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The Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 online

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vard, and in 1902 was appointed professor of
history there.

„ Has'sall, Arthur, English historian: b.
Bebington, Cheshire, England, 28 Sept. 1853.
He was educated at Oxford^ where he has been
at various times since lecturer, tutor, and ex-
aminer. He is one of the recognized authorities
uoon European history, his published books in-
cluding ( Life of Bolingbroke ) (1889) ; ( Louis
XIV. > (1895) ; <Handbook of European History*
(1897) ; ( The Balance of Power i7I5-8q )
(1896) ; ( Class-book of English History > (1901) ;
< History of France > (1901); <The French
People* (1901).

Has'sam, Childe, American artist: b. Bos-
ton 1859. He studied art in Boston and Paris;
he is a member of Ten American Painters, of
New York, and of the Societe National des
Beaux Arts of Paris. He is one of the freshest
in style and most original of the American im-
pressionists, and has gained medals at Paris,
Munich, Chicago, and Philadelphia.

Hassen Ben Sabbah, the founder of the
sect of the Assassins (q.v.).

Hasselquist, has'sel-kwist, Frederick,
Swedish naturalist: b. Ostrogothia 1722; d.
Smyrna 9 Feb. 1752. In 1741 he went to the
University of Upsala, where his talents and in-
dustry drew the attention of Linnaeus. In 1747
jhe published a dissertation <De Viribus Plan-
tarum^ Wishing to make researches on the
spot into the natural history of Palestine he
'spent some time at Jerusalem, and afterward
visited other parts of the country. Returning
to Smyrna he brought with him a collection of
plants, minerals, fishes, reptiles, insects, and other
natural curiosities. The Swedish queen, Louisa
Ulrica, purchased the whole of Hasselquist's
acquisitions, which were deposited in the castle
of Drottningholm. Linnaeus, from the papers and
specimens of natural history collected by his
pupil, prepared for the press the <Iter Palaes-
tinum, or Travels in Palestine, wkh Remarks on
its Natural History > (1757), which has been
translated into English and other European

Hassler, has'ler, Ferdinand Rudolph,

Swiss- American scientist: b. Switzerland, 6 Oct.
1770; d. Philadelphia, Pa., 20 Nov. 1&13. After
serving on the trigonometrical survey of Switzer-
land, he emigrated to the United States, He
was appointed acting professor of mathematics
at West Point in 1807, and held the post for
three years. He was superintendent of the
United States Coast Survey in 1815, and from

1832 worked on the same commission until hit

' Hassler E xp e dition , a scientific expedition
of great importance despatched by the United
States Government In 1871 the steamship
Hassler was fitted out for coast survey and
marine exploration. The personnel of the ex-
pedition included Prof. Louis Agassiz, and Mrs.
Agassiz; Dr. F. Steindacher, ichthyologist; Dr.
Thomas Hill, botanist; Count L. F. de Pour-
tales, Mr. J. A. Allen, and others. The party
left Boston 4 Dec. 1871 and reached San Fran-
cisco, August 1872* Deep-sea dredging was car-
ried on at several points in the West Indies and
South Atlantic The glaciers in the neighbor-
hood of the Straits of Magellan were explored.
Collections were made at every point of the
voyage; the results of the expedition have been
published by Agassiz, Lvman, and Pourtales,
and much valuable material, zoological, geolog-
ical and botanical, deposited in the Museum of
Comparative Zoology, Cambridge.

Hastings, has'tingz, Francis Rawdon, ist

Marquis of Hastings and 2D Earl of Moua,
English soldier and statesman: b. 9 Dec. 1754;
d. off Naples 26 Nov. 1826. He entered the
army as an ensign, served in America during the
Revolution, and on 25 April 1781 gained the
battle of Hobkirk's Hill, which Lord Cornwallts
described as the most splendid of the war. In
1 78 1 he was elected a member of the Irish House
of Commons, and two years later he was pro-
moted to the English House of Lords with the
title of baron. He was in command of a force
which sought to aid the royalists of Brittany m
1793, and in the following year co-operated wkh
the Duke of York in the Netherlands. In 1812
he was appointed governor-general of Bengal
and commander-in-chief of the fortes in India.
His administration was distinguished by suc-
cessful wars against the Ghurkhas of Nepaul
and the Pmdarees of Central India, but in 1821
he resigned because certain charges had been
brought against him. in connection with a bank-
ing firm in which he was interested. In 1824
he was appointed governor of Malta,

Hastings, Thomas, American musician: b.
Washington, Conn., 1787; d. 1872. He early
made sacred music the subject of his careful
study; from 1823 to 1832 he edited a religious
paper, c The Recorder,* in Utica, but removed
to New York, where he made his fame as a
musical instructor and composer. His works
include: 'Mother's Hymn Book* (1849); his-
tory of Forty Choirs* (1854) ; and < Dissertation
on Musical Taste* (r853).

Hastings, Warren, English soldier and ad-
ministrator : b. Churchill, ^ Oxfordshire, 6 Dec.
1732; d. Daylesford, Warwickshire, 22 Aug. 1818.
An uncle in London sent him at 10 years of age
to Westminster School. On the death of his
uncle he obtained an appointment in the Bast
India Company's service, and he arrived at Ben-
gal in October 175a He was appointed to the
factory at Cossinbazar, and was taken prisoner
by Surajah Dowlah (1756). On obtaining his
freedom he joined Give, under whom he served
with distinction as a volunteer in his camoaign
of 1757. In 1738 he was appointed resident
agent of the company at Moorshedabad, in
which capacity he continued to act tiH 1761. It
is recorded to his honor that he did not avail

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himself of the opportunity of snaking bU fortune
in the mode then common among the servants
of the company, by ^presents* (forced) from the
native princes. In 1764 he returned to England,
but as a result of a bad investment of his fortune
was compelled again to ask for employment
from the company; and sailed for India in the
spring of 1769. In 177 1 the East India Company,
were contemplating extensive changes in the
government of India. The government of Ben-
gal was still carried on in the name of the
nabob, although he had become a mere cipher,
all his officers being appointed by the company,
and they cast their eyes upon Warren Hastings
as a fitting instrument to carry out their policy.
Give strenuously supported his appointment to
the Calcutta council O772), with succession as
president of the council and governor of Bengal.
He now received instructions from the directors
to deprive of his offices Mohammed Reza Khan,
who had exercised under the company the com-
plete control of the revenues and administration
of Bengal, and to bring him to trial for corrup-
tion. Mohammed bore a high character, and he
was accused by Ntmcomar, a man of notoriously
bad reputation. Shitab Roy, dewan of Behar,
was subjected to similar charges. After a pro-
tracted inquiry both Mohammed and Shitab were
fully acquitted of all the charges against them.
The object of these charges — the reorganization
of the judicial and financial administration of
the province under the direct control of the
company's officers, had in the meantime been
carried out by Hastings to the entire satisfaction
of the directors. Another important step taken
by him was to enter into a treaty with the
Nabob of Oude (Treaty of Benares, 7 ^ Sept.
1773), hy which he ceded to him the districts of
Corah and Allahabad for fifty lacs of rupees,
and engaged to hire out the company's troops
to him for the reduction of the Rohillas, whose
territory the nabob coveted. By the subsequent
act of 1773, Hastings was appointed first gov-
ernor-general of India, and a supreme council
was named, of whom three formed a majority
unfavorable to Hastings. The natives were en-
couraged to bring charges against him, and
Nuncomar, his old ally, came forward with
various charges of bribery. A supreme court of
justice had been appointed at the same time
with the supreme council of Calcutta, The chief-
justice, Sir Elijah Impey, its head, was a friend
of Hastings. Nuncomar was brought .before
this court, charged with forgery, convicted, and
executed. This stretch of jurisdiction, which
Hastings could easily have prevented, alienated
from him public sympathy in England. The
directors of the company petitioned the crown
on S May 1776 for his removal from the council.
Hastings had deputed Colonel MacLean, who
returned to England in 1776 to insist on certain
conditions or tender his resignation. It was
accepted, and a successor appointed to take his
place in the council, 23 Oct 17764 General
Clavering assumed the title of governor-general,
which Hastings still insisted on retaining^ as
the change had been made without the condi-
tions he had appended to his resignation. The
supreme court, which was appealed to, decided
in favor of Hastings. To, end a dispute between
the council and the supreme court of Calcutta,
and to bring the chief-justice under the influ-
ence of the council, Hastings now appointed Sir
Elijah Impey superintendent of the native courts

with a salary of £8,000 a year, an appointment
regarded by some as equivalent to a bribe. He
involved himself in disputes with the Madras
government, made demands for a large war
contribution upon the Rajah of Benares, and
when the rajah resisted arrested and deposed
him. He caused the ^begums of Oude,* mother
and grandmother of the Nabob of Oude, to give
up extensive estates in land and a large amount
of treasure. The House of Commons had passed
a resolution (30 May 1782) requiring the directors
to pursue all legal and effectual means for his
removal. In November 1784 he resigned his
post, and in February 1785 el ft India. In 1786
articles of impeachment were brought in by
Burke against him. The preliminary forms were
gone through from 13 to 14 February, and
Burke opened the charges against him in a
speech of three days' duration, begun on the
15th. He was supported by Fox, Sheridan, and
Grey. Hastings began his defense on 2 June
1 791, and on 17 April 1795 was acquitted by
large majorities on all the charges. His acquit-
tal met with general approval. The legal ex-
penses of his trial amounted to £76,080. The
company in 1796 settled on him an annuity of
£4,000 a year for 28}4 years, and lent him £50,000
for 18 years free of interest He passed the
remainder of his life in retirement. In 1813 he
received the degree of LL.D. from the University
of Oxford, and in 1814 was created a privy-

Hastings, Mich., city, county-seat of Barry
County; on the Thornapple River, and on the
Chicago, K. & S. and the Michigan C R.R-'s;
about 38 miles west by south of Lansing and 32
miles southeast of Grand Rapids. The city is
in a fertile agricultural region. The chief manu-
factures are furniture, pumps, wagons and car-
riages, hose-reels, car-seats, flour, cigars, felt
boots and lumber camp supplies. The principal
buildings are the library, the city hall, jail and
courthouse. The city owns and operates the
waterworks. Pop. (1910) 4,383.

Hastings, Minn!, city, county-seat of
Dakota County; on the Mississippi River at the
mouth of the Vermilion River T and on the
Chicago, M. & S. P. railroad; about 15 miles
southeast of Saint Paul. Its chief industrial
establishments are breweries, a malt-house, flour-
mills, grain-elevators, saw- and planing-mills,
sash, door, and blind factories, carriage
and wagon factories, furniture factories, lumber
and brick yards. In addition to the trade in
manufactured articles, grain, lumber, and live
stock are among the important shipments. Pop.
(iojo) 3£83.

Hastings, Neb., city in Adams County;
on the Missouri P., the Burlington & M., the Fre-
mont, E. & M. V., the Saint J. & G. I. R.R.'s;
about 2$ miles south of Grand Island and 95
miles west of Lincoln. Its first 9ettlers were
Eastern people who availed themselves of the
benefits of the government ^Homestead Act,*
but the city was not incorporated until 1874-
It is in a fertile agricultural section. The chief
manufactures are flour, wagons, and agricultural
implements. The trade is principally in wheat,
corn, and live stock. It is the seat of Hastings
College, under the auspices of the Presbyterian
Church, and opened in 1882, and of the State
asylum for chronic insane. The government . is
vested in a mayor, who holds office two years,

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and in a city council. The present charter is
that of 1891. The city owns and operates the
electric light plant and the waterworks. Pop.
(1910) 9,338.

Hastings-upon-Hudson, N. Y., village in
the town of Greensburg, in Westchester County;
on the Hudson River, and the New York Cen-
tral & H. R. railroad; about three miles north
of Yonkers and 20 miles from New York. It
is largely a residential village; but in the vicin-
ity are marble quarries which add to the indus-
trial wealth of the place. It has some manu-
factures, chiefly chemicals and cigars; it has
a large trade in coal and lumber. It is the seat
of the Hastings Commercial and Collegiate In-
stitute, and has several churches and good
schools. Pop. (1910) 4552.

Hastings, Battle of. See Senlac

Has'well, Charles Haynes, American engi-
neer: b. New York 22 May 1809; d. 12 May
1907. His practical education as marine and
mechanical engineer was learned in a steam-
engine factory. In 1836 he was appointed chief
engineer in the United States navy. He built the
first practical steam-launch in 1837 and was the
first to use zinc to protect the halls of iron ves-
sels and boilers from the galvanic action of salt
water and copper. After 1698 he was the con-
sulting engineer of the board of public improve-
ments in New York city. His published works
include ( The Mechanics' and Engineers' Pocket
Book* (1901); ( Mechanics' Tables > (1854);
^Reminiscences of an Octagenarian> (1895).

Hatch, John Porter, American general: b.
Oswego, N. Y., 29 Jan. 1822; d. 12 April 1901.
He was graduated at West Point and rose
through successive grades to lieutenant-colonel
of cavalry in 1873. He served in the Mexican
War from Palo Alto to the capture of the city
of Mexico; and in the Civil War was appointed
brigadier-general of volunteers in September
1861, and commanded a cavalry brigade in the
Shenandoah Valley and Northern Virginia. He
subsequently commanded various districts in the
South; and was brevetted major-general.

Hatch, Rufus, American banker: b. Wells,
York County, Maine, 1832; d. 1893. He began
life as clerk in a grocery store, in Rockford, 111.,
in 1854 entered the grain commission business
in Chicago, and amassed a fortune. He man-
aged the Chicago and Northwestern railroad
combination in 1868 and made a financial failure
in the Northern Pacific collapse of 1883.

Hatch, William Henry, American lawyer:
b. Georgetown, Ky., 1833 ; d. 1896. He was ad-
mitted to the bar in 1854; served through the
Civil War in the Confederate army, and was a
member from Missouri in the United States
House of Representatives from 1879 to 1895.
The Hatch Act which distributed Federal aid to
agricultural experiment stations in all the
States and Territories was inspired by him.

Hatchee, or Big Hatchee, a river which
has its rise in the northeastern part of the State
of Mississippi, flows north by west into Tennes-
see, then northwest and west joining the Missis-
sippi River about 30 miles in direct line above
Memphis. It is navigable for small steamboats
as far as Bolivar, about 100 miles from its mouth,
or half its whole length. The area drained by
the Hatchee, about 4,000 square miles, is excel-
lent cotton land.

Hatcher's Ron (Boydton Road), Battle of.
On 27 Oct 1864, Gen. Grant, with the intention
to extend his lines to the South Side railroad,
and under the belief that the Confederate works
around Petersburg extended only to the Boyd-
ton road crossing of Hatcher's Run, and were
but feebly manned, moved parts of the Ninth,
Fifth, and Second corps, together with Gregg's
cavalry division, in all about 38,000 men, in three
columns to the left. Gen. Parke, commanding
the Ninth corps, moving to surprise the right
of the Confederate works, found them strongly
held, and made no attack. The Fifth corps, on
the left of the Ninth, crossed Hatcher's Run
and endeavored to seize the bridge by which the
Boydton road crossed that stream, and was
repulsed. The Second corps and Gregg's cav-
alry succeeded in forcing a passage over Hatch-
er's Run by the Vaughan road, and reaching
the Boydton road, moved down it to Burgess'
Tavern, near the bridge over Hatcher's Run,
some four miles above Armstrong's Mill, where
the infantry was checked. Hancock's Second
corps having effected the passage of Hatcher's
Run, by the Vaughan road, Warren was ordered
to cross Crawford's division of the Fifth
corps at Armstrong's Mill and, sweeping up
the right bank of the stream, endeavor to recross
and assault the Confederate line in the rear,
while Griffin's division assaulted in front. Han-
cock was advised of the orders given Warren
and authorized to make the attempt to carry
the bridge in his front and gain some high
ground beyond. At 4.30 p.m., when Hancock
was extending his right to connect with Craw-
ford, and was about to assault the bridge, Gen.
Heth, with his own division and a part of Mi-
hone's, having crossed Hatcher's Run and pene-
trated the interval between Hancock and (Jraw-
ford, vigorously attacked Hancock's right an<i
rear, throwing it into some confusion and cap-
turing many prisoners, but Heth was finally
repulsed. At about the same time Hampton,
with five cavalry brigades, attacked Hancock's
left and rear and Gregg's cavalry, but was re-
pulsed. Crawford, who had crossed at Arm-
strong's Mill, found great difficulty in moving
up the bank of Hatcher's Run, and failed to
make connection with Hancock. The object of
the entire movement failed, with Hancock still
six miles from the South Side railroad. The
Union troops were withdrawn during the nfgfit
and, next day, moved back to the line of en-
trenchments. The Union loss, the greater part of
which fell upon the Second corps, was 1,194 killed
and wounded, and 564 missing. The Confed-
erate loss is unknown. Consult: ( Official Rec-
ords^ Vol. XLIL; Humphreys, <The Virginia
Campaign of 1864-5*; Walker, ( History of the
Second Army Corps ) ; The Century Company's
battles and Leaders of the Civil War,> Vol.
IV. e. A. Carman.

Hatcher's Run (Dabnev's Mill and Arm-
strong's Mill), Battle of. It was on 5 Feb.
1865 that Gen. Grant put in motion an expe-
dition to interrupt the Confederate line of com-
munication by the Boydton road, running
through Dinwiddie Court House to Petersburg. '
Gregfps cavalry division was directed to march
early in the morning by way of Ream's Station
to Dinwiddie Court House and strike the road;
Warren's Fifth corps was to cross Hatcher's Run
and support Gregg; Gen. Humphreys, comtnand-

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nng the Second corps, was ordered with two divi-
sions to the crossing of the Vaughan road over
the Run, and to Armstrong's Mill, to hold these
two points and to keep up communication with
Warren, four miles distant, on the one side,
and with Miles' division in the Union entrench-
ments, three or four miles distant, on the other
side. After severe skirmishing, Humphreys
pushed Motts' division to the south side of
Hatcher's Run, and established Smyth's division
at Armstrong's Mill on the north side, about
1,000 yards from the Confederate works, where
two brigades were brought to Smyth's support.
At 5 p.m. parts of A. P. Hill's and Gordon's
corps came out of their works and, under cover
-of the woods, attacked Smyth, but were re-
pulsed. Smyth's line was now further strength-
ened by Hartranft's division of the Ninth corps
and Wheaton's of the Sixth. Gregg captured
some wagons and prisoners on the Boyd ton
road, and in the evening fell back to Malone's
Bridge on Rowanty Creek, from which he moved
up to the Vaughan road crossing, where he
arrived early in the morning of the 6th, with
Warren, who had been ordered to support
Humphreys. About i p.m. Warren, with two divi-
sions, moved along the Vaughan and Dabney's
Mill roads; Gregg, supported by one of War-
»_ J? ?_• __?__ ( j own t h e Vaughan road

iserve the left. Gregg was
)f Pegram's division, but
, with the support given
s division, drove Pegram's
leading division (Craw-
: Dabney's Mill road, also
Pegram's division, which
ibney's Mill, where Evans'
ram's support, and Craw-
iven back. Three Union
>rought up to Crawford's
ne time, Mahone's division
>ition between Evans and
lole Confederate line ad-
en back in great disorder,
1 rallied upon Wheaton's
division, which had crossed from the north
bank of the stream, and the Confederates were
checked. On the morning of the 7th Warren
made a reconnoissance, but did not find the
enemy in force. The Union works were now
extended to Hatcher's Run at the
road crossing. The Union loss was
and wounded, and 187 missing. The
ate loss was about 1,500, among the 1
Gen- John Pegram. Consult: < Ol
ords,> Vol. XLVL; Humphreys, <T1
Campaign of 1864-5 > ; Walker, <Hist
Second Army Corps ) ; Powell, c Hist
Fifth Army Corps. > E . A . Carman.

Hatch'ettite, A<
pocere, a native
the nature of a p;
parts of England a
nection with bogs ai
like, and melts at
gravity of the natui
after melting the sp
even higher, owing
bles. Hatchettite i
fresh it is common!
Upon exposure, he
^omes opaque.

Hatchie River, or David' Bridge, Battle ot

After Gen. Van Dorn's defeat at Corinth, Miss.,
4 Oct. 1862, he retreated and bivouacked for (he
night at Chewalla. Early on the morning of the
5th he continued his retreat on Pocahontas, but
when his advance had crossed Hatchie River,
at Davis' Bridge, he was met by Gen. Hurt-
but's division, which had been sent by Gen.
Grant from Bolivar, Tenn., to Pooahontas to
intercept -his retreat. Van Dorn's advance was
driven back across the bridge, his main body
came up, and Gen. Grd, who had arrived on the
field from Jackson, took command of Hurlbut's
division and attacked Van Dorn vigorously. A
severe engagement ensued, in which Ord was
severely wounded, and Hurlbut resumed com-
mand of the Union troops. Van Dorn, not
closely followed from Corinth by Rosecrans, who
was 12 miles away, held his position before
Hurlbut the greater part of the day and, cut
off from his route through Pocahontas, contin-
ued his retreat on the east bank of the Hatchie
for six miles to Crum's Mill, where he crossed
his army on a bridge during the night and
continued his retreat to Ripley and thence to
Holly Springs. Rosecrans followed as far as
Ripley, when Grant ordered him to return to
Corinth and Hurlbut to Bolivar. See Corinth,
Advance on and Battle of.

E. A. Carman.
Hatch'ment (a corruption of achievement,
xoat of arms) a funeral escutcheon, the arms of
a deceased person within a black lozenge-shaped
frame meant to be placed on the front of his
home. If the deceased was unmarried or a
widower or widow, the whole field of the es-
cutcheon is black. In the hatchment of a mar-
ried person the arms of husband and wife are
impaled, and only that part is black which ad-
joins the side of it occupied by the arms of the
deceased. Thus, in the hatchment of a husband
the dexter side is black, the sinister white; in
that of the wife the reverse. In a bishop's
hatchment his arms being impaled with that of
the see, those of the see have a white back-
ground. When the deceased is the last of his
race a skull is set above the shield in place of

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quietly; with the evolution of immense quan-
tities of smoke. Apparently, explosion can be
induced only through the agency of a dynamite
percussion cap. Hathamite is a coarse powder,
of a bluish-gray color, whose composition has
not yet been divulged. It explodes with exceed-
ing violence when fired with a suitable percus-
sion cap. In one test a charge of an ounce and
a half blew a two-inch hole through a piece of
quarter-inch boiler plate, when merely laid upon
the plate, and detonated in the open air. In
another test a little over eight ounces of the
explosive was actually melted and poured into
a six-pound shell; and when the charge was
afterward detonated, the shell was thoroughly
fragmented. One marked advantage of hatha-

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