Wilfrid Richmond.

The Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 online

. (page 111 of 185)
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being the Vaughan Memorial Library (1863),
and the semi-circular speech-room (1877). The
school was primarily intended to afford free edu-
cation to 30 poor boys of the parish j but pro-
vision was also made for the admission of <so
many foreigners as the place can conveniently



contain.* The age of admission is 12 to 14; and
there are six entrance scholarships of from $150
to $400 per annum, offered every Easter. The
most valuable learning scholarships are Baring's
three of $500 a year for five years to Hertford
College, Oxford. Among the distinguished
alumni of Harrow are Dr. Parr, Theodore Hook,
Sheridan, Byron, palmerston, Anthony Trollope,
and Cardinal Manning. Under the Public
Schools Act of 1868 the governing body com-
prises six members, elected respectively by the
Lord Chancellor, the universities of Oxford,
Cambridge and London, the Royal Society and
the undermasters.

Hart, Albert Bushnell, American histo-
rian: b. Clarksville, Pa., 1 July 1854. He was
graduated from Harvard in 1880, subsequently
becoming professor of history there. He has
written: ( Coercive Powers of the United States
Government (1885) ; formation of the Union ) ;
1 Introduction to the Study of Federal Govern-
ment (1890); ( Studies in American Educa-
tion (1895); <Life of Salmon P. Chase*
(1899); ( Practical Essays on American Gov-
ernment * (i8p3) ; etc. He has also edited
1 American History Told by Contemporaries >
( 1 898-1901) ; ( American "Citizen Series* (1899) ;
and since 1895, the < American Historical Re-
view.*

Hart, James McDougal, American paintet
b. Kilmarnock, Scotland, 10 May 1828; d. 1901.
He came to the United States in 183 i, and
studied art under his brother William (q.v.),
and at Diisseldorf in the studio of Schirmer
(1851)'. He was elected a member of the Na-
tional Academy fn ;i$30j and devoted himself
principally* to American forest scenery with a
preference for autumnal effects. His ( Landscape
with Cattle* is in the New York Metropolitan
Museum, and his best known pictures are ( On
the Croton* ; ( Morning in the Adirondacks* ;
and c Oaks in Autumn.*

Hart, James Morgan, American scholar:
b. Princeton, N. J.. 1839, He was the son of
John S. Hart (q.v.). He was graduated from
Princeton in i860, studied in Gdttingen, and took
the degree of A. M. from Princeton in 1863. He
was orofessor of modern languages at Cornell
(1868-72) ; professor of modern languages and
English literature in the University of Cincin-
nati (1876-00) ; returning to Cornell as pro-
fessor of rhetoric and English philology in 1890.
He has written: c German Universities* (1874) ;
( Syllabus of Anglo-Saxon Literature* (1887) ;
'Hand-book of English Composition (1895);
has revised and edited his father's < Manual of
Composition and Rhetoric* (1897); and has
translated 'German Classics* and < Goethe Prose
Selections.*

Hart, Joel T., American sculptor: b.
Clarke County, Ky., about 1810; d. Florence,
Italy, 2 March 1877. He was of humble paren-
tage, and in 1830 entered a stone-cutter's estab-
lishment in Lexington. He was induced to at-
tempt modeling busts in clay, and among others,
Gen. Jackson and Cassius M. Clay (q.v.) sat
to him, the latter giving him his first commis-
sion for a bust in marble. This when com-
pleted proved so satisfactory that Hart was
commissioned to execute a marble statue of
Henry Clay. He began this, but various delays
prevented its completion, and it was not set up
m Richmond, Va., till 1859. Other important



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ft ART — HAfcfE



works by Hart are < Woman Trramphant* in
the court-house, Louisville, Ky., and <I1 Pense-
roso.* He was particularly well known for his
portrait busts.

Hart, John, American patriot: b. Hope-
well, N. J.; d. there, at an advanced age, 178a
Frequently elected to the colonial assembly he
was prominent especially in the legislation for
local improvements. In 1774 he was chosen to
the general Congress at Philadelphia, where he
was noted for his sound judgment and inflexible
determination ; was re-elected in the two follow-
ing years, and was one of the signers of the
Declaration of Independence. New Jersey was
soon invaded by the British army, his estate
devastated, and special exertions were made to
take him prisoner. The capture of the Hessians
by Washington permitted his return home.

Hart, John Seeley, American educator: b.
Stockbridge, Mass., 28 Jan. 1810; d. Philadel-
phia 26 March 1877. He was for many years
principal of the New Jersey State Normal School,
at Trenton, and subsequently professor of Eng-
lish literature at Princeton College. His text-
books on English and American literature had a
wide circulation, and in the long course of his
career as educator he did much to stimulate a
taste for good literature among students.

Hart, Sir Robert; English diplomatist, di-
rector of the Chinese imperial maritime cus-
toms: b. Portadown, County Armagh, Ireland,
1835. He was educated at the Taunton Wes-
leyan School, and was graduated at Queen's Col-
lege, Belfast. He entered the British consular
service in China in 1854, was appointed inspec-
tor-general of customs in 1863 and accepted his
present position in 1885. During the Boxer out-
break in igoo, he underwent the siege in the
British legation, at Peking, and since then has
published his views on the position of things in
China in a very remarkable work, ( These From
the Land of Sinim* (1901). He attributes the
disturbances in China to the arrogance of for-
eigners and the unyielding pride of the Chinese.
He discusses China's army, law, transportation,
communication, currency, education, administra-
tion, and religion in a highly optimistic vein, and
shows that the Chinese government does a great
deal better than it gets credit for. He is a firm
believer in the Chinese plans for reform. He is
certainly deeply trusted by the Chinese authori-
ties and is one of the best oriental administrators
that England has ever been blest with in China.

Hart, Samuel, American Episcopal clergy*
man : b. Saybrook, Conn., 4 June 1845. He was
graduated from Trinity College in 1866, and
was ordained priest of the Episcopal Church in
1870. He was at Trinity College as assistant
professor of mathematics (1873-3), professor of
mathematics (1873-83), and professor of Latin
(1883-99). In 1899 he became vice-dean and

£rofessor of doctrinal theology at Berkeley
►ivinity School. In 1886 he was appointed cus-
todian of the Standard Prayer Book of the
Episcopal Church of the United States, in 1892,
secretary of the House of Bishops, and in 1896,
historiographer of the church. He is a member
of several learned societies, including the Amen\
can Historical Society, the American Oriental*
Society, and the Society of Biblical Literature
and Exegesis. He is editor of ( Satires of
Juvenal,* * Satires of Persius,' and Bishop Sea-
bury's Communion Office.*



Hart, Thomas Norton, American mer-"
chant and politician: b. North Reading, Mass.,
20 Jan. 1829. He entered business in Boston as
partner in a mercantile firm, later founding a
firm under the name of Hart, Taylor & Co.
When he withdrew from this business, he be-
came president of the Mount Vernon National
Bank, and was connected with many eleemosy-
nary institutions. He has also been active in
politics, was a member of the common council,
and of the board of aldermen; was nominated
for mayor of Boston in 1887 and 1888, but de-
feated at the election; was, however, elected in
1889, 1890, 1900 and xpoi.

Hart, William, American painter: b. Pais-
ley, Scotland, 31 March 1823 ; d. Mount Vernon,
N. Y., 17 June 1894. Emigrating with his par-
ents to the United States m 1&31, he settled in
Albany, and was at first apprenticed to a firm
of coachmakers, in Troy, by whom he was em-
ployed to paint the panels of coaches. He sub-
sequently painted landscapes, portraits, and even
window shades. In 1848 he became a regular
exhibitor at the National Academy of Design, of
which in 1858 he was elected as academician. He
was president of the American Water Color So-
ciety 1870-3. He was a brother of James Mc-
Dougal Hart (q.v.).

Hart, a hunting term, applied to the male,
or stag, of the red deer after it has completed its
full antlers at the age of six or seven years.

Hartbeest, hartT>est, one of the large Af-
rican antelopes of the genus Bubalus, specifically
the caama (B. cama), formerly excessively
numerous on the South African plains. They
have long narrowing heads, doubly-curved,
ringed horns, cow-like tails, and usually are of a
grayish or reddish color, with decided markings
on the face, especially in the bontebok (B. py~
gargus), blesbok (R albifrons) and sassaby (B.
lunatd). All were noted for swiftness. Other
very distinctive species are the konzi, tora, kori-
gum and hunter's antelope. Most of these have
become greatly diminished in numbers since
about 1870.

Harte, Francis Bret, American novelist
and poet: b. Albany, N. Y., 25 Aug. 1839; <L
Aldershot, England, 6 May 1902. In 1854 he
went to California, attracted there by the gold
excitement He was first a teacher at Sonora,
then tried mining, in which he was unsuccess-
ful. He next entered a printing-office, and in
io£7 was compositor on the San Francisco
Golden Era. 1 At that time he began to write
short sketches, which appeared in the ( Golden
Era,* and soon attracted attention; he was in-
vited to join the staff of the ( California!^ to j
which he contributed a series of clever parodies *
on famous contemporary writers of fiction, later
published as c Condensed Novels.* In 1864 he
was appointed secretary to the United States
branch mint; in 1868 became editor of the
< Overland Monthly,* for which he wrote ( The
Luck of Roaring Camp* and others of his most
successful stories of frontier life. In 1871 he
went to New York and became a regular con-
tributor to the < Atlantic Monthly. } In 1878 he
was appointed United States consul in Crefeld,
Germany, and in 1880 received the consulship
at Glasgow, Scotland. In 1885 his tenure of
office as consul came to an end, and he settled
in London, devoting his whole time to literary



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BRET HARTE.



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Univ. Library, UC Santa Cruz 2001



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HERTFORD



lvork. He was a prolific writer, and continued
for the most part to deal with California themes.
Among his shorter stories the following may be
mentioned: higgles*; <The Outcasts of Poker
Flat\* <M'Liss> (1872); <The Twins of Table
Mountain> (1879); 'An Heiress of Red Dog*
(1879); 'Flip' (1882); <On the Frontier
(1884); <By Shore and Sedge> (1885); 'Devil's
Ford' (1887); <A Phyllis of the Sierras, > and
<A Drift from Redwood Camp' (1888); <The
Heritage of Dedlow Marsh* (1889) ; ( A Sappho
of Green Springs* (1891) ; ( The Bell-Ringer of




Shadow' (1808); <Mr. Jack Hamlin's Media-
tion* (1899); and c From Sand Hill to Pine*
(1900), a collection of short stories. His longer
stories and novels include: * Gabriel Conroy*
(1876) ; c Thankful Blossom: A Romance of the
Jerseys* (1877) ; ( In the Carquinez Woods*
(1883): 'Manij?.^ (1885); 'Snowbound at
Eagle's* (1886) ; <The Crusade of the Excelsior*
(1887); c Cressy* (1889); <A Waif of the
Plains* (1890); <A Ward of the Golden Gate*
(1890); <A First Family of Tasajara* (1892);
< Colonel Starbottle's Qient, and Some Other
People* (1892); 'Clarence* (1895), dealing with
incidents in the American Civil War; 'In a Hol-
low of the Hills* (1895); and 'Three Partners*
(1897). He has also written much verse com-
prised in volumes entitled 'Poems* (1871);
'East and West Poems* (1871); 'Echoes of
the Foot-Hills* (1874); and 'Some Later
Verses* (1898).

In estimating Harte's work it must be remem-
bered that it was his rare good fortune to break
new ground, and to become the first literary in-
terpreter of a life which with its primitive
breadth and freedom, its striking contrasts of
circumstance and character, offered singular op-
portunities to the novelist. That he ever did
anything quite so good as his first group of
stories and poems cannot be said, for his later
volumes are marked, as a whole, by the repeti-
tion of well-worn motives and by declining
spontaneity and power. Still, the average qual-
ity of his output remained high. Among
-qualities of his work those which perhaps most
•constantly impress the critical reader are his
dramatic instinct, his keen insight into charac-
ter, his broad sympathy, and his subtle and
pervasive humor. Dealing for the most part
with large, strongly marked, elemental types,
as these develop and express themselves under
conditions which give free play to instinct and
passion, he does not indulge in lengthy analy-
ses or detailed descriptions. His men and
women are sketched with a few strokes, and
left to work out their own personalities in
speech and deed ; and yet, such is the skill with
which this is accomplished that they stand out
before us as creatures of real flesh and blood.
He did not purposely soften the shadows in his
pictures; the sin and wretchedness of frontier
life are frankly portrayed; none the less, there
can be little doubt that consciously or uncon-
sciously he contrived to throw an idealizing
glamor over the mine and the camp, and that
many of his most lifelike and successful char-
acters are wrought in the imagination, though
out of the stuff of fact But it is here that we
touch upon what is perhaps one of the finest
qualities of his work, — a quality not to be sepa-



rated from his tendency toward idealization.
Though he dwelt habitually upon life's unex-
plained and inexplicable tragic complexities, he
nevertheless suffused his stories with an atmo-
sphere of charity, clear, sweet, and wholesome.

Hartford, Conn., State capital, seat of Hart-
ford County, port of entry, head of navigation
on Connecticut River, 60 miles by water from
Long Island Sound. Its steam railroad lines,
all owned by the New York, New Haven &
Hartford system, run in seven directions, mak-
ing it the greatest inland railroad center in the
Atlantic States save two. By the main line it
is no miles to New York and 124 to Boston
(a midway position which has enhanced its
business, social, and cultural development), 36 to
New Haven, 26 to Springfield, Mass. ; by the old
New York & New England lines, on the High-
land Division 1 10 to Fishkill on the Hudson and
90 to Providence, R. I., and via Willimantic
117 to Boston; the Valley Division skirts the
river to its mouth (47) ; the Connecticut Cen-
tral runs to Springfield by the east side of the
river; the Central New England to Pough-
keepsie (109) and beyond to Erie and Lehigh
connections. Its electric suburban lines, mostly
under the same ownership (as is the city sys-
tem), extend without change to Springfield (a
line each side of the river), Rockvifle (17),
Middletown (16), and Bristol via New Britain
(21), besides Unionville (13), Rainbow (12),
and South Glastonbury (10); and a line to
Norwich (about 38) is nearing completion.
Pop. (Dec. 191 1 ) about 105,000.

Hartford lies on the west bank of the river
(which divides it from East Hartford), on roll-
ing ground. The first real hills are the Talcott
Mountain range, half a dozen miles west; but
the elevations of Prospect Avenue in the west-
ern part of the city and Fairfield Avenue in the
southern afford a superb view across the entire
Connecticut Valley, some 20 miles wide. It
extends about 5]/ 2 miles north and south to
Windsor and Wethersfield lines, by 3J/2 west
to West Hartford line, about 18 square miles
in all; the town and city are coterminous. It
is divided about equally by the little Park River,
which joins the Connecticut just south of the
centre and is crossed by many bridges, whose
dams afford large water power, and through
whose bed runs the great main sewer into the
Connecticut. The chief business street is Main,
the original highway to Windsor and Wethers-
field, following the river line along the first
high ground, the banks of old being widely
overflowed in the spring freshets; next State,
east from Main to the steamer landing with
the chief tobacco and other wholesale ware-
houses, opening at Main into a wide flare —
formerly the market square for country produce
teams, and paralleled on the south with Central
Row, a block long — between them lying the
City Hall with the post-office building in the
rear; then Asylum opposite State, running west
past the railroad station, and Pearl parallel
opposite Central Row, joining Asylum at its
foot by Ford; and Pratt parallel for a block
on the north as far as Trumbull, whose section
from Pearl to Pratt is of rising importance.

It is a place of remarkable beauty in business
and public structures, parks, and (relatively to
its size) unmatched extent of handsome resi-



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HART?ORD



dential streets. Of the latter, the most distin-
guished are Washington Street with its mag-
nificent arch of old elms, Asylum Avenue and
part of Farmington Avenue, and Woodland
Street (the costliest place in the city, the Good-
wins' granite ^palace* is at Woodland and
Asylum), with some handsome places op Weth-
ersfield Avenue (the chief, that of the widow
of Samuel Colt of fire-arms fame, is now by
legacy a home for old ladies). One of the finest
streets, Prospect Avenue (North) is the West
Hartford boundary, and long built up only on
that side to escape Hartford taxes, a reason
now obsolete ; handsome places extend well into
West Hartford.

The Connecticut is spanned by a superb
granite bridge at Morgan Street, finished in
1907; the largest in mass of any purely stone
bridge in the World, and one of the greatest
masses of cut stone of any kind. It has nine
spans, and is 1,192.5 feet long, 82 feet wide
(London Bridge is 42) with a clear roadway
of 80 feet including 10-foot sidewalks, and its
arches 45 feet above mean low water, with
foundations 50 feet below. All above water is
dressed and carved in graceful forms. Its cost
was about $1,600,000 by itself; but attendant
improvements, including a broad boulevard to
State Street along the river front, raised it to
nearly $3,000,000.

The park system contains above 1,300 acres:
there are seven chief and smaller ones, lying in
every quarter. The oldest is Bushnell Park
(from the great preacher Horace Bushnell who
secured its creation), in the heart of the city,
48J4 acres; continued south on a sharp rise by
the grounds of the State Capitol, where were for-
merly the buildings of Trinity College. The larg-
est is Keney Park (formerly Ten-Mile Woods),
purchased, prepared and maintained from the
bequest of Henry Keney, in the extreme north,
extending into Windsor, containing 663.4 acres.
It is managed by private trustees, and is the
only one from which automobiles are excluded.
Next is Goodwin Park in the extreme south,
icres, bought at a generously low
Francis Goodwin, Esq. Elizabeth
le extreme west, largely in West
>f 100 acres, the bequest (with a
; fund) of Chas. M. Pond in mem-
vife, is the most beautiful in flowers
and is the nursery for the other
,e Park southwest of the centre, in
the chief manufacturing district, is mainly the

?ift of the late Col. Albert A. Pope of bicycle
ame, and has 92 acres, 19 being city additions.
Colt Park^ 106 acres, was the bequest of Mrs.
Samuel Colt, and extends down to the neigh-
borhood of the great fire-arms works. River-
side Park, 80 acres, is a reclamation and beauti-
fying of the formerly squalid river front north
from the stone bridge to the N. Y. & N. E. rail-
road bridge, and was laid out by the late Fred-
erick Law Olmstead, a native of the city. The
last two are most useful, being the only prac-
ticable resorts for the poor thousands near the
river, and are the chief city playgrpunds for
active games. Rocky Ridge Park, 28 acres, is
the long narrow strio of the old stone quarry
(for street paving) next the bluff at and north
of Trinity College, overlooking Zion Street and
Parkville. There are several smaller squares
and spaces: one of a block, Sigourncy Square



in the west, is on the site of the old poor-farm
pest-house grave-yard, shunned for building
purposes, and has transformed the whole char-
acter of its neighboring residence section.

The city has a remarkable number of hand-
some and architecturally notable buildings.
Foremost is the State Capitol, of white marble,
towering over Bushnell Park; the handsomest
in the country except the one at Albany, and
architecturally surpassing that in many ways.
It wa<s completed, in January 1880, at a cost of
$2,534^62446; land and other expenses made the
total $3,342,55073- The general plan was of
13th-century Gothic, but modern needs forced
very much change in this. Each side is an indi-
vidual and separately beautiful design; and the
interior is as notable as the exterior. Its ex-
treme length is 295 feet 8 inches; depth of
centre part, 189 feet 4 inches; depth of wings,
in feet 8 inches; height from ground line to
top oi crowning figure, 256 feet 6 inches. It is
fire-proof, the only fire-proof capitol in exist-
ence. It is still more curiously distinguished as
being the only considerable public building in
America built within the appropriation. The
State Library and Supreme Court, formerly in
the Capitol, have been moved since 1910 into a
new and splendid building just south, costing
$1,375,000; of granite, Italian. Renaissance style,
fire-proof throughout (the only one of its kind),
204 feet 8 inches frontage on Capitol Avenue,
and 137 feet 6 inches deep, the main entrance
00 feet back from the curb with a well-kept
lawn. The State Arsenal and Armory, finished
1909, is the finest in the United States: of
Mohegan granite, 325x275 and 166 feet high,
occupying iH acres, its drill-room holding
12,000 people. It is on virtually the west part
of Bushnell Park across the Park River, near
Broad Street. East of the Capitol, 00 Trinity
Street, is the handsome white granite building
of the Orient Fire Ins. Co. Trinity College
(q.v.) has fine buildings on high ground in
the south part, designed to form a quadrangle.

The south central section of Main Street on
the east side is rapidly developing into one of
the handsomest and most artistic street ranges
in the country. To the old nucleus of the
Aetna Life Ins. Co.'s white granite structure
(formerly the Charter Oak Life's), and across
an alley next south the Wadsworth Atheneum's
dark-brown, castellated and towered building de-
signed by Ithiel Town, have been added on the
north of the first-named, first the nobly beautiful
white granite home of the Aetna Fire Ins. Co.,
then the tall, gray, stone- faced steel building of
the Travelers Ins. Co., to be the largest busi-
ness structure in the city; on the south of the
Atheneum, the small but elegant memorial of
Mrs. Samuel Colt, of Quincy granite and thus
lighter colored than its neighbor, joined to the
latter without break, and continued so by the
white marble Morgan Memorial, erected by
J. Pierpont Morgan (of Hartford birth) as part
of a much greater whole to be finished in 1912;
for a memorial to his father Junius Spencer
Morgan, the eminent banker.' A 65-foot way
is reserved south of the Morgan Memorial
grounds, and then are shortly to come the new
municipal buildings, handsome classic structures
of white granite. Going north, the City Hall
(old State House), completed May 1706, is of
double interest, architecturally and historically;



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it was designed by Charles Bui finch, the archi-
tect of the U. S. Capitol, and the famous Hart-
ford Convention of 1814 (q.v.) was held here.
The post-office in its rear, of white granite, is a
Mullms creation of the Grant era. Opposite this
on State Street is the tall handsome building
of the First National Bank. The red sandstone
Cheney Building well north on Main Street, put
up as a monument by the great silk firm, was de-.
signed by Henry H.' Richardson (tf.v.),"the most
original and influential of American architects.
On the corner of Main and Pearl is the great
office building of the Conn. Mutual Life Ins. Co.,
and down Pearl a short distance are the Phoenix
Mutual Life and the National Fire on the



Online LibraryWilfrid RichmondThe Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 → online text (page 111 of 185)