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The Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 online

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south, and the Security Co. and the Conn. Gen-
eral on the north, with the Hartford Fire just
beyond at Pearl and Trumbull. The Hartford
Life is at Asylum and Ann. Of the individual
bank buildings, the most impressive are the
Hartford National's 11 -story skyscraper on the
north corner of Main and Asylum, the tallest
building in the city outside the Capitol and Ar-
mory; the First National, above; the Phoenix,
Main just south of Asylum ; and the Society for
Savings on Pratt Street. There are many other
attractive business and public structures. The
two leading hotels are the AUyn (Asylum and
Trumbull) and the Heublein (facing Bushnell
Park at Mulberry and Wells). Of several
handsome church buildings, St. Joseph's Cathe*
dral (R.C.) is most striking: it is 26 x 178 feet,
and 93 feet high, with two heavy towers in-
tended to be crowned with spires. Of the
others, Christ Church (P.E.) at Church and
Main, St. Patrick's (R.C.) at Church anji Ann,
the Church of the Good Shepherd or Colt Me-
morial (P.E.) on Wyllys Street, Trinity (P.E.)
on Sigoumey Street, the Farmington Avenue
(Cong., formerly the Pearl Street) at Farm-
ington and Gillett, and the Church of the Re-
deemer (Univ.) on Asylum Avenue, east of the
School for the Deaf, call for special notice
architecturally. The Centre Church (Cong.),
Main south of Pearl, is not only notable on the
same grounds, but of the highest interest his-
torically, as housing the oldest church society
in the city, reaching back to its beginning.

Of the city monuments, the three most promi-
nent for artistic effect are the Soldiers' Memo-
rial Arch, forming a gateway into Bushnell
Park across the Park River south of Pearl and
Ford; the endlessly satisfying Coming fountain
in that park, a gift from John J. Corning of
New York, — a bronze witn symbolical Indian
figures, the work of J. M. Rhind; and the modi-
fied exedra in Colt Park, crowned by the statue
of Col. Colt. It has also statues of Israel Put-
nam, by J. Q. A. Ward, an 8-foot bronze with
granite pedestal, given by J. P. Allyn in 1874, —
and Horace Wells of Hartford (the discoverer
of anaesthesia) by Truman H. Bartlett, erected
by State and city in 1875. The city has also two
statues of Nathan Hale: one in the Capitol, by
Karl Gerhardt, the other in front of the Wads-
worth Atheneum, by E. S. Woods. One of the
bridges across the river into Bushnell Park,
that from Mulberry Street, is the gift of George
E. Hoadley, Esq., in memory of his grandfather,
Jeremiah Hoadley; it is of red granite and ex-
cellent workmanship. On North Main Street is a
clock tower with chimes, erected from the bequest
of Henry Keney, the giver of the great park.

The educational institutions are of high grade
and distinction. At their head stands Trinity
College (q.v.) ; Episcopal in origin and head-
ship, but wholly non-sectarian in teaching, and
with a singularly able corps of instructors. The
Hartford High School, on Hopkins and Asylum
just west of the railroad station, with 1,700
pupils, stands in the foremost rank, and is the
most .completely "equipped in the country. Its
present building is 426 feet long with an aver-
age of 50 feet wide, and has cost in buildings,
land, and equipment, $508,500; but land has been
bought through to Broad Street, to erect build-
ings for a supplementary technical high school,
which will then more than double the amount.
Pupils from surrounding towns are admitted on
payment. The city schools are on the district
system, despite yearly attempts at the polls to
consolidate them; but the taxes for their sup-
port are equalized by reapportionment There
are nine districts, with 18 buildings altogether.
The school outlays are about $650,000 a year.
There are also three commercial colleges or
schools, and a commercial high school at St.
Joseph's Convent; four parochial R. C. schools,
with some 2500 pupils, besides a convent school
for Polish children. Hartford has also a the-
ological seminary, the Hartford T. S. on Broad
Street, managed by the Pastoral Union (Cong.)
of Connecticut, with an affiliated School of Re-
ligious Pedagogy once famous at East Wind-
sor; a Roman Catholic seminary for training
priests, St. Thomas' on Collins near Woodland;
and a missionary college and seminary at the
Fathers of La Salette.

Religiouslv, Hartford is the seat of a Roman
Catholic and a Protestant Episcopal bishop.
There are 71 church societies, of which the
Congregational (13), for a century the only
one, Roman Catholic (10), Baptist (9), Episco-
pal (8), and Methodist (7), are the chief de-
nominations. The Connecticut Missionary Soci-
ety has its head office here. There are ten con-
vents: four of the Sisters of Mercy (mother
house in the State, established 1853), two of
the Sisters of St. Joseph, two of the Sisters of
the Holy Ghost, one of the Sisters of the Good
Shepherd, and one of the Felician Sisters of St.
Francis (Polish).

Its charitable and related institutions are re-
nowned. It was the earlist seat of attempts to
instruct the U. S. deaf and dumb, through
Thomas Gallaudet and Laurent Gere; and the
St. Francis (Polish) School for the Deaf, for-
merly Deaf and Dumb Asylum, carries on the
work in buildings on Asylum and Garden. The
Retreat for the Insane (now renamed Hartford
Retreat), on Washington Street, has endow-
ments which reduce its charges to patients. The
Hartford Hospital on South Hudson, St. Fran-
cis' Hospital at Collins and Woodland ( R.C, but
open to outside paying patients), the Hartford
Orphan Asylum, the Watkinson Farm School,
the Y. M. C. A., the City Mission and Open
Hearth, the Hartford Social Settlement, the
Old People's Home, Mrs. Colt's munificently
endowed home for old ladies, and various other
refuges for the aged, and indigent, are only part
of its overflowing charities. One of the most
useful is the Y. W. C. A. girls' boarding-house
on Church Street, affectionately known among
its friends as w the Home** : it is managed so as.
to earn its expenses but make no profit, and

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board is given to working girls at the lowest
rate consistent with this. St. Elizabeth's Home
(R.C.), Main opposite Park, does the same
service for its class. The Connecticut Hu-
mane Society has also its head office in

The library facilities of the city are extraor-
dinary; and having been gathered by several
different institutions for very diverse func-
tions, are far more varied in contents and util-
ity than if collected by any single one. There
are ten public or class libraries, all cordially
helpful to the investigator, containing toward
half a million volumes, some 150,000 pamphlets,
and fully 150,000 manuscripts. In the Wads-
worth Atheneum are housed the Hartford Free
Public Library, with about 100,000 volumes;
the Watkinson Library (reference only), with
about 81,000 and some thousands of pamphlets
(the only collections of art books of any ex-
tent are in these two) ; and the Connecticut
Historical Society, with towards 30,000 and as
many pamphlets, and nearly 50,000 manu-
scripts, its great field being genealogy and
local history. The library of Trinity College,
about 62,000, is strong in the demand by nearly
a century of professors for the latest text-
books for their classes in many fields. That
of the Theological Seminary (about 96,000, and
some 50,000 pamphlets) is rich not only in its
necessary specialty, but in English literature,
mediaeval history, music, sociology, * mission-
ary* languages, and cognate subjects, and is
very heavily endowed. The State Library has
not only an immense collection (some 100,000
volumes) of public documents, legal reports
and digests, State and other laws, Hansard's
parliamentary debates (the one set in. the city),
and a fine general reference library, but has
fully as many manuscripts, and is the author-
ized State depository of all local records in
the State not needed for current use in their
localities. It and Trinity are also official de-
positories of all U. S. government publications.
The Hartford Bar Library in the County Court
House (Trumbull and Allyn), the lawyers'
working library, has some 8,500 volumes; and
the Hartford County Medical Association, in
the Hunt Memorial Building on Prospect Street
(across the street from the Atheneum Annex,
which contains the children's department of the
Public Library), has a medical library and.
takes many current periodicals ; and a large re-
cent endowment will ultimately augment it to
very important proportions. Two church li-
braries also have several thousand volumes
each, and are of great service to both clergy
and outside users: that in St. Joseph's Cathe-
dral, for Catholic use especially, and that in
the Centre Church House, on Gold Street.

The Wadsworth Atheneum is a peculiar insti-
tution. It is a board of trustees holding the
buildings and grounds so named, and including
the control and management of the Colt and
the Morgan Memorial buildings, already men-
tioned; in addition, it houses in its buildings
the three libraries just specified; and it is also
a collector and exhibitor of art objects and
museum contents of all kinds. These collec-
tions it now places wholly in the Morgan Me-
morial, which contains not only Mr. Morgan's
matchless collection of tapestries, the finest in
America, the magnificent illustrated catalogues

of his art treasures, his sets of Gould's Birds
and Curtis' North American Indians, and other
rare and valuable articles, but all the Athe-
neum's gallery of pictures, gifts and loans of
the same, beautiful collections of pottery, sil-
ver-ware, bric-a-brac of all sorts, coins, etc,
and also of minerals, birds and eggs, and other
matters of natural history. Mrs. Colt's me-
morial has collections of fire-arms illustrating
the development of the Colt revolver, and of
art objects. Both these are connected with the
old Atheneum building by passages on two
floors, forming one unbroken interior as ex-
terior. The Connecticut Historical Society has
also an interesting and valuable collection of
colonial relics.

Hartford, as the head of navigation and
therefore distributing point for the Connecticut
Valley, early gained an importance as a centre
of wholesale trade which it has never lost; to
accommodate this, the Hartford Bank, then
the fifth and now the fourth oldest in the coun-
try, was organized in 1792. But its largest im-
portance is now as one of the leading insur-
ance centres in the world, and second in the
United States. This business seemingly orig-
inated in marine insurance on its West India
cargoes, and later added fire insurance, which
speedily far overshadowed its mate. After
tentative efforts in the I790*s, it became per-
manently established in 1803 as marine, and
in 1810 as fire, in the Hartford Fire Ins. Co.,
followed in 1819 by the Aetna. Life insurance
was begun in 1846 by the Conn. Mutual: acci-
dent in 1864 by the Travelers; steam boiler in
1866 by the Hartford S. B.; employers' lia-
bility in the early '90's by the Travelers; and
live-stock in 1866 and 1867 by companies which
abandoned it forever in 1868. The loans oi
these insurance companies, especially the lilt
with their vast reserves, not restricted in in-
vestment by law, as are those of New York,
have been one of the greatest agencies in de-
veloping the West, amounting to many hun-
dred millions of dollars. There are now seven
fire companies, the Hartford (largest in
the U. S.), Aetna, Phcenix, Connecticut, Na-
tional, Standard, and Hartford County Mutual,
besides the U. S. branches of several foreign
companies; six life companies, the Conn. Mu-
tual, Aetna. Life, Phoenix, Mutual Travelers
(life branch), Conn. General and Hartford;
two accident companies, the Travelers and the
Aetna; and the original and largest steam-
boiler insurance, company of the U. S., the
Hartford. There are 11 banks of discount, six
of them national banks; four savings banks,
one (the Society for Savings or 'Pratt St.
Bank®) the oldest in Connecticut, chartered
1819, and by far the largest; and five trust

The manufacturing interests are extremely
heavy and varied, leading the world in several
important lines: there are about 150 incorpo-
rated manufacturing companies in the city.
The famous Colt works make all kinds of .fire-
arms, including Gatling guns, and also a great
range of machinery for making special ma-
chines and tools, a line of work which engages
other powerful Hartford, companies; the city
is the world centre for bicycle manufacture,
through the Pope works, which also produce
automobiles, as does their Columbia offshoot;

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two of the foremost typewriters, the Under-
wood and Royal, have their works here, and in
amount and value of product it heads the
world, as it does in horseshoe nails and leather
belting; it is very prominent in electric ma-
chinery and vehicles, woven-wire mattresses,
screws, machine tools and chucks, cyclometers,
steam-boilers and engines, knitting and book-
sewing machines, blowers, steam turbines,
pumps, coil pipes, plumbers' and railway sup-
plies, plated ware, and other heavy metal arti-
cles; and manufactures also church organs,
rubber goods, pottery, furniture, carriages, har-
ness, knit goods* and many other things. It
has also one of the largest printing houses in
New England,. The Case, Lockwood & Brainard
Printing Co., which has manufactured many
famous works; three daily papers, the ( Cou-
rant* (morning, Rep.), the oldest newspaper in
the country (founded 1764), * Times* (evening,
Dem.),and < rost > (evening, Rep.) ; and a num-
ber of weeklies, monthlies, and quarterlies.

The mayor holds office for two years, and
the city government is of the regular two-
chambered form. The assessed valuation of
property is above $100,000,000, making it per
capita one of the richest cities in the United
States — about $i,ooo per head. The tax rate
is something over two cents on the dollar, vary-
in? with the district school tax.

The first white settlement of Hartford was
by the Dutch in 1633, at the junction of the
Park and Connecticut, still called Dutch Point
(although the original point is out in the Con-
necticut). They built there a fort called the
* House of Hope* (commemorated by Huys-
hope Avenue). (For the settlement of the
Newtown men in 1635-6, arid the adoption of
the first written constitution of modern times,
whence Hartford is called the a birthplace of
American democracy,* see Connecticut.) Hart-
ford was first named Newtown, changed to the
present name in honor of its minister Samuel
Stone's English birthplace. From here in 1637
sailed the expedition of 90 men under John
Mason, which heavily crippled and caused the
ultimate destruction of the Pequots, the tribe of
recent Indian invaders who had dispossessed
the original Indian holders and terrorized the
other Connecticut Indians, and who were mak-
ing Connecticut untenable for civilized settlers.
This campaign made possible Connecticut as it
stands, and probably in any form. The Dutch
were ejected from their fort in 1654; they had
never really made a settlement. (For the at-
tempt of Andros to seize the charter, in 1687,
see Charter O.mc.) In 1701 Hartford became
joint capital with New Haven, In the Revolu-
tion, HartfordL as the head of the one rich store
of supplies which the British could not seize,
became of prime importance; the second com-
missary-general of the United States army,
Jeremiah Wadsworth, was a Hartford merchant
Gov. Trumbull (Washington's ft Brother Jona-
than*), much of the time in Hardford, was
also a strong reliance of Washington, who
came to Connecticut to consult htm; and in
1780 Washington and Rochambeau planned
the Yorktown campaign here. The Hartford
Convention (q.v.) of 1814 sat here. In 1873
Hartford became the sole capital of the State.
From its original limits have been cut off the

towns of West Hartford, East Hartford, and
Manchester (the latter directly from East

Its native and adopted citizens have made
the city one of the intellectual glories of New
England. It was the birthplace of Noah Web-
ster, Frederick Law Olmstead, John Fiske, and
Edmund Clarence Stedman, and others of less
note but of high merit; it had the services of
Joel Barlow, George D. Prentice, John G.
Whittier, and others — after the Revolution, so
brilliant a group of Connecticut authors and
professional men gathered here or made it their
literary headquarters that they were known all
over the country as the * Hartford Wits *
(q.v.), and are still remembered by the name;
it was the long or permanent residence of Har-
riet Beecher Stowe, Mark Twain, Charles Dud-
ley Warner, and Horace Bushnell, besides John
Trumbell the poet and Lydia H. Sigourney,
and the remarkable Trumbull family — James
Hammond the antiquarian, Indian scholar, and
librarian, Gureton the nature painter, and Annie
(Mrs. Slosson), the story- writer and entomolo-
gist. In the musical field, Dudley Buck the dis-
tinguished composer was born here; and Henry
C. Work, of Middletown, the second greatest
of American song-wrights, lived much here and
died here. In the business world, J. Pierpont
Morgan was born here, his father Junius S.
Morgan (by parentage and associations really
a Hartford man himself) began his great busi-
ness career as a Hartford dry-goods merchant
and Edwin D. Morgan the War Governor of
New York began his as a Hartford wholesale
grocer and provision merchant.

Forrest Morgan,
Asst. Librarian, Watkinson Library.

Hartford, Mich,, village of Hartford Town-
ship, Van Buren County, 15 miles west of Paw
Paw on the Paw Paw River, and 17 miles
northeast of Benton Harbor, on the Chicago &
M. L. S. . R.R. It has a graded school and
^ve^ churches. It carries on a considerable traffic
in agricultural produce and stock, has grain ele-
vators, flour, saw-, and planing-mills, canneries,
electric light plant, etc. Pop. 1,30a

Hartford, Vt., town of Windsor County,
on the White River, about one mile above its
junction with the Connecticut River, and 60
miles south of Montpelier, on the Central Vt
and on the Woodstock R.R/s. It has many
mills and manufactories. Pop. (1910) 4,179.

Hartford City, Ind., city, county-seat of
Blackford County; on the Pittsburg, C C. &
St. L. and the Lake E. & W. R.R.'s: about
45 miles southwest of Fort Wayne, and 00 miles
northeast of Indianapolis. The natural re-
sources which contribute to the industrial and
commercial interests are the products from
the surrounding agricultural country, the nat-
ural gas supply, and the oil fields. The city
owns and operates the waterworks. Pop.
(1910) 6,187.

Hartford Convention, of 1814: a gathering
of New England Federalists to discuss measures
for securing New England interests against the
South and West, especially in relation to the
War of 1812. The convention opposed the war
on several grounds, — the vital objection being
that it was destroying all American commerce in
order to punish Great Britain, for crippling a
part of it. It was believed by the delegates that

Digitized by



the agricultural States were sacrificing New
England, whose life-blood was commerce, from
ignorance mingled with sectional malice (see
Embargo). All through the war, the New Eng-
land Federalists, impoverished and excluded
from the national councils harassed and ham-
pered the government in conducting it; the
government retorted by leaving the whole sec-
tion to its fate ; the British inflamed the discord
by exempting the New England coast from
blockade, and the government countered by lay-
ing a new embargo which did the same work.
All the New England States and New York
were swept by the Federalists on this issue. In
November 1813 the governor of Vermont re-
called a brigade of militia from garrison duty;
the government threatened prosecution, the
Massachusetts legislature threatened to use tjie
State power to support him. In the autumn of
1814 the destruction of New England industries
had become intolerable; the coast was unde-
fended, the British were occupying that of
eastern Maine, and Congress was proposing a
conscription so severe as to enlist minors with-
out the consent of their parents; whereupon
the Connecticut legislature ordered the governor
to -call a special session to protect its citizens
if^ the measure >vere adopted. " On 18 October
the Massachusetts legislature proposed a con-
vention of the New England States, to take ac-
tion a not repugnant to their obligations as
members of the Uniun^ and ft lay the foundation
of a radical reform in the national compact*
through a future national convention. Connec-
ticut and Rhode Island accepted the proposal
with similar qualification ; New Hampshire was
divided politically, and Vermont was excited
over Macdonough's victory at Plattsburg, but
certain counties sent delegates. The war was
a growing and alarming failure. England was
demanding the renunciation*of the whole North-
west as the price of peace, national bonds were
at 25 per cent discount. The government sent a
regular army officer to oversee the convention,
and use force if it attempted disunion; deputed
secret agents to see if it was true that there was
a plot to make New England an English grand-
duchy under a prince of the blood; and ap-
?ointedthe succeeding 12th of January a national
ast-day. The convention met at Hartford,
Conn., 15 Dec 1814, with 12 delegates from
1 Massachusetts, 7 from Connecticut, 4 from
Rhode Island, 2 from New Hampshire, and 1
from Vermont, — 26 in all. George Cabot of
Massachusetts was chosen president, Theodore
Dwight of Connecticut, secretary. A secret ses-
sion of three weeks was held, a report to the
New England legislatures prepared and 5 Jan.
1815, the convention adjourned. The report
stated the before-mentioned grievances, and
charged the government with making naturali-
zations too easy and with destroying the balance
of sections by forming new States at will out of
the western territory; but denied any present
intention* to dissolve the Union. It was pro-
posed that Congress should confide the defense
of each State to the State itself, and return a
share of its taxes for the purpose; and recom-
mended seven changes in the Constitution,
namely: abolition of the three fifths slave rep-
resentation, the requirement of a two thirds
vote for the admission of new States, the limi~
tation of embargoes to 60 days, the requirement

of a two thirds vote to sanction the prohibition
of commercial intercourse, or to declare war or
hostilities except in case of invasion; the ex-
clusion of naturalized foreigners from civil of-
fices or a seat in Congress, and prohibition of a-
President's re -election. Tmy proposed also that
two Presidents in succession should never be
elected from the same State. They also recom-
mended that another convention should be held
at Boston the following June if affairs did not
mend or the amendments were rejected. The
Massachusetts and Connecticut legislatures
adopted the report and sent commissioners to
Washington; but before they arrived a satis-
factory peace was made, all disasters forgotten
in the blaze of the battle of New Orleans, and
the promoters of the convention detested as
traitors preparing to secede. They were in fad
killed for public life. But in 1810, Cabot de-
posited the journal of the convention with the
Massachusetts secretary of state as a permanent
testimony that nothing treasonable was at-
tempted; in 1833 Dwight wrote its history.

Hartford Fern. See Fil kales (2), under
Ferns and Fern Allies.

Hartford Theological Seminary, an insti-
tution founded in . 1834 for the education of
Congregational preachers, at East Windsor HiH,
Conn. It was formerly called the Theological
Institute of Connecticut, and took its present
name on its removal to Hartford in 1865. Its
control is vested in a board of trustees elected
by the Pastoral Union, an association of 20a
ministers who have subscribed to the creed of
the Union. The aim of the institution is to
train ministers for pastoral work on the broad-
est lines of intellectual and spiritual life.

Hartford Wits, the name admiringly given
by the cultivated circles of the United States to
a group of Connecticut professional men and
literary aspirants, who lived in Hartford or met
there for converse and collaboration, irom
shortly after the Revolution till toward 1800.

Online LibraryWilfrid RichmondThe Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 → online text (page 112 of 185)