclosing work, which gave full
play to the currents, preventing the deposit of
sand or mud. *The foundations of Nero s port,®
says Addison, *are still to be seen. It was alto-
gether artificial, and composed of huge moles
running round it, in a kind of circular figure, ex-
cept where the ships were to enter.* Harbor-
making came to an end with the decay of com-
merce and civilization consequent upon the fall
of the empire, to be revived by the Italian re-
publics of the Middle Ages. The rich traffic of
Venice and Genoa soon led to the construction
of. suitable ports at those places, and the moles
of the latter city and the works in the lagoons
of Venice remain to this day. France was next
in the field, embanking, protecting, and deepen-
ing the mouths of the rivers along her north-
western shores, as at Havre, Dieppe, Dunkirk,
etc In 1627, during the siege of Rochelle,
Metezeau constructed jetties of loose rubble-
stone, to prevent access to the city.

British Harbors. — Great Britain, whose
. ocean commerce is of comparatively recent date,
lagged far behind her Continental rivals. With
few exceptions her ports were absolutely un-
protected, or rather uncreated; and this state of
things continued until late m the 18th century.
Two of the few exceptions were Hartlepool,
where a harbor was formed about 1250, and
Arbroath in 1394; in the 17th century at Whitby
and Scarborough rough piers were thrown out,
protecting the mouth of the port; at Yarmouth
a north jetty, and subsequently a south one,
were formed; an ancient mole existed at Lyme
Regis ; but the chief efforts of the early English
engineers were directed against the shoals and
waves of Dover. When, however, John Smeaton
(q.v.) rose to vindicate the engineering talent
of England, things took a different turn, and
now few countries surpass Great Britain in the
number of artificially improved commercial har-
bors. In Great Britain the construction and
regulation of harbors is primarily under au-
thority of the crown, but Parliament now usually
names commissioners and boards with powers
of ownership or management specially con-
ferred by that body. All individual owners are
required to manage harbors subject to the rights
of public use, while final government control of
them is practically absolute.

Harbors in the United States. — In this coun-
try all harbor-making in a public sense has been
done since the beginning of the 19th century.
The date of its first undertaking is 1802, when
the project of building public piers in Philadel-
phia received government aid by an appropria-
tion of $30,000. Twenty years later, for a har-
bor of refuge in Delaware Bay, $22,700 was
appropriated ; and in 1826 appropriations aggre-
gating about $150,000 were made for river and
harbor improvements at many places. From this
time river and harbor bills have steadily in-
creased the Congressional appropriations, which
now amount in the aggregate to hundreds of

Federal control over the ports of the United
States, including all the important harbors, is
exercised under the constitutional power of the
government to regulate commerce; but in most
of the details of harbor management — such as
ownership and use of wharves, docks, ware-
houses, and the provision and disposal of facili-
ties generally — management is left to the States.

Pilot laws, the appointment of harbor-commis-
sioners, harbor-masters, etc., and all other har-
bor regulations are made and enforced by the
States, subject in certain things — as, for ex-
ample, quarantine rules — to the jurisdiction of
the Federal government. Consult: Rennie,
( Harbors ) ; Stevenson, ( Design and Construc-
tion of Harbors > ; Moore, ( History of the Fore-
shore and the Law Relating Thereto ) ; Har-
court, harbors and Docks* ; Birdseye, c Laws of
the State of New York* (Navigation Law and
New York Harbor) ; United States Revised
Statutes, Sees. 5,244-5,255. See Breakwater;
Docks and Dock Yards; Jetties; Light-

Harbor Grace, Newfoundland, a port of
entry on Conception Bay, 27 miles west by
north of St. John's, 84 miles by rail It has a
large but exposed harbor, with an inner secure
port, a patent slip, and a lighthouse with' a re-
volving light. It is the see of a Roman Catho-
lic diocese with a handsome cathedral and con-
vent. Its commerce is second to that of St

Harbor Seal, or Hair-Mai, the common
small seal (Phoca vitulina), once common on
both sides of the North Atlantic, down to Vir-
ginia in the United States, but now only oc-
casionally seen south of Cape Cod. See Seal.

Harbor Springs, Mich., village, county-seat
of Emmet County; on Little Traverse Bay, an
arm of Lake Michigan, and on the Grand Rapids
& I. R.R. The landlocked harbor is much
used by lumber vessels. The village is in a
part of the State where the large forests make
lumbering the chief industry. The chief manu-
factures are flour and lumber. The cool climate
in summer makes Harbor Springs a favorite
resort during July and August. Pop. (1910^

Harby, Isaac, American dramatist and
journalist: b. Charleston, S. C, 1788; d. New
York 14 Nov. 1828. In 1822 he conducted the
Charleston City Gazette and later the Mercury.
His plays were ( The Gordian Knot* ; Alexan-
der Severus* ; and ( Alberts He was vice-presi-
dent of the Hebrew Orphan Asylum of Charles-
ton and leader of the reformed movement among
the Jews of that city — the first of its kind in
the United States. In 1828 he removed to New
York and engaged in journalism, until his death
the same year.

Harby, Levi Charles, American naval offi-
cer; b. Georgetown, S. C, 21 Sept 1793; d-
Galveston, Tex., 3 Dec. 1870. While a mid-
shipman in the United States navy in 181 2, he
was taken prisoner and confined in Dartmoor
Prison, England, until the end of the war. He
served under Gen. Jackson in the Creek war,
and participated in the Texas struggle for in-
dependence and the conflict with Mexico. Sub-
sequently he fought in South America under
Bolivar. On the secession of South Carolina,
he resigned his commission in the United States
service and joined the Confederate forces as
commander of the fleet at Sabine Pass.

Harcourt, har'koort, Sir William George
Granville Venables Vernon, English states*
man: b. 14 Oct. 1827; d. Malwood, Hampshire,
1 Oct. 1904. He began his education in a pri-
vate school at Salisbury, and then studied at
Trinity College, Cambridge, whence he wa»

Digitized by



graduated with high honors in 1851, receiving
the degree of M.A. He then studied law, being
called to the bar in 1854, and m 1866 he became
queen's counsel. In 1858 he made an attempt
to enter Parliament as an Independent Liberal,
but was defeated. During these years he wrote
largely for the c Saturday Review* and other
journals, and in i860 attracted considerable at-
tention by a series of letters on international
law and kindred subjects contributed to The
Times over the signature of ft Historicus,»
and which he continued throughout the Ameri-
can Civil War. In 1868 he entered Parliament
as Liberal member for Oxford, serving his con-
stituents at that post till 1880, when he was de-
feated for re-election. He was, however, se-
lected to represent Derby and continued in that
position until 1895, when, having been defeated
at the general election, he found a seat in West
Monmouthshire. In 1869 he was elected
Whewell professor of international law at Cam-
bridge; at the same time he was appointed a
member of the royal commissions for amending
neutrality laws and for amending the naturaliza-
tion laws. He was appointed solicitor-general
in 1873, but held the office only three months,
and in the same year was knighted by the
queen. Although he had not supported Mr.
Gladstone during his retirement from power, yet
upon that statesman's return to the office of
prime minister in 1880. he was appointed secre-
tary of state for the home department, contin-
uing in that capacity until the Liberal party
went out of power in 1885. At that time his
name became famous through his connection
with the < Ground Game Act* (1880), the ( Arms
(Ireland) Act> (1881), and the Explosives
Act > (1883), the last one being pushed through
all its stages in the shortest time on record. In
1884, his bill for unifying the municipal adminis-
tration of London was introduced. Upon the re-
turn of the Liberals to power in 1886, he was
made chancellor of the exchequer, holding that
position only a short time, as the fortunes of
politics again took him from office. During the
years 1880 to 1892 he was Gladstone's lieutenant
in political life, and his services were of immense
value, especially on account of his brilliant ora-
torical powers. Again in 1892 he was made
chancellor of the exchequer, acting as such un-
til 1895. It was during this term, in 1894, that
he introduced and carried his famous tax bud-
get, in which the income tax became more grad-
uated and the *death duties* on real and per-
sonal property were equalized, thereby giving the
government much aid in solving their financial
problems. Upon Gladstone's retirement in 1894,
Harcourt was looked upon as his successor, but
his title was ignored and Lord Rosebery ap-
pointed in his stead. Sir William then became
leader of the Liberals in the House of Com-
mons, and it became evident that he and the
new prime minister did not agree as to party
policy, and, though their differences were from
time to time patched up, it was clear in his de-
feat at Derby in 1895 that the party was divided
on many issues, and the effect was then seen
of Sir William's Local Veto Bill, not only in the
utter rout of the Liberals, but in the setback
given to temperance legislation. From 1895 to
1900 he represented West Monmouthshire in
the House of Commons, but the task of leader-
ship of the Liberal party became particularly

onerous because of the tendency of the various
sections to break away from control. In the
session of 1896, against the overwhelming
Unionist majority, he scored several successes,
but was severely criticised by his own party for
concurring in the majority report of the special
committee, of which he was a member, appointed
in 1897 to investigate the Jamieson Raid and
the British South Africa Company. The in-
ternal dissensions in the Cabinet became more
marked as time went on, and the divided coun-
sels manifest among the leaders of the Liberals
led to his decision to retire from the leadership
of the party on the floor of the House of Com-
mons, and in 1898 with John Morley he retired
from active work and thereafter sat as a pri-
vate member. As a private member, he no
longer restrained his attacks on the govern-
ment, paying not the least deference to Liberal
imperialism. He actively opposed the govern-
ment's policy with regard to the sinking fund,
their attitude in the negotiations with the Trans-
vaal, and the financing of the South African
war, and throughout the war he lost no oppor-
tunity in criticising the South African develop-
ments. In 1898-1900 he became prominent, both
on the platform and in his letters to The Times,
in advocating active measures against ritualistic
practices in the Established Church. The gen-
eral election of 1000 found him full of fight,
favoring the official Liberal programme as dis-
tinct from that of the imperialistic section which
favored the return of Lord Rosebery to the lead-
ership, and when the new Parliament met his
attitude signified that his former claims would not
be dropped. Sir William had refused twice to
enter the peerage, and in a speech delivered at
the National Liberal Club on 28 July, after
announcing his determination to retire at the
close of the session, said: a It is not because I
am weary of the fight or am lukewarm in the
cause that I intend to retire. It is because I do
not think it for the public advantage that per-
sons should attempt to fulfil duties that they
are unable to perform.* And yet after this
announcement he vigorously attacked Joseph
Chamberlain, whose weightiest political antag-
onist he was, for his fiscal proposals, in a lengthy
speech, delivered in his familiar Homeric style.
It has been written of him: *Sir William
Vernon-Harcourt is one of the few public men
whose addresses out of Parliament are printed
in full by the London journals. His reputation
has steadily improved while his party has been
in the minority, and his caustic wit, polished
satire, and brilliant epigrams have stung and
irritated the conservative peers time and again.
He has Lord Beaconsfield's trick of giving
phrases the stamp of his own originality, so
that there is no one on the Liberal side whose
speeches are quoted more frequently. It has
been aptly said that Sir William's distinguishing
characteristic is his cleverness. His platform
speeches are not only rattling and rollicking, but
are generally brimful of witty and happy phrases.
He has a great gift of lucid exposition and on*
rare occasions, when he condescends to be seri-
ous, commands a flexible and sinuous prose.*
Sir William Harcourt was married in 1859 to
Lady Therese Lewis, widow of Sir George Corn-
wall Lewis, and daughter of T. H. Lister, and
again in 1876 to Mrs. Elizabeth Ives, widow of
J. P. Ives, and daughter of John Lothrop Mot*

Digitized by



ley, the historian, and at one time United States
minister in London.

Hard Labor, in law, compulsory work,
mechanical or other, sometimes judicially im-
posed upon criminals in addition to imprison-
ment or other punishment. It is a provision of
statute law both in this country and Great Brit-
ain. Its first English adoption was secured
through the demand for some adequate penalty
in cases where penal servitude and transporta-
tion were for any reason inexpedient In the
United States the punishment of hard labor
(which, however, is generally looked upon by
humanitarians and sanitarians as being rather a
healthful and merciful privilege) can only be
imposed by a court on the authority of statute,
the mode of applying the punishment being in
some cases prescribed by State or Federal laws,
and in others left to prison regulation.

Hardecanute, har-de-ka-nut', Harthacnut,
or Hardacnut, king of England and Den-
mark; son of Canute: b. about 1019; d. 8 June
1042. At the time of his father's death in
1035 he was in Denmark, where he was im-
mediately recognized as king. His half-
brother, Harold, however, who happened to be
in England at the time, laid claim to the throne
of that part of their father's dominions. For a
time the mother of Hardecanute succeeded in
holding Wessex in his name, while Mercia and
Northumbria were held by Harold, such an
allotment having been made by a witenagemote
held at Oxford. Hardecanute was about to
make an armed descent upon England, when
Harold died (1040), and his brother peacefully
succeeded him. He reigned till 1042, but his
reign was not marked by any important event.
He left the government almost entirely in the
hands of his mother and the powerful Earl God-
win (q.v.), while he gave himself up to feasts
and carousals.

Hardee, William Joseph, military officer:
b. Savannah, Ga., 10 Oct. 1815; d. Wytheville,
Va., 6 Nov. 1873. He was graduated at West
Point in 1838; served with distinction in the
Mexican War; and in the Civil War entered
the Confederate army with the rank of colonel.
He commanded a corps at Shiloh ; and was pro-
moted lieutenant-general in 1862. At Perry ville
he commanded the left wing of the Confederate
army and in December 1864 defended Savannah
against General Sherman.

Harden, William, American historian: b.
Savannah, Ga., 11 Nov. 1844. He left his studies
in the schools of Savannah to join the Con-
federate army, serving throughout the Civil War
in the 54th Georgia infantry and m the signal
corps. After the war he studied law and was
admitted to the bar in the early 7o's. He was
assistant librarian of the Georgia Historical So-
ciety from 1866 to 1869, when on 5 August he
was appointed librarian, a position he still occu-
pies. He has been a member of the board of
managers of Telfair Academy of Arts and
Sciences since 1882, and custodian since 1804;
organizer and secretary of the Georgia Society
of the Sons of the Revolution since 1891 ; and
was a Democratic member of the Georgia House
of Representatives from T900-4. Has written
much on historical subjects in magazines and

Hardenberg, Georg Friedrkh PhiHpp von,

ga-org fred'riH fe'Tep fon har'den-berg,
"Novalis,* German poet : b. Wiedenstadt, Prus-
sia, 2 May 1772; d. Wessenfels, Prussia, 25
March 1801. He made himself well acquainted
with law, natural philosophy, mathematics and
philosophy, but was most eminent for his poet-
ical talents. In the works of € Novalis* there is
a singular mixture of imagination, sensibility,
religion and mysticism. He was the gentlest
and most amiable of enthusiasts. His novel,
( Heinrich von Ofterdingen\ was left unfin-
ished. His 'Hymns to Night* and the <Geist-
liche Lieder* are greatly admired. With the
Schlegels and Tieck he assisted in founding the
romantic school in Germany. Consult: Schu-
bart, <Novalis Leben> (1887) ; Bing, < Fried-
rich von Hardenberg* (1893).

Hard'hack, or Steeple-bash, an erect
species of American Spircea (S. tomentosa),
common in pastures and low grounds, and cele-
brated for its astringent properties, which cause
it to be used medicinally. It is distinguishable
by the dense woolly tomentum, which covers its
stem and the underside of its leaves ; and bears
in late summer *a compact, steeple-shaped
panicle of peach-blow pink.®

Har'die, James Allen, American soldier:
b. New York * May 1823; d. Washington, D. C,
14 Dec. 1876. He was graduated from the
United States Military Academy in 1843, entered
the artillery, during the Civil War served on
the staffs successively of Generals McClellan and
Burnside, was judge-advocate-general of the
Army of the Potomac on Hooker's staff, became
brigadier-general of volunteers in 1862, and
inspector-general with rank of colonel in 1864.
He was brevetted major-general, United Stztea
army, in 1865. His writings are largely con-
fined to military reports.

Hardie, James Keir, English labor leader*,
b. Lanarkshire 15 Aug. 1856. He worked in the
coal mines until 1879, when he was blacklisted
on account of his activity in organizing the
miners; he was then appointed paid secretary

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