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The Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 online

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tion respecting the seal fisheries was also organ-
ized between Great Britain and the United
States. The Samoan difficulties were adjusted;
and the Chile affair, concerned with an attack
on American sailors either connived at or per-
mitted by Chilean authorities, was promptly and
satisfactorily settled by enforced reparation on
the part of Chile. At the Minneapolis conven-
tion of 1892 Harrison was renominated without
serious opposition. He was a second time op-
posed by Cleveland, and his defeat by 276 elec-
toral votes to 145 was an occasion for some
surprise. Upon his retirement from office, he
returned to the practice of law, and in 1893-4
delivered a course of lectures on constitutional
law at Stanford University. In 1899 he ap-
peared as council for Venezuela fn the Anglo-
Venezuelan boundary arbitration commission.
He was appointed a member for the United
States of the Peace Conference held at The
Hague in 1809, and became one of the Interna-
tional Board of Arbitration. He wrote <Thtr



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HARRISON



Country of Ours > (1897). A complete collec-
tion of bis public addresses from 1888 to 1898
was edited by Hedges (1892). A posthumous
collection of articles, ( Views of an Ex- Presi-
dent,' was published in 1901. Consult the
campaign life by Lew Wallace (1888), and Wil-
son (editor), 'The Presidents of the United
States > (1894). George Edwin Rines,

Editorial Stuff, * Encyclopedia Americana*

Harrison, Burton Norville, American law-
yer: b. New Orleans 1836; d. Washington,
D. C, 29 March 1904. He was graduated from
Yale m 1859, shortly afterward became professor
of mathematics and astronomy in the University
of Mississippi, and at the outbreak of the Civil
War was appointed private secretary to Jeffer-
son Davis, president of the Confederate States.
Captured with Davis, he remained in imprison-
ment until January 1866, when his release was
effected by the intervention of F. P. Blair and
President Johnson. Subsequent to the war he
followed the law in the north with much suc-
cess.

Harrison, Mrs. Burton. See Harrison,
Constance Cary.

Harrison, Carter Henry, American poli-
tician : b. Elk Hill, Fayette County, Ky., 15 Feb.
1825; d. Chicago 28 Oct. 1893- He was gradu-
ated from Yale in 1845, from the Transylvania
University law school (Lexington, Ky.), in 1855,
and in the latter year was also admitted to the
bar and removed to Chicago. There he invested
in real estate, in 1869 was defeated as a candi-
date for State senator on the Democratic ticket,
but in 1871 was elected county commissioner of
Cook County, and in 1874 was sent to Congress
from the 2d Illinois district, and in 1876 re-
elected. In 1879 he was elected mayor of Chi-
cago, and again in 1881, 1883, 1885, and 1893.
He was also an unsuccessful independent candi-
date in 1891. In 1891 he purchased the Chicago
Times, in the direction of which he was active
until his election as mayor in 1893. In several
instances his mayoralty contests assumed na-
tional interest, particularly so that of 1893 —
the ^World's Fair year* — when the success of
the great exposition was thought to depend
much upon the occupant of the mayor's chair.
He was opposed by the united Citizens' and Re-
publican forces and by nearly the entire press of
Chicago, but after a vigorous campaign of pub-
lic meetings was elected by more than 21,000
majority. He wrote: { A Race with the Sun ) ;
and <A Summer Outing.*

Harrison, Carter Henry, American poli-
tician: b. Chicago 23 April i860. He is son of
the preceding. He graduated from St. Ignatius
College, Chicago, in 1881, and from the Yale
Law School in 1884. He practised law in Chi-
cago, was later engaged in the real estate busi-
ness, and in 1891 became editor of the Chicago
Times, a position which he held for two years.
He has been active in Chicago politics as a
Democrat, and has been four times elected
mayor of the city, in 1897, 1809, 1901, and 1903.

Harrison, Constance Cary, American nov-
elist and miscellaneous writer: b. Vaucluse, Vsl,
25 April 1846. She was married in 1867 to
Burton N. Harrison (q.v.) and has since lived
in New York. She is one of the most popular
of American authors and among her published
books are: < Woman's Handiwork in Modern



Homes> (1881) ; <01d-Fashioned Fairy-Book>
(1884); <Bar Harbor Days> (1887); <The
AngIomaniacs > (1887); * Sweet Bells Out of
Tune> (1893) ; <An Errant Wooing> (1895) :
<A Bachelor Maid> (1894) ; <A Son of the Old
Dominion } (1897) ; <A Merry Maid of Arcady*
(1897); <Good Americans> (1898) ; <A Prin-
cess of the Hills > (1901) ; a play, <The Unwel-
come Mrs. Hatch y (1901) ; etc.

Harrison, Frederic* English philosopher
and historian : b. London 18 Oct. 1831. He was
educated at Oxford; was called to the bar at
Lincoln's Inn in 1858, and for a time practised
as a conveyancing and equity lawyer. In 1877*
he was appointed professor of jurisprudence and
international law at the Inns of Court, a post
which he held till 1889. He is the chief living
representative in England of Positivism and the
Religion of Humanity. He has been widely
read in the United States, which he visited on *
lecturing tour in 1901. He is a master of Eng-
lish style and his literary judgments command
the fullest respect. Among his publications.
<The Meaning of History > (1862) ; < Science
and Humanity> (1879); <The Present and the
Future ) (1880); ( Byzantine History in the
Early Middle Ages* (1900), his Rede Lecture,
The volume entitled <The Religious Systems of
the World > (1893) includes an account by him
of the Religion of Humanity.

Harrison, Gabriel, American author and
artist : b. Philadelphia 25 March 1825 ; d. Brook-
lyn, N. Y., 15 Dec. 1902. He began life as
a photographer and an actor and in 1845 sup-
ported Charles Keane at the Park Theatre, New
York, and later taught elocution, and wrote
dramatic and art criticism. Among his works
are: c Life of John Howard Payne* (i8fcj)';
dramatization of < The Scarlet Letter 1 (1878);
etc.

Harrison, James Albert, American philolo-
gist: b. Pass Christian, Miss., 21 Aug. 1848. He
was graduated at the University of Pennsyl-
vania in 1868; and has since been professor of
Latin and modern languages at Randolph-
Macon College, Va., 1871-0; of English and
modern languages at Washington and Lee Uni-
versity 1876-95, and of English and romance
languages at the University of Virginia. He is
a prominent member of the American Philolog-
ical Association and the founder and editor of
the c Library of Anglo-Saxon Poetry. > Among
his works are: < Group of Poets and Their
Haunts>; (1881) ; <Story of Greece> (1885);
'Dictionary of Anglo-Saxon Poetry > with Bas-
kerville (1886) : etc.

Harrison, Joseph, American engineer: b-
Philadelphia 20 Sept. 1810; d. there 27 March
1874. In 1834 he began the construction of
locomotives, and in 1840 designed for the Read-
ing railway an engine which was copied and in-
troduced into Russia with such success that he
was invited to Russia, and there with two other
American engineers concluded a contract with
the Russian government to build the rolling-
stock and locomotives of the St Petersburg and
Moscow railway. He executed also other im-
portant contracts with that government, and 'in
1852 returned to the United States, where he
subsequently patented a safety-boiler and re-
ceived both the gold and silver Rumford medals
from the American Academy of Arts and
Sciences. In 1869 he published a folio containing
his autobiography, incidents of his Russian e*?



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BENJAMIN HARRISON,

TWENTY-THIRD PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES.



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Univ. Ubrary, UC Santa Craz 2901



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HARRISON



perience, mod his poem, <The Ironworker and
King Solomon.*

Harrison, Lovell Berge, American artist :
b. Philadelphia 28 Oct. 1854. He studied vrith
Alexander Cabanel in Paris, became known for
his landscapes, especially snow-scenes, and ob-
tained medals at the Paris Salon of 1887 and
the Columbian Exposition (1893). His works
include: friends, or Foesr° ; <A Waif from
the Sea* ;. 'Calling Home the Cows* ; and No-
vember, ) purchased by the French government
for the Marseilles Museum.

Harrison, Mary 8aint Leger («Lucas
Malet*), English novelist: b. Eversley, Hamp-
shire. She is a daughter of Charles Kingsley
(q.v.) and was married to Rev. William Harri-
son, rector of Clovelry, who died in 1897. She
inherits the talent of the Kingsleys and her
novels published under the pseudonym of *Lucas
Malet* have been as widely popular in America
as in England. They are marked by vigorous
characterization and skilful construction, and
include: <Mrs. Lorimer ) (1882); ^Colonel
Enderb/s Wife> (1885); <Little Peter> (1887);
<A Counsel of Perfection (1888) ; <The Wages
of Sin,* a notably strong tale (1891)* ( The
Carissima > (1896) ; <The Gateless Earner*
(1900) ; <Sir Richard Calmady* (1901).

Harrison* Thomas, English regicide: b.
Newcastle-under-Lyne 1606; d. London 13 Oct
1660. He was a soldier of Parliament in the
civil war and commanded the guard that car*
ried King Charles from Hurst Castle to London,
sat among his judges, and signed his death war-
rant He fought at Worcester, but his uncom-
promising attitude in religion and politics was
unacceptable to Cromwell and he was deprived
of his commission, and later imprisoned for his
share in some of the plots devised by the extrem-
ists. At the Restoration, he was seized, tried,
and condemned to death.

Harrison, Thomas Alexander, American
painter: b. Philadelphia 17 Jan. 1853. He
studied painting under Gerome in the Ecole des
Beaux Arts at Paris, a\id first exhibited in the
Salon of 1881. He was awarded the gold medal
by the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts in
1894 and elected an associate of the National
Academy in 1898. His best known works are:
c Coast of Brittany* ; <Little Slave* ; <The Sea-
Shore. )

Harrison, Susan Frances Riley, Canadian
author: b. Toronto 24 Feb. i860. She was at
one period literary editor of the Toronto ( Week*
and has been a frequent contributor to American
and English .periodicals. She has written
'Crowded Out and Other Sketches* (1889);
'Pine, Rose, and Fleur-de-Lis* (1891); ( Down
the River and Other Poems* (1891) ; and edited
an anthology, < French and English Native Writ-
ers> (1889).

Harrison, William Henry, 9th President of
the United States: b. Berkeley, Charles County,
Va., 9 Feb. 1773; d. Washington, D. C, 4 Af" J
1 841. He studied at Hampden and Sidney Col-
lege, later pursued a course in medicine, and was
about to be graduated as a practitioner, when
the sudden death of his father gave him the lib-
erty to disengage himself from a profession for
which he had no natural bent nor aptitude. He
received from Washington a commission in the
army, and was soon on his way to Cincinnati,
making the journey from Philadelphia to Pitts-



burg on foot, to join the regiment to which he
had been assigned. He arrived at Fort Washing-
ton just after the defeat of General St Clair s
army. His first military service was to command
a company of twenty men as an escort for a
train of pack-horses to Fort Hamilton, a military
post on the west bank of the Big Miami River
from which the seat of Butler County was
named. In 1793 he joined the new legion under
General Anthony Wayne who made him an aide-
de-camp, and in December of that year he took
part in the expedition which repossessed General
St. Clair's field of battle, and erected thereon
Fort Recovery. He participated in all the
engagements with the Indians and their British
allies during this campaign, and displayed con-
spicuous gallantry at the Battle of Fallen Tim-
bers. Shortly after the close of this campaign
Harrison was advanced to the rank of captain
and placed in command of Fort Washington.
The position was largely a confidential one. The
conduct of the Spaniards on the Mississippi was
exasperating. French citizens and agents were
engaged in exciting the people of Kentucky into
a war with the Spanish of Louisiana with the
object of thus embroiling our government with
Spain and of forcing it into a league with France.
Captain Harrison was instructed to prevent the
passage down the river of boats laden with mili-
tary stores belonging to the French agents. The
English posts on the northern frontier, which
had been held so long in violation of good faith,
were -now evacuated by the English in obedience
to the Jay Treaty of 1794; the new garrison and
supplies were sent to Fort Washington and for-
warded thence through the wilderness under the
supervision of the commandant of that post. In
the spring of 1798 Harrison resigned his commis-
sion in the army and settled on a tract of land
at North Bend about 16 miles from Cincinnati,
but was immediately appointed by President John
Adams as secretary of the Northwest Territory
under Gen. Arthur St. Clair as governor. A
year later he resigned this position to take his
seat in Congress as the first delegate from the
Territory. Up to this time the public lands had
been sold in such vast tracts that none but men
of wealth could buy them. Harrison secured the
division of the land into small tracts and made'
it possible for the poor man to obtain a home-
stead. During that session of Congress a part
of the Northwest Territory was formed into the
Territory of Indiana. It included the present
States of Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin,
and a part of Minnesota, and contained a civil-
ized population of nearly five thousand souls.
Harrison was appointed its first governor by
President Adams, and so satisfactory was his
administration, he was successively reappointed
by President Jefferson and President Madison-
He was also made superintendent of Indian
affairs. Governor Harrison organized the new
government at Vincennes. Many difficult ques-
tions demanded his attention, but the most diffi-
cult and delicate was the restless and finally hos-
tile attitude of the savages under the leadership
of Tecumseh, and the preaching of Tecumseh's
brother, *the Prophet. 9 The beginning of open
warfare by the Indians was averted many times
by his calmness and courage. He made in all
thirteen treaties with the Indians, and secured
the cession from several tribes of more than three
million acres of land on the Wabash and White
Rivers. Tecumseh condemned these treaties ort



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HARRISON ~ HARRISONBURG



the ground that the land belonged to all of the
Indians, and that a single tribe could not give a
legal title without the consent of every other
tribe. Harrison invited Tecumseh to Vincennes
for a conference, and directed that he should
bring with him not more than thirty warriors;
but he came with four hundred completely
armed. There w£re many evidences that treach-
ery was intended, and but for the conciliatory
methods of the governor, the council would have
terminated in bloodshed. Nothing was accom-
plished by this interview, nor by a second in the
following summer. Meanwhile, frequent dep-
redations by the Indians made it evident that
conciliatory measures could no longer be
employed, and on 26 Sept 181 1 Harrison set out
with 900 men to punish them. On 6 Novem-
ber, when the army was within a short dis-
tance of Tippecanoe, it was met by messengers
demanding a parley. A council was agreed upon
for the next day, but at 4 o'clock on the fol-
lowing morning, the treacherous savages fiercely
attacked the camp of Harrison in an endeavor to
take it by surprise. The fighting continued till
daylight when the Indians were routed with great
loss. In the war of 18 12 Harrison was appointed
to the chief command of the Northwest, and
given a major-general's commission. He urged
upon the government the importance of creating
a navy on the Lakes. That advice was heeded,
and the splendid achievement of Commodore
Perry on 10 Sept. 18 13, was made possible by the
military sagacity of this accomplished soldier.
Six days after Perry's victory General Harrison
embarked his artillery and supplies for a descent
on Canada. The British general, Proctor,
burned the fort and navy-yard at Maiden and
retreated, closely pursued by Harrison who over-
took him and his Indian allies led bv Tecumseh
near the river Thames. Within five minutes
almost the whole British force was captured, and
shortly afterward the Indians were completely
routed, and their leader Tecumseh was slain.
The battle of the Thames and Perry's victory
ended the war in^Upper Canada, and gave the
United States undfsputed possession of the Great
Lakes excepting Lake Ontario.

The years between the War of 1812 and the
presidential campaign of 1840 Harrison devoted
in part to the service of his country, and in part
to the life of a country gentleman. He was in
turn a member of Congress, state senator in the
general Assembly of Ohio, presidential elector,
United States senator from Ohio, and minister to
the United States of Colombia. In 1829 he
retired to his farm at North Bend. In Decem-
ber 1839, he was nominated by the National
Whig convention for the Presidency of the
United States, with John Tyler of Virginia for
vice-president. The campaign which followed
was one of the most exciting in the history of
the country. Political mass meetings and pro-
cessions were introduced for the first time, and
party watchwords and emblems were employed
with telling effect. That canvass has commonly
been called the *log-cabin and hard cider cam-
paign* The eastern end of General Harrison's
house at North Bend consisted of a log cabin
covered with clapboards, and his table was
reputed to be well supplied with good cider,
instead of wines. Log cabins t and nard cider
thus became party emblems typifying republican
simplicity. *Tippecanoe and Tyler too* was
shouted and sung and emblazoned from one end



of the country to the other. Nothing could stem
the tide of wonderful popular enthusiasm for the
hero of Tippecanoe and the Thame*. Van
Buren, the Democratic candidate, received only
sixty electoral votes out of two hundred and
ninety-four. The death of the President occurred
only thirty-one days after his inauguration.
Consult Bostwick in Wilson's ^Presidents of the
United Stated (1894).

Harrison, Ark., town, county-seat of
Boone County; on the St Louis & N. A. rail-
road ; about 120 miles northwest of Little Rock,
It is in the lead and zinc section, and its indus-
tries are chiefly connected with mining. Consid-
erable fruit is grown in the vicinity, and it has
flour-milling and dairy interests. It is the seat
of a collegiate and normal institute for women.
The United States government building cost
about $8o,ooa Pop. (i£io) 1,60a.

Harrison, N. J., city in Hudson County;
on the Passaic River, the Pennsylvania and the
Erie RR's. It is a suburb of Newark, and a
sub-station of the Newark post-office, but has
an independent municipal government. It was
settled in 1668 and incorporated in 1873. The
charter of 1873 i* still in force, and by it the
government is vested in a common council
elected by wards. The chief manufactures arc
wire-cloth, marine-engines, steel, machinery,
tubes, refrigerators, ink, beer, and leather. The
water-plant is owned and operated by the city.
•Pop. (1910) 14,408.

Harrison, Ohio, village in the township of
Harrison, Hamilton County, on the boundary
between Ohio and Indiana, and on the Cleveland,
G, G & St. L. railroad, 23 miles by rail west-
northwest of Cincinnati. The village situated
on the north bank of the Whitewater River, a
tributary of the Great Miami, in a fertile hrming
section, has manufactures of furniture, sashes,
blinds, brushes, bricks, shoes, a corn-4riu fac-
tory, a cannery, and lumber, flour, and roller
mills. Its public buildings include a high school
and six churches. Pop. (1910) 1,368.

Harrisonburg, Va., town, county-seat of
Rockingham County; on the Chesapeake & W^
the Southern, and the Baltimore & O. R.R.V,
about 100 miles northwest of Richmond. It is in
the Shenandoah Valley, and is surrounded by a
rich agricultural country. Its chief manufactures
are flour, staves, saw and planing mill products,
foundry and machine shop products, and pottery.
It is the trade centre for the greater part of the
county. The town owns and operates the water-
works. Pop. (1910) 4,879-

Harrisonburg, Engagement Hear. Harri-
sonburg, Va., on the Great Valley Turnpike, 22
miles north of Staunton, and 122 miles north-
west of Richmond, was the scene of many stir-
ring events in the Civil War. The place was
occupied by Gen. Banks late in April 1862^ ana
abandoned when Jackson forced Banks down
the valley m May. When Jackson, in turn, was
forced up the valley by the combined armies
of McDowell and Fremont, he abandoned the
main valley, moving from Harrisonburg to
Cross Keys and Port Republic, his rear-guard,
two regiments of Virginia cavalry, under Gen.
Turner Ashby, halting about two miles south-
east of Harrisonburg. On 6 June 1862 Col.
Wyndham, with the First New Jersey cavalry
and a battalion of the Fourth New York, mov-
ing from Harrisonburg, attacked Ashby and



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WILLIAM HENRY HARRISON,

NINTH PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES.



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HARR^OHVIlWa— # ART



was defeated and followed to within one mile
of the town, with the toss of several "men killed
and wounded, and about 60 taken prisoners, in-
cluding Wyndham himself. Gen, Bayard then
pusheor forward with cavalry and infantry and
Ashby fell back and called for infantry sup-
port Jackson sent him Stuart's brigade — First
Maryland, Forty-fourth, Fifty-second, and Fifty-
eighth Virginia. A few miles beyond Harrison-
burg Bayard attacked with the Pennsylvania
^Bucktails* under command of Lieut-Col. T. L.
Kane, and in the engagement Ashby was killed,
and Kane was wounded and captured. While
this was happening on the right, the Sixtieth
Ohio infantry and First Pennsylvania cavalry, on
the left, drove in the Confederate skirmishrline,
without loss on either side. As soon as the
wounded could be removed the Confederates
fell back in the direction of Port Republic, and
the Union forces retired to Harrisonburg. The
Union loss in the engagement was 65 killed,
wounded, and missing. The Confederate loss
including Ashby, was 18 killed, 50 wounded,
and 3 missing. Consult: Official Records, 1
Vol. XII. E . A . Carman.

Har'risonville, Mo., city, county-seat of
Cass County; on the Missouri, K: & T., and the
Missouri P. R.R/s; about 30 miles southeast of
Kansas City. It is situated in an agricultural
and stock-raising region and the trade and man-
ufactures are connected chiefly with the products
of the surrounding farms. The shipping con-
sists mostly of grain, live stock, lumber, and
dairy products. Pop. (1910) 1,947-

Harriase, hir-es', Henri, American critic, '■
bibliographer, and historian: b. Paris 1830, of
Russian-Hebrew parentage. He became a citi-
zen of the United States, and for several years
practised law in New York He has published
^ibliotheca Americana Vetustissima ) (1866);
( Christopher Columbus* (18&1-5) ; <John and
Sebastian Cabot* (1883) ; ( The Discovery of
North America ) ; etc

Har'rodsburg, Ky., city, county-seat of
Mercer County; on a branch of the Southern
railroad ; about 45 miles southwest of Lexington
and 58 miles southeast of Louisville. It is the
oldest permanent settlement in the State, and
was founded by James Harrod in 1774. Two
years later Kentucky was incorporated as one of
the counties of Virginia and Harrodsburg was
made the county-seat. Stock-raising and farm-
ing are the principal occupations in the sur-
rounding country. It has flour and planing
mills, a distillery, brick-yard, and ice factory.
The climate, scenery, and the Greenville Springs
nearby make it a pleasure and health resort. It
is the seat of Beaumont College, an institution
for women, opened in 1894. Pop. (ioio) 3M7-

Harrow School, England, an academic in-
stitution situated at Harrow-on-the-Hill, a town
of Middlesex, 12 miles northwest of London. It
is one of the famous public schools of England
and was founded by John Lyon in 1571. The
original red brick school house, now the Fourth
Form School, was built 160&-15. New buildings
were added in 1819 and since, the chief of these



Online LibraryWilfrid RichmondThe Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 → online text (page 110 of 185)