Wilfrid Richmond.

The Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 online

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His chief work, <Artis Analytical Praxis ad
fcquationes Algebraicas Resolvendas,> published
in 1631, embodied the most important results
of his mathematical work. He practically gave
to algebra its modern form, improving the
notation, being the first to equate all the terms
of an equation to zero, and announcing the prin-
ciple that every equation has as many roots as
its dimension. He also did important work in
astronomy. See Algebra, History of the Ele-
ments of.

Har'ris, Amanda Bartlett American
writer: b. Warner, N. H, 15 Aug. 1824. She is
a popular writer for young people and has pub-
!\ s M ; ^ How We Went Bird-Nesting> (1880) ;
< Wild Flowers, and Where They Grow> (1882) ;
'American Authors for Young Folks> (1887) ;
<The Luck of EdenhalP (1888) ; etc.

Harris, George, American college presi-
dent: b. East Machias, Maine, 1844. He -was
graduated at Amherst, 1883; and at Andover
Theological Seminary 1869. After taking sev-
eral pastoral charges he became professor of
Christian theology at Andover 1883, from which
position he passed in 1899 to the presidency of
Amherst, which he now holds. He was one
of the editors of the < Andover Review,*
1884-03. Among his works are <Moral Evolu-
tion (1806) ; 'Inequality and Progress> (1897).

Harris, James Rendel, English scholar.
He was graduated at Cambridge University,
where he was fellow and librarian of Clare Col-
lege. He was professor at Johns Hopkins Uni-
versity and at Haverford College, and is now
university lecturer in palaeography at Cambridge,
England, He has written many volumes on
philology and palxgfaphy, among them being
<Annotators of the Codex Bez&> (1001).

Harris, Joel Chandler, American journal-
ist and author: b. Eat on ton, Ga., 8 Dec 1848;
d. Atlanta, Ga., 3 Jury 100& He began his career
as a printer's apprentice on the Forsyth (Ga.)
Countryman and was on the staff of the Savan-
nah Daily News, 187 i-d He was connected
with the Atlanta Constitution for 25 years.
The series of a Uncle Remus' sketches and songs
which gave him an international reputation
were first printed in the Constitution. His
published books include: <The Folk-Lore of the
Old Plantation (1880); <Nights With Uncle
Remus> (1883); <Mingo and Other Sketches >

(1883); <Daddy Jake, the Rimaway > (1889);
<Free Joe and Other Stories ) (1887) ; 'Balaam
and his Master > (1890) ; <Mr. Rabbit at Home*
(1895) ; <The Story of Aaron* (1896) ; 'Stories
of Georgia History* (1897) ; ^Sister Jane,* a
novel (1897); 'Minervy Arm* (1899); < On the
Wing of Occasion> (1000)'; <The Making of a
Statesman>; <A Little Union Scout * ; <Told By
Uncle Remus* (1005); Uncle Remus and Br*er
Rabbft> (1907); etc

Harris, Joseph, American agricultural
writer: b. Shrewsbury, England, 1828; d. 1802.
He began his scientific study of agriculture with
Lawes and Gilbert at Rothamsted and in 1864
emigrated to the United States. His <Walks
and Talks on the Farm 5 appeared partly in the
4 Genesee Farmer, > and partly in the < Ameri-
can Agriculturalist.* Among his other writings
are: < Harris on the Pig> (1888); and 'Talks
on Manures ) (1883).

Harris, Miriam Coles, American novelist:
b. Dosoris, L. I., 7 July 1834. She was married
to Sidney S. Harris in 1864 and has since lived
in New York. She wrote: < Rutledge > (i860);
<The Sutherlands* (1862), both widely read,
and among many later and almost equally popu-
lar works of hers are: <A Perfect Adonis*
(1875) ; <Missy> (1800) ; and <An Utter Fail-
ure* (18^1).

Harris, Samuel, American theologian: b.
East Machias, Maine, 14 June 1814 ; d. Litchfield,
Conn., 25 June 1899. He was graduated from
Bowdoin College and from Andover Theological
Seminary. He was a teacher for a time and
held Congregationalist pastorates in Conway,
Mass., 1841-51. In 1855 he was appointed pro-
fessor of systematic theology in Bangor Semi-
nary; was president of Bowdoin 1867-71; and
then became professor of systematic theology in
the Yale Divinity School. His writings include:
( Zaccheus or the Scriptural Plan of Benevo-
lence* ; kingdom of Christ on Earth > (1874) ;
Philosophical Basis of Theism 1 (1883); <Self-
Revelation of God* (1887) ; <God, Creator and
Lord of All> (1807).

Harris, Thaddeus William, American nat-
uralist: b. Dorchester, Mass., 12 Nov. 1795; d.
Cambridge, Mass., 16 Jan. 1856. He was grad-
uated at Harvard College in 1815, studied medi-
cine and practised his profession in Milton,
Mass., until appointed librarian of Harvard in
183 1. This position he occupied until his death.
Early in life he exhibited a fondness for natural
history, and though plodding alone, attained to
a scientific eminence which secured for him the
fellowship of all the principal learned societies
of America, and of many abroad. For several
years he $ave instruction in botany and general
natural history in the college, and originated
the Harvard natural history society for the stu-
dents. He was chiefly distinguished, however,
as an entomologist, and has been surpassed as
such by no one in the United States. He was
one of the founders of die Massachusetts Hor-
ticultural Society. In 1837 he was appointed
one of the commissioners for a zoological and
botanical survey of Massachusetts, the result of
which was his Systematic Catalogue of the In-
sects of Massachusetts ) (1832), in which 2J50
species are enumerated. He also published: <A
Treatise on some of the Insects of New Eng-
land which are Injurious to Vegetation > (1842),
a work of permanent value.

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Harris, Thomas Lake, American socialis-
tic and religious reformer: b. Fenny Stratford,
England, 15 May 1823. He accompanied his
father to the United States in childhood, was for
a time a Universalist pastor, and founded an
< Independent Christian Society > in 1850; but
became a lecturer upon spiritualism. He lec-
tured abroad in 1858, and on his return to the
United States organized the society of the
•Brotherhood of the New Life.* This was
established at Wassaic, Dutchess County, N. Y.,
1861-7, but removed to Brocton, Chautauqua
County, N. Y., in the last named year. Its
nature was co-operative rather than communis-
tic, and farming and industrial occupations were
engaged in by his followers, numbering at one
time about 2,000 in the United States and Great
Britain, among them Lady Oliphant and her
son, the well-known writer, Laurence Oliphant
(q.v.). Harris removed to California in 1887,
and retired to private life in 1895, residing in
New York city. He published many works in
prose and poetry, among which are ( Wisdom
of "Angels* (1856) ; * Arcana of Christianity )
(1857); 'Modern Spiritualism ) (i860); <God's
Breath in Man ) (1891).

Harris, Townsend, American merchant and
diplomatist, of Welsh descent and of Revolu-
tionary stock, the youngest of five children: b.
Sandy Hill, N. Y., 4 Oct. 1804; d. New York
city 25 Feb. 187&. He received his educa-
tion at the village school and academy.
From 181 7 to 1848 he was in business in
New York city, continuing his self-culture
by continuous and critical reading of the
best literature, learning also the French, Span-
ish, and Italian languages; was member of
the Board of Education and in 1846-7 its presi-
dent. He was the practical founder of the New
York Free Academy, now the College of the
City of New York, and in many ways was a
typically useful citizen. He never married. In
1848 he went to California and during the fol-
lowing six years made trading voyages to China
and the Dutch and English Indies, becoming
thoroughly acquainted with the manifold Orien-
tal varieties of human nature. He acted for a
time as American vice-consul at Ningpo. He
was appointed Consul General to Japan and
on the U. S. S. S. San Jacinto arrived at Shi-
moda, his future dwelling place (and now noted
for its stone quarries), where the flag of the
United States was hoisted 4 Sept. 1856. From
the first Mr. Harris spoke the truth as against
the constant deceit and prevarication of the cor-
rupt officials of the Ycdo Shogunate, demanding
the courtesies due to an accredited cnyOy of a
civilized power and refusing to deliver the
President's letter to any one but the Shogun in
Yedo and to him personally. Unbacked by a
single ship or man, and with his secretary, only,
after prolonged negotiations lasting 18 months,
he made a triumphal progress to Yedo, and
standing erect received personal audience of the
Shogun in the palace. Then began four months'
instruction of these political hermits in the
methods of modern international law and pro-
cedure. He concluded the treaty and received
the promise of signature by the premier, with-
out regard to anything happening in China.
Nevertheless the arrival of Commodore Tatnall
with two American men-of-war, bringing news
of the humiliation of the Chinese emperor and

court, undoubtedly had its influence on the Jap-
anese. Mr. Harris urged the importance of hav-
ing the treaty signed without a moment's delay,
and the premier Ii despatched commissioners to
affix their signatures and soon after an em-
bassy to the United States, for which reason
chiefly, Ii was assassinated in Yedo, 23 March
i860. The Harris treaty secured the right of
trade, residence, and of missionary operations
and teachings. He was buried in Greenwood
cemetery, Brooklyn, N. Y. Mr. Harris has
always been very highly thought of by
the Japanese, and is still the subject of
much praise and appreciative writing by
Japanese writers. His journals with com-
ment and biography were published in

William Elliot Griffis,
Author of <Townsend Harris, First American
Envoy in Japan?

Harris, William Torrey, American educa-
tor and metaphysician: b. North Killingly,
Corar, 10 Sept. 1835; d. Providence, R. I. r
5 Nov. 1909. He studied at Yale in the
class of 1858, and after teaching in the St. Louis
public schools, i§57-67, was superintendent of
the schools of that city 1867-80. While in St.
Louis he founded in 1867 the journal of Spec-
ulative Philosophy.* . He removed to Concord,
Mass., in 1880 and aided in founding the Con-
cord School of Philosophy at which he lectured
on metaphysical themes. From 1889 to 1906
he was United States Commissioner of Edu-
cation. He has edited Appleton's School
Reader and Appleton's Educational Series and
is the author of 'Hegel's Logic: a Critical Ex-
position (1890) ; <The Spiritual Sense of
Dante's Divina Commedia > (1891) ; <Introduc-
tion to the Study of Philosophy > ; < Psychologic
Foundations of Education.*

Harrisburg, Pa., city, State capital;
county-seat of Dauphin County, on the Susque-
hanna River, the Pennsylvania canal, and on the
Northern Cent. ; Pennsylvania ; Cumberland
Valley, and Philadelphia & R. R.R.'s., and is
situated 105 miles northwest of Philadelphia.
This is an important railroad, agricultural, in-
dustrial and commercial centre, and is the home
of a system of municipal reform known as "the
Harrisburg Plan* which has attracted wide-
spread attention throughout the United States.
The Susquehanna River is nearly a mile in
width at this point, and is crossed by numerous

History.— The site of the future city was
selected by John Harris in 1785, and the settle-
ment was incorporated as a borough in 1791.
Harris was an adventurous English trader who-
built the first house here in 1726, and secured a
grant of 800 acres. His son established a ferry
here in 1753, and the place was known for many
years as Harris Ferry. The town became the
capital of the state in 181 2, and was chartered
as a city in i860. The Harrisburg convention
(q.v.), famous in American political history
was held here in 1828, and Harrison and Tyler
were nominated here in 1839.

Topography. — The city has a most picture-
esque location on the left bank of the Susquehan-
na, which is scanned here by five bridges, three of

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them modern steel- structures. The old historic
€ Cam«l-back Bridge, 39 a part of which was
burned during the middle of the ipth century,
has been entirely removed. There is an exten-
sive and beautiful park of 16 acres, well-made
streets, an abundance of shade, and a fine sewage
system with natural drainage.

Commerce and Industry. — The iron, steel,
lumber and railroad interests of Harrisburg are
of great importance. The roundhouses and re-
pair shops of the Pennsylvania Railroad are
located here and give employment to thousands
of workmen. There are extensive manufactories
of machinery, malt liquors, boilers, castings,
brooms, cars, coaches, tanned leather, lumber,
cotton goods, beds, mattresses, coffins, silk goods
and a large number of rolling-mills, tin-mills,
blast furnaces, nail-works, typewriter works and
boot and shoe factories. The city has two morn-
ing and two evening newspapers and many
weekly and monthly publications.

Public Buildings. — Prominent among the
public buildings is the new State capitol, erected
at a cost exceeding $4,000,000. It is built of
brick and steel, with facings of marble and
granite. At the main entrance is a fountain 78
feet wide, from which the water leaps down
an incline in many cascades. On each side of the
fountain rises a granite stairway 48 feet wide,
broadening at the top into an esplanade and
widening at the corners of the building to the
proportions of a reviewing ground for troops.
The lesser approaches to the grounds are orna-
mented with statues of the animals native to
Pennsylvania. The State Library here, founded
in 1790, contains over 100,000 volumes. In
State Street stands the Dauphin County soldiers'
monument, no feet high, in memory of the sol-
diers who died in the Civil War. There is also a
statue here of Gen. John F. Hartranft, and a
monument erected to the memory of the soldiers
who fell in the Mexican War adorns the Capitol
Park. Among other points of interest are the
State Arsenal, the court-house, lunatic asylum,
executive building, post-office, Harris Park, and
Harrisburg Cemetery. The educational institu-
tions include the high school, Harrisburg acad-
emy, St Genevieve's academy, and the Young
Ladies' Seminary. Harrisburg is the seat of a
Roman Catholic bishop, and its charitable or-
ganizations include several hospitals, the Home
of the Friendless, and the Children's Industrial

Transportation. — Harrisburg has in operation
one of the most extensive and perfect electric
street railway systems in the United States.
Every part of the city, and suhurbs, and the
neighboring towns and city are reached by elec-
tric trolley lines. The suburban railway service
of the Pennsylvania and other railroads is unu-
sually advantageous in extending the outlying
residential sections of the city.

Municipal Administration. — The city govern-
ment is vested in a mayor, elected every three
years, with no second term, and a bicameral and
select council. The highway commissioner,
police officials, building inspector, fire department
and sanitary officers are selected by the select
council. The city solicitor, board of tax revision
and appeals, water commissioners, city engi-
neer, city clerk, 3 members of the board of public
works and 5 members of the board of park
commissioners, are selected by the common

council. The treasurer, controller, school direc-
tors, supervisors and assessors are elected by
vote of the citizens.

Banks and Finance. — Harrisburg has four
national banks and a dozen other banking in-
stitutions and building and loan associations. The
assessed real estate (1910) is $46,057,120, the
tax rate of course constantly changing. The
municipal income amounts to $600,000 and the
expenditure to $530,000. The principal items of
expense are: Fire department, $15,000; water-
works, $30,000; street lighting, $30,000; police,
$35»ooo; schools, $185,000. Public improvements
involving an expenditure of $1,000,000 were be-
gun in 1902, for the development of a new sewer
system, water filtration, park development and
street paving.

Municipal Reform. — Harrisburg through the
progressiveness and enterprise of her citizens in
the municipal improvement of the city, has been
called *the model city* and the plans of 1902,
for an expenditure of $1,000,000 have created an
improvement system now known as € the Harris-
burg plan.* In May iooi, a citizen wrote a let-
ter to a daily paper offering $100 toward a
fund of $5,000 to engage expert engineers to
examine the city and to report a plan of im-
provement The proposal met instant approval
In a few weeks the $5,000 was pledged by 60
citizens. An organization and an executive
committee soon followed, and these included the
mayor, civil engineer and other officials elected
by a reform element in local politics. Three
noted engineers were employed, and their reports
published in October 190 r, included plans and
estimates for the immediate improvement of
the city. The subject was presented to the peo-
ple at the annual election, 18 Feb. 1902. f Tbe
Harrisburg League for Municipal Improve-
ments* carried on an aggressive campaign, pro-
posing a million dollar expenditure. Objections
were raised and to overcome these a board of
public works was formed (under the laws of the
State), composed of citizens who would serve
without pay, and to have entire control of the
improvements. An ordinance authorizing this
board and providing for its appointment be-
fore the election was passed by councils imme-
diately after an ordinance had been passed sub-
mitting to the voters the question of increasing
the city's debt for the following purposes:

•The sum of $310,000 for the extension, im-
provement and filtration of the water supply;
$365,000 for the extension and improvement of
the sewerage system; $65,000 for the construc-
tion of a dam in the Susquehanna River to form
part of the improved sewerage system ; $250,000
for acquiring land and property for parks and
for making park improvements; and $100,000
for the creation of a fund out of which the city
may defray the cost of paving the intersections
of streets hereafter authorized to be paved.*

Upon this board three leading citizens of
high character were appointed, the campaign
was opened, the newspapers supportedthe move-
ment, and even the women formed a civic league
and aided in the work. Pamphlets, maps and
diagrams were issued and a booklet, c The Plain
Truth About the Proposed Improvements for
Harrisburg^ was widery circulated. The result
of the election was a casting aside of party lines,
and out of a total of 11,048 ballots, the •improve-
ment* party had a majority of 3,590 votes. It

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-was a mixed ticket selected for reform that won
•the election, the mayor being a Democrat (in a
city naturally Republican), the treasurer, also
■a Democrat, while the controller was a Republi-
can. Of the six candidates for the board of as-
sessors, an important . body, fixing the tax
valuation of the city, the best three (two Repub-
licans and one Democrat) were selected, Rar-
Tisburg in 1904 with her $1,000,000 improvements
well advanced, is on the nigh road to remark-
able prosperity. The State construction of a
capital building costing over $4,000,000, and the
local raih-oads projecting improvements involv-
ing the expenditure of several millions, add ad-
<£Uonal strength to the movement toward mu-
nicipal reform. Pop. (1900) 50,167; (1910)

Harrtsburg Convention, the assembly con-
vened in 1828 at Harrisburg, Pa., by the pro-
tectionist faction of the New England and Mid-
<Ue States, consequent on the rejection of the
high tariff «Woolen Bill* in the Senate, by the
-casting- Vote of the Vice-President The forci-
ble presentation of the cause Of protection, and
the demands of the convention for an increased
duty on several manufactured articles, resulted
in the passage of the high tariff bill of 1S28.

Harrison, Benjamin, American statesman :
b. Berkeley, Va., about 1740; d. April 1791.
While a very young man he was elected to the
House of Burgesses of which he was twice
Speaker, and in 1773 was chosen a member of
the committee which united the colonies against
Great Britain. He was a member of the Con-
tinental Congress, 1 774-7, and on 4 July 1776^
reported, as chairman of the Committee of the
whole House, the Declaration of Independence,
of which he was one of the signers. He was
opposed to the ratification of the Federal con-
stitution, but after its adoption, supported the
national government. His brother, Charles, was
-a noted general in the American army during
the Revolution, and his son, William Henry, be-
came ninth President of the United States.

Harrison, Benjamin, 23d President of the
XJnited States: b. North Bend, Ohio, 20 Aug.
1833; <*• Indianapolis, Ind;, 13 March 1901. He
-was a great-grandson of Benjamin Harrison,
signer of the Declaration of Independence
(q.v.), and grandson of William Henry Harri-
son, ninth President (q.v.) He was graduated
irom Miami University (Oxford, Ohio) in
1852, studied law in Cincinnati, was admitted to
the bar in 1853, and in 1854 began in Indianap-
olis the practice of his profession. In i860 he
-was elected reporter of the supreme court of the
State. At the time of his election to the Presi-
dency ( 1888) he was one of the foremost leaders
of the State bar. At the outbreak of the Civil
War he assisted in recruiting the 70th regiment
of Indiana Volunteers, of which he became col-
onel (August 1862). He was an exceedingly
efficient commander. For some time he was de-
tailed to guard railways in the We9t; and in the
campaign from Chattanooga to Atlanta the regi-
ment was in the 20th Army Corps, the com-
mander of which was Gen. Joseph Hooker.
Harrison commanded a brigade at Peach Tree
Creek, where he served with especial distinction,
and also at Nashville. He was present at John-
ston's surrender at Durham Station, N. C, hi
tfttig was brevetted brigadier-general for his
Vol. to — 27

services in command of the brigade, and in June
of that year was hiustered out. The supreme
court of Indiana had declared that Harrison by
his enlistment vacated his office of repoftfer, and
a Democrat 1vas elected by default tb fill that
office for the unexpired term. At the election
of 1864 Harrison, while still in the field, was re-
chosen. In 1867 he refused a renomiriatiott,
and recommenced his legal practice, in which
he was largely retained in both the Federal and
State courts. In 1876 he became, on the retire-
ment of the original candidate, the Republican
candidate for the governorship, and though he
ran about 2,000 votes ahead of his ticket, he was
defeated by a Democratic plurality of 3,000. He
was appointed a member 6f the Mississippi
River commission in 1879, and in 1880 was
chairman of the Indiana delegation m the Re-
publican national convention. At that conven-
tion, where he cast nearly the entire vote of the
State for Garfield, he was himself mentioned in
connection with the Presidency. From 1881 to
1887 he was in the United States Senate, in
which he took rank as a prominent debater. He
opposed Cleveland's vetoes of the pension bills,
urged increase in the navy, and civil-service re-
form, and as chairman of the committee on ter-
ritories demanded the admission as States of
North and South Dakota, Montana, Washing-
ton, and Idaho. In 1884 he was a delegate to
the Republican national convention. At the
convention of 1888 (Chicago, 111.) he was pre-
sented by the solid Indiana delegation as a can-
didate for the nomination to the Presidency;
and on the eighth ballot he received the nom-
ination by a vote of 544. The campaign was a
vigorous one, and Harrison made many excel-
lent speeches. He was elected, receiving in the
electoral college 233 ballots to 168 for Grover
Cleveland. His administration was broadly
characterized by a firm defence of American
interests in foreign affairs and a general pro-
motion of industry and governmental effective-
ness. During this time the 55th Congress passed
the tariff act known as the McKinley law; the
reciprocity system was introduced ; the new
navy was extended ; civil-service reform was
promoted; and the Pan-American congress with
representatives from all Central and South
American countries was held at Washington in
the winter of 1889-90. "The Bering Sea arbitra-

Online LibraryWilfrid RichmondThe Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 → online text (page 109 of 185)