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The Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 online

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makers from England.

In 1840 Henry Disston, an Englishman by
birth, really made the great beginning of the
saw-making industry in Philadelphia, and soon
produced saws that had no equal in tl)e world.
It was only a short time before the Disston saws
drove out the English brand entirely from this
country, and to-day this firm have not only
achieved a world-wide reputation for merit but
send their products all over the globe. The an-
nual output of all saws amounts to between
$10,000,000 and $12,000,000, and there is about

that amount of capital invested in the business.
The tonnage of steel used in the manufacture of
saws varies from 15,000 to 20,000 tons per

American saws, particularly hand saws, arc
pre-eminent in America and have no equal
abroad. Outside of the Disston factory there
are several very large and prominent makers,
among them E. C. Atkins & Company, of In-
dianapolis, Ind., and the Simonds Manufactur-
ing Company, who make their headquarters at
Fitchburg, Mass. The saw business has been
notable because of the genius shown by the
manufacturers, and in this respect Henry
Disston is pre-eminent There are probably
something like between 5,000 and 6,000 people
employed permanently in the business. See
Saws and Sawing.

Axes.— Axes have always been among the
most important items in the hardware business
because of the great need of them in felling the
forests with which the country was covered in
the early days. They are of innumerable sizes
and shapes to suit the needs of the lumbermen
and the users. The production has not increased
of late years, due not only to the deforestation
of the country, but also to the fact that the place
of axes is being largely taken by cross-cut saws.
The annual output is somewhere between 350,-
000 and 400,000 dozen. As in other lines of
business, there have been great consolidations,
so that a few large concerns have taken the
place of innumerable small ones. The use of
natural gas has had a most important effect on
the manufacture of axes, since with it a very
much superior tool can be made, and it is also
of great advantage in tempering. It is noticed
as regarding the matter of tempering — 1 thing
of vital necessity in all edjje tools — that prac-
tically there has been no improvement in this
regard for several centuries. 'Not alone did
many of the implements of the ancients equal
in temper the best that can be produced now-
a-days, but in many cases they were much su-
perior. The difficulty seems to lie in the fact
that tempering is purely a thin^ of experiment
and not of scientific development, the reason
for it not being known, nor why* some metals
can be tempered and others cannot. In the be-
ginning axes were originally made by hand as
were all the other hardware implements, but later
the tendency developed to establish small fac-
tories on available water powers throughout the
country, as at Pittsburg, Pa., Lewistown, Pa.,
East Douglas, Mass., and Collinsville, Conn.
With the enormous demand for the goods, this
industry soon outgrew its ^leading strings* and
established itself at more available locations.

Edge Tools. — The item of edge tools is a
very large one, and next to builders' hardware,
probably the most important in the whole range
of hardware proper. It embraces practically
everything with a cutting edge such as hatchets,
chisels, drawing knives, planes, and the like, and
space forbids any attempt at more than gener-
alities. It is interesting to note that on such
small items as chisels, drawing knives, adzes,
and hatchets, the advance within a period of
1,000 years has been rather of attractiveness of
form and appearance than in actual adaptability
or merit. Some tools dug up from the Roman
camp of Salzburg are, so far as adaptability
goes, quite equal to any that are made up now-
adays. The simplicity of the articles mentioned

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lias largely rendered their impossible of any
Ufreat improvement. In the more complicated
lines such as planes and the like there have been
very great changes and improvements, and the
plane industry, particularly, is one of enormous
proportions. The manufacturers who have at-
tained a reputation in edge tools have done
so purely on the score of merit and because of
the fact that each manufacturer made only one
particular line, no one thus having a com-
plete line of edge tools of uniform excellence,
design, and efficiency; and one of the great
causes of the demand for American hardware
abroad — particularly since the Spanish War —
has been the fact of the assembling of a com-
plete line of high grade tools under one brand,
so that the foreigner realized that anything that
bore that particular trade-mark could be di-
pended upon as being uniform in quality and
efficiency. Among the somewhat lesser items in
the tool line have been the interesting develop-
ments in auger bits of innumerable designs and
patterns, with varying adaptability for different
kinds of work. See Tools.

Files.-~ There are few things of greater and
more growing importance to the hardware
dealer than that of files, and it is an interesting
story of development and of the genius of the
manufacturer. They are articles which have to
be made with the greatest care and go through
a great number of processes before they reach
perfection and are fitted for use. The five lead-
ing operations requisite are forging, annealing,
? [rinding, cutting, and hardening. They were
ormerly made entirely by hand, and even to this
day, there still exists among a few, the prefer-
ence for the hand-made file. The history of the
business really dates from the practical use of
a machine to cut files, patent for which to all
intents and purposes was first issued to William
Nicholson in i8j6. There are records of file-
cutting machines in France as far back as 1699,
and several since that time up to the 19th cen-
tury, but none of them apparently of any prac-
tical value. The first really important attempt
to manufacture files was soon after 1850 at
Ramapo, N. Y., a company being organized
under the name of the American File Company,
with large capital. The life of the attempt was
short, however, and the business was soon dis-
continued. Various attempts were made shortly
after that — both in this country and England —
to manufacture files by machinery, and none of
Jiern had any extended experience.

About 1863, Mr. William T. Nicholson, of
Providence, R. I., gave the matter of file cutting
:>y machinery his personal thought and attention.
He had long training as a mechanic and prac-
tical experience in the finest branches of ma-
chinery. At that time the great source of sup-
ply of files for this country were the hand-made
files of England, and the story of attempts to
cut files by machinery had been one of sunken
capital, ruined hopes, and dismal failures. From
this beginning grew the great present firm of the
Nicholson File Company, which largely dom-
inates the file trade in this country and has an
enormous export business. They have produced
better and cheaper files than it is possible to cut
by hand, and have carried the business appar-
ently to the point of perfection. The importai
tkm of files has fallen to about $75»ooo per an-
num, while the total output of American files
does not fall short of $6,000,000, and is repre-

sented by total investments of approximately
$12,000,000. See Files and Filemaking.

Rasps. — Few things have been more marked
than the determination of the American manu-
facturer to successfully produce a machine-cut
horse rasp. It followed a long ways in the wake
of the machine-cut file, and after many discour-
agements — the principal difficulty being to over-
come the inveterate prejudice of the blacksmith.
To-day hand-cut horse rasps are a thing of the

Bolts and Nuts. — The manufacture of bolts
and nuts dates as far back as 1798, a patent for
screw machinery at that time being issued to
David Wilkinson, a celebrated mechanic of
Rhode Island. There were various other pat-
ents granted and these gradually developed in
later years into the present slotters, threaders,
pointers, and tapers. By slow growth and by
innumerable inventions and improvements this
industry has attained its present enormous pro-
portions and is represented to-day by about -
15 prominent makers, who manufacture all of
the various kinds and styles of bolts, the yearly
product being something like 1,000,000,000 bolts.

Screws. — The manufacture of screws — or,
as they are technically known, wood screws —
is ore of the important developments of this
country, though the demand does not keep
pace with the growth of the country owing to
the continued substitution of steel for iron, and
consequently of bolts and rivets for screws.
Screw machinery is of the highest type of auto-
matic efficiency and almost equals human intel-
ligence in its working. Patents for various de-
vices on screw machinery date back into the
latter part of the 18th century, and innumerable
patents have been issued since that time The
real beginning of successful manufacture was in
1838 when the Eagle Screw Company was in-
corporated in Providence, R. I., the leading
spirit being Mr. William G. Angel. In 1846 Mr.
Angel finally perfected the machine for making
what is known as the gimlet point c.ia screw —
up to that time it had a blunt point From this
time dates the prosperity and growth of his com-
pany, which grew into the present American
Screw Company. There are now son.,; 13 large
concerns engaged in the manufacture of screws
and scattered from New England to the Missis-
sippi river. See Screws.

Tin Plate. — The tin plate and sheet iron in-
dustry has kept pace with the general growth of
the iron industry all over the country, and has
been greatly fostered by a protective tariff since
the time of what has been known as the McKin-
ley Bill. Its production in this country has
grown at an enormous rate, as may be seen by
the statement that in 1892 there were only about
18,000 tons of tin plate produced in this country
as against about 458*000 tons in 1904* The in-
dustry is chiefly represented by what are known
as black sheets, galvanized iron, and tin plates
— all of which have now become integral parts
of the hardware business. See Tin Plate.

Tinware. — Among the lines which were orig*
inally independent, but which have practically
become now incorporated with the hardware
business, is that of the tinware industry in all
its various ramifications. The retail hardware
shop has practically absorbed the tinners' shop
and because of the fact that hand-made tinware
is fast being supplanted by the product of the
stamping company, the hardware retailer has

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gone into the handling of tinware in all shapes
and varieties.

Enameled Ware. — Coincident with this is the
development of what is known as enameled
ware, being a coating on the sheet steel in place
of the tinning. It is of all colors and varieties
and has grown to be a business of great im-
portance. It illustrates distinctly the general
desire of the people for something more tasteful
and artistic in appearance than the old-fashioned

Mechanics' Tools. — The American manufac-
turer has shown to great advantage in the manu-
facture of high grade mechanics' tools for ex-
ceedingly fine measurements. In this respect
the Brown & Sharpe Manufacturing Company,
of Providence, R. I., occupy a commanding po-
sition and their products to-day are sought for
all over the world where exceeding accuracy is
necessary. As an example, the micrometer
caliper will measure with absolute accuracy the
250,000th part of an inch. For an attainment of
such results, the finest tools made by any other
nation cannot be compared with those of

Cutlery. — Few things are more interesting
than the history of cutlery-making in the United
States, as it has suffered many a ups and downs,*
not alone from various foreign competition, but
from the difficulty of procuring sufficiently
skilled labor to produce the proper article. The
manufacture of scissors and shears — which are
always treated as a part of the cutlery business
— has been unique in the fact that it was a
Yankee genius who first solved the problem of
welding a high grade steel blade to a soft cast-
ing of iron backing made to fit the hand, this
being the invention of Seth Boy den in 1826.
The actual manufacture of shears in this coun-
try seems to have been commenced by R. Hein-
isch in 1825 at Elizabethport, N. J. This was
followed by others until at present the American
shears have been developed and improved as to
be far ahead of any m the world. Prior to 1832
table cutlery was imported very largely from
England. From that year American manufac-
turers began in a small way to produce these
goods, and by 1865 they had practically taken
the business unto themselves. There is a large
export trade business in table cutlery owing to
the superior quality of the goods made in this

The making of pocket cutlery is one of the
most interesting things connected with the hard-
ware business in America. It was started at
Lakeville, Conn., by the Holley Manufacturing
Company about 1845. The total annual capacity
was probably less than $50,000. The business
was gradually extended in a small way and
finally a co-operative colony was established at
Walden, N. Y., and since then this line of
American industry has largely centred in the
two States of New York and Connecticut. In-
numerable factories have been started and have
failed, largely owing to the lack of foresight on
the part of the manufacturers in attempting to
compete with the cheap labor of Europe in pro-
ducing goods both cheap in quality and finish as
thev were in price. The co-operative colonv
spoken of grew by slow degrees and economical
management, having the advantage of large
water power at Walden, until they finally be-
came one of the leading makers, not alone of

this country but of the world, and were enabled
to show at the recent Louisiana Purchase Ex-
position products superior to those made abroad.,
for which they received the highest award It
is an interesting case of development in the way
of quality and of merit by patience and skill.
There are something Hke 10 or 12 makers now
in the field and their annual product is roughly-
set in the neighborhood of $2,000,000.

E. C. Simmons.

Har'dy, Arthur Sherburne, American nov-
elist: b. Andover, Mass., 13 Aug. 1847. After a
single year at Amherst College he entered the
West Point Military Academy, graduating in
1869. He became a second lieutenant in the 3d
Artillery regiment, saw some service during 1869
and 1870, and then resigned to become a profes-
sor of civil engineering at Iowa College for a
brief time. In 1874 he went to Paris to take a
course in scientific bridge-building and road-con-
structing, returning to take a professorship in
that line of instruction at the Chandler Scientific
School, connected with Dartmouth College. He
assumed a similar professorship in Dartmouth
College in 1878. This position (in connection
with which he published ( Elements of Quater-
nions > (1881), followed by his translation of
( Argand's Imaginary Quantities, * by his own
Analytical Geometry ) ; and 'Elements of the
Calculus*; imaginary Quantities * ; and * Meth-
ods in Topographical Surveying*) he held until
1893, when he became editor of ( The Cosmopol-
it Magazine.* He was United States minister
to Persia, 1897-9, and envoy extraordinary and
minister plenipotentiary to Greece, Rumania and
Servia, 1 899-1901, to Switzerland, 1901-3, and
to Spain since 30 Jan. 1903. His works include:
<But Yet a Woman* (1883); <The Wind of
Destiny* (1886); <Passe Rose* (1889); <Songs
of Two,* poems (1900); <His Daughter First*
(*903). He also wrote the <Life and Letters
of Joseph Hardy Neesima* (1890).

Hardy, Edward John, English author and
clergyman: b. Armagh, Ireland, 7 May 1849.
He took orders in the English church, became
an army chaplain, in 1903 was stationed at Hong
Kong, and in 1905 in Egypt. He is known the
world over as the author of ( How to be Happy
though Married* (1884), which has been trans-
lated into many languages. Other work by
him are: 'Manners Makyth Man* (1885);
( Faint yet Pursuing* (1886); <Uncle John's
Talks with his Nephews* (1886); <The Five
Talents of Women* (1888) ; <The Love Affairs
of Some Famous Men* (1897); ( Mr. Thomas
Atkins* (1900) ; Concerning Marriage* (1901);
<Love, Courtship and Marriage* (1902); <Pen
Portraits of our Soldiers* (1902) ; <Love Rules
the World* (1905) ; ( John Chinaman at Home*

Hardy, Iza Duffus, English novelist
daughter of Sir Thomas Hardy, the English
historian. Among her numerous novels are:
<Glencairn* (1877) ; 'Only a Love Story*
(1877); <A Broken Faith* (1878); <The Love
that He Passed By* (1884), an American novel;
<A Woman's Loyalty* (1893); ( The Lesser
Evil*; < Man, Woman, and Fate*; <A Butterfly*
(1903), etc., and two volumes of transatlantic
reminiscences, < Between Two Oceans* (1884),
and < Oranges and Alligators : Sketches of South
Florida Life* (1886).

Digitized by



Hardy, Thomas, English novelist: b. Dor-
setshire, England, s June 184a He was edu-
cated as an architect and practiced his profes-
sion 186V73. He then turned to literature and
is now recognized as the first of living English
novelists. His published works include < Des-
perate Remedies> (1871); ( Under the Green-
wood Tree> (1872) ; <A Pair of Blue Eyes>
<i873) ; <Far from the Madding Crowd,> which
first established his fame (1874) ; 'The Hand of
Ethelberta> (1876) ; <The Return of the Native>
(1878) ; <The Trumpet-ma j or > (1880) ; <A Lao-
dicean (1881) ; <Two on a Tower' (1882);
<The Mayor of Casterbridge> (1886); <The
"WoodIanders> (1887); <Wessex Tales > (1868) ;
<A Group of Noble Dames* (1891); <Tess of
the D'Urbervilles> (1801) ; <The Three Wayfar-
ers > (1803); 'Life's Little Ironies 5 (1804);
<Jude the Obscure> (1895): c Wessex Poems >
<i8o8); < Poems of the Past and Present >
(1901). Consult: Johnson, <The Art of
Thomas Hardy > (1804): Macdonnell, ( Thomas
Hardy > (1894); Windle, <The Wessex of
Thomas Hardy } (1901) ; Sherren, ( The Wes-
sex of Romance ) (1902) ; ( The Dynarts,* pt.
I., vol. IX (1904).

Hare, Augustus John Cuthbert, English
descriptive writer: b. Rome, Italy, 13 March
1834; d. St Leonards 22 Jan. 1903. His life
was spent mainly in travel, on descriptions of
which his fame chiefly rests. Among his many
works may be cited <A Winter at Mentone )
(1861) ; < Walks in Rome> (1870) ; < Wanderings
in Spain* (1872); Memorials of a Quiet Life>
(1872) ; <Davs near Rome* (1874) ; ( Walks In
London> (1877); ( Days near Paris> (1887);
<Sussex>; <The Story of My Life> (189s).

Hare, John, English actor: b. London 16
May 1844. He made his first appearance in Liv-
erpool, then going to London played at the
Prince of Wales theatre, and later was manager
of the Court theatre, the Garrick theatre, and
the Globe theatre.^ He became distinguished as
a comedian, and visited the United States, play-
ing in the chief cities. The plays he has brought
out include <A Scrap of Paper > ; <Still Waters
Run Deep > ; ( A Bachelor's Romance* ; and <Gay
Lord Quex.>

Hare, John Innes Clarke, American jurist :
b. Philadelphia 17 Oct. 181 7. Graduated from
the University of Pennsylvania in 1834, he was
admitted to the bar in 184/, was successively
associate and presiding judge of the Philadel-
phia district court (1851-75), and in 1875-95
presiding judge of the court of common pleas.
He was also for a time professor of the in-
stitutes of law in the University of Pennsyl-
vania, and published: American Leading Cases*
(1847; with Wallis), <The Law of Contracts*
(1887), ( American Constitutional Law* (i88q),
eleven volumes of chancery reports, and other

Hare, Robert, American scientist: b. Phil-
adelphia 17 Jan. 1 781 ; d. there 15 May 1858. He
was professor of chemistry in the University of
Pennsylvania 1818-47. He will be longest re-
membered for his discovery of the oxyhydro-
#en blowpipe to which he gave the name
••hydrostatic blowpipe,* but he also invented the
valve-cock, the calorimeter and a process for
denarcolizing laudanum. He wrote < Brief View
of the Resources of the United States* (1810) ;
< Chemical Apparatus and Manipulations*

(1836) ; Memoir on the Explostveness of
Nitre* ; etc.

Hare, William Hobart, American Protes-
tant Episcopal bishop: b. Princeton, N. J., 17
May 1838; d. 25 Oct igoo. He studied at the
University of Pennsylvania, was ordained priest
in 1862, was minister of St. Luke's, St Paul's
(Chestnut Hill) and other churches of Phila-
delphia, and in 1873 was consecrated missionary
bishop of Niobrara, In 1883 his diocese, hav-
ing been enlarged so that its limits were iden-
tical with those of the territory of South
Dakota, was renamed that of South Dakota.
He became known as an authority on the
Indian question, and wrote pamphlets on mis-
sion work in the western United States.

Harebell, or Bluebell, a familiar species of
bell-wort (Campanula rotundifolia) , common
throughout the northern parts of the whole
. northern hemisphere (see Bluebell ; Campan-
ula), growing in dry and hilly pastures, on
waysides, and open lands generally. It is, how-
ever, rare in America south of Canada, although
other species are to be found here. It is per-
ennial, with a slender stem 6 to 14 inches high,
bearing a loose raceme of a few drooping
flowers, on very slender stalks; the flowers,
generally bright blue, but sometimes white, bell-
shaped, and about half an inch long, appear in
summer and autumn. The juice of the flowers
yields a fine blue color, and may be used as ink.

Harel, Paul, pol a-rel, French innkeeper-
poet: b. Echauffour (Orne) 1854. He became
landlord of the «Croix Saint-Andre,* an inn at
Echauffour, and within a modest range of sub-
ject wrote picturesque verses in an excellent
lyric style. He was elected to the Caen Acad-
emy, and on the recommendation of Sully-
Prudhomme received a prize from the Acade*mie
Franchise. Among his works are: ( Sous les
Pommiers' (1879) ; c Rimes de Broche et
d'Epee (1883); <Aux Champs 1 (1886); and
'L'Herbager,* a three-act poetic drama (1891).

Harelip. A deformity of the upper lip, due
to some prenatal influences, causing it to divide
vertically on either or both sides of the middle
line. Sometimes a cleft palate accompanies
harelip. The affliction is susceptible to treat-
ment, but a slight operation, a few months after
birth, is commonly necessary. The palate, how-
ever, should not be operated upon before the
age of four or five. Treatment of the cleft
palate, when present, may be given* simultane-
ously with that of the lip deformity.

Ha'rem, or Hareem' (Ar. *the prohib-
ited 9 ), is used by Mussulmans to signify the
women's apartments in a household establish-
ment, forbidden to every man except the hus-
band and near relations. The women of the
harem may consist simply of a wife and her
attendants, or there may be several wives and an
indefinite number of concubines or female slaves,
with black eunuchs, etc. The greatest harem is
that of the sultan of Turkey. The women of
the imperial harem are all slaves, generally Cir-
cassians or Georgians. Their life is spent in
bathing, dressing, walking in the gardens, wit-
nessing the voluptuous dances performed by their
slaves, etc. The women of other Turks enjoy
the society of their friends at the baths or in
each other's houses, and appear in public accom-
panied by slaves and eunuchs; but the women of
the sultan's harem have none of these privileges.

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It is of course only the richer Moslems who can
maintain harems ; the poorer classes have gener-
ally but one wife.

Hares. In the United States the names
hare and rabbit are used indiscriminately for
various species of rodents of the family Lepori-
d<t. Hare is the generic term, while rabbit is
applied properly to a single short-legged species
of essentially burrowing habits whose naked,
blind, and helpless young are nurtured in under-

Online LibraryWilfrid RichmondThe Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 → online text (page 104 of 185)