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The Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 online

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mite is, that it will explode even when frozen.

Hath'away, Anne, the wife of Shake-
speare. See Shakespeare.

Hats and Hat-making* It is difficult to
state just when hats were first worn, but it is
a fact that fur-felt hats now form part of the
attire of civilized man the world over. There
is no record as to when or where the first hat
was made. We find head covering in one form
or another in vogue in the earliest times referred
to in history. The first modern hat* as we now
know this article of men's wear, was made in
Paris about 1404 by a Swiss manufacturer, but
it was not until 49 years afterwards that the
French adopted any sort of a head covering.
Charles XII., upon his entry in triumph into the
city of Rouen in 1453, wore a huge hat made of
fur, lined with red velvet, from which protruded
a great feather. With royalty as its sponsor the
hat at once became a necessary detail of man's
wardrobe. The hat is distinguished from the
cap or bonnet by its continuous brim. It has
been traced back to the *petasus a of ancient
Greece, just as the cap has been regarded as the
descendant of the brimless ^Pileus,* also a form
of Grecian head attire. These articles, as far as
we know, were made almost exclusively of felt.

Felt hats became popular in England during
the Norman occupation. In Queen Elizabeth's
reign great beaver hats, usually black, were the
favorite among the nobility, and they remained
in vogue for more than 300 years. About the
middle of the 17th century an effort was made
to encourage this industry in America. In 1662
the assembly of Virginia, to stimulate activity
among the colonists, offered, by special enact-
ment, to give 10 pounds of tobacco for every
?ood wool or fur hat produced in that colony
rom materials taken from animals native
thereto. Hats were then made by hand, and no
effort of any consequence was made to improve
the primitive conditions until 1820, when the
energy of the American inventor produced the
first labor-saving machine. Improvement now
followed improvement, each one, in its way,
tending to economize the cost of making.

In 1810 the silk hat appeared. It was made
by hand, and failed in its purpose to supplant the
tiled beaver. It was not until 1830 that the silk
plush hat was manufactured upon a paying basis.

In 1849 the soft felt hat made its bow in the
United States. Its sponsor was the famous Hun-
garian patriot, Kossuth, who visited America in
that year. He was given tremendous receptions
everywhere, and won the heart of the great
American republic. His great hat seemed to be

typical of the vigorous character of the man, and
it was not surprising that the a Kossuth* became
a general favorite. From that time the soft hat
has steadily gained friends, and to-day in many
sections it is a predominant type.

While the industry in this country, prior to
the Civil War, kept pace with progress in other
lines, it was not able to hat the heads of thou-
sands of Americans, and the foreign manufac-
turer found the States a very profitable terri-
tory. But to-day America has become a great
exporter of hats. By far the largest share of
this foreign trade is controlled by the city of
Philadelphia, where the finest grades of hats in
the world are made. The other well-known hat
centres in America are Orange and Newark,
N. J., Danbury, Bethel, and Norwalk, Conn.,.
Brooklyn, N. Y., and Reading, Pa.

The kinds of hats now made are so numerous
as to be almost beyond the possibility of listing.
There are, however, three principal classifica-
tions: the felt hat, which includes the soft and
the stiff or derby shape, the silk hat, and the
straw hat. All other kinds are but variations in
some way of these three. In this article the
writer will deal exclusively with the felt hat,
concerning which there is the greatest interest.
But few people have any conception of the nu-
merous perplexing details and methods which
enter into the construction of the hat.

The furs most generally used in manufactur-
ing felt hats are the beaver, which is found in
the northwestern part of the United States and
Canada ; the coypou or nutria, known as the
South American beaver; the Saxony and the
Russian hare; the Scotch, English and French
coney, and muskrats. The finest furs are taken
from the nutria, beaver and otter, alf water ani-
mals, that portion which is taken from the belly
being regarded as the choicest. The others are
land animals, the fur from the back being re-
garded as the best. In the more common grades
of hats sheep's wool is used, while in the inferior
grades wool is mixed with cotton and other vege-
table fibres. These, however, cannot be properly
termed felt hats, because the materials used are
not felted together. They are cemented and are
then stiffened by shellac.

Furs for the higher grade hats require the
most exhaustive preparation. Upon their arrival
at the factory the pelts are first washed with
whale-oil soap to remove the superficial fatty
matter which clings to the fur. A further ptiri- ,
fication is necessary, however, and for this pur-
pose *carrotring* is employed. A solution of
mercury and nitric acid is applied to the pelts.
This chemical, deposited in the cellular tissues,
absorbs and thoroughly destroys all animal fats
and gives to the fur its felting properties.

After a thorough brushing the fur is next cut
from the pelts and is then stored away to mellow
and season, for the reason that, like good wine,
it strengthens and, improves with age. When
these furs have become properly seasoned, and
are in prime condition, they are subjected to an
interesting process for the purpose of removing
the hair; a machine, known as a *blower* con-
taining powerful air blasts, accomplishes this
work in a very thorough manner. The hair is
blown from the fur without harming the latter.
This is repeated over and over again, until all
foreign matter has been removed. The by-prod-
ucts obtained through these preliminary opera-

Digitized by



tions are extensive. Many of them are usftd for
other purposes than hatting; for instance, the
shreds of the skins are used in the manufacture
of the highest grades of glue.

The task of selecting the furs and of combin-
ing them in proper proportion to produce the
best results in a high-grade hat demands the
most careful attention of the experienced ex-
perts. Many years of experiment have been nec-
essary, in order to learn just how these furs
should be mixed, and just what would constitute
the correct proportion. The strength and perfec-
tion, as well as the beauty of the completed hat,
depend largely upon the efforts of those in-
trusted with this portion of the work.

The next stage in the life of the hat is the
forming. Until recently this was a business in
itself. Few hat-making firms engaged in it.
To-day, however, many of the larger manufac-
turers are successfully doing their own forming.
This work can be accomplished only by experts.
It is one of the most interesting features of hat
making. The exact quantity of properly mixed
fur is carefully weighed and placed upon an
endless apron at one end of a box-like machine.
At the other end of the machine there is a large

ng rap-
nt care-
ard the
Eur and
le cone,
with a
t. The
ee min-
ited the
it, and
: of hot
st stage
csion of

r r conical

body from the cone. It is now several times
larger than ks ultimate size. It has assumed the
primary form.

Sizing, as the felting is termed, Is the next
process. The body, which has just been removed
from the cone, is placed in a sizing kettle, where
it is shrunk in hot water. Continuous rubbing
and rolling reduces it in size almost one-quarter.
It still retains its corie shape, but it is now firmly
felted. Care as well as skill is required to insure
the even shrinking and the uniform distribution
of the stock. Failure in any detail will cause
streaks and weak spots in the finished article.
The hat is now ready for dyeing. It is im-
mersed in a great color vat and dyed to meet the
Kevailing fashion. Great improvements* have
en made in this detail during the past few
years. The old wood colorings have been dis-
carded, and coal-tar products are now used
because they have been found more serviceable
and increase the durability of the hat. Up to
this point the manufacturing of stiff and soft
hats has been along similar lines, but from this
time on different methods are used. After dye-
ing the next step is to stiffen slightly the brim
•of the 6oft hat by the application of a water stiff,*
a solution of shellac The body is now begin-
ning to assume a definite form. It is stretched,
blocked and pulled, and, with the aid of hot
water, steam and ingenious machinery, it is given

stability of shape and form. The -rough surface
must now be cut off. This operation requires
great care. If too much of the fur is removed
all the previous skilled manipulation becomes
valueless and the hat is ruined. This operation
is known as a pouncing.* It was formerly ac-
complished with a great deal of hand labor. It
is now done by a machine and emery paper.
This machine is a great time saver, and greatly
facilitates the production of the plant The
crown is next given its shape, as demanded by
the style. It is stretched over wooden blocks,
ironed and re-ironed. It must then be carefully
pounced by hand and steamed to tighten the felt*
The brim must be treated exactly the same way,
although it is not given shape at this time. Only
men of skill and experience can engage in this
portion of the work. There is a knack about
pouncing by hand that can be acquired only by

The hat is next flanged, or, rather, the brim is
given its shape. The brim is placed upon a
flange of metal or wood so as not to affect the
crown. The entire hat resting on the flange is
then placed under a huge receptacle containing
heated sand and having on the under side a
heavy cotton fabric, which comes in direct con-
tact with the felt After remaining in this posi-
tion for several minutes the brim of the hat has
its correct shape and trimming is in order. The
turning up and edging each play an important
part in the final process of shaping. In trimming
artistic treatment is a necessity. Care must be
taken in attaching the bands and bindings to pre-
serve the neatness as well as the character of the
design. The insertion of the sweat leather must
be carefully done. All these and other details
add greatly to the appearance and durability of
the finished product

The stiffening of the derby, better known as
ff the stiff hat,* because of the character of the
felting, is an interesting process. The hat body
is impregnated with a solution of shellac and
alcohol of given density. This substance is care-
fully worked into the heart of the body, and as a
result the felting attains a condition of firmness.
The hat is then placed on a wooden block, is im-
mersed in hot water, and is given the proper
proportion and shape before the final pressing.
At the conclusion of this operation the superflu-
ous gum is cleared away by a soda bath. When
dry the hat is rigid throughout. It is then placed
in an oven and kept there until it becomes pli-
able. A mould, to which tremendous pressure is
given by mechanical oc hydraulic means, com-
pletes the pressing after the derby has been
pounced or finished. The pouncing of a derby
is done upon a lathe. It is placed on a wooden
block similar to the moulds used in pressing.
Should the operator cut off too much of the
surface fur, thus destroying the nap, the stiffen-
ing will be exposed and the work of the skilled
men who preceded him loses its value. Curling
or shaping of the brim is done with a variety of
small tools, heat, steam, deftness of fingers and
a good eye. The work of some of the experts
who develop the stiff hat brims by the eye is
little less man marvelous. The trimming, bind-
ing, etc., of stiff hats require even greater cane
m their selection and adjustment than in the
case of soft hats.

Among American hat makers Charles Knox
was one of the early specialists in beaver, and

Digitized by



silk hat* in New York. Robert Dunlop, of
New York, has also an eminent name in the hat
trade of America. The history of the John B.
Stetson Company, of Philadelphia, is to a large
degree the history of hat making in the United
States for the last 39 years. From the small be-
ginning of one room and two mechanics the
Stetson factories have been developed to nine
immense plants, having a floor space of over ten
acres and a force of more than 2,500 employees.
When John B. Stetson, in 1865, determined to
manufacture hats he was known as the foremost
expert in the mixing of furs and as one of the
best hat finishers in the trade. He determined
to avoid the cheap hat and to make only the
highest grade of goods and to make them better
than any other manufacturer. His output the
first year did not exceed one hundred dozen hats.
His capital was not more than $1,000. In 1903
the John B. Stetson Company, with its great
force of employees, supplemented by improved
machinery, most of the patents for whkh are
owned by the company, produced 105,800 dozens
of hats. This company has introduced new ma-
chinery, which cheapens the cost of production
without a sacrifice in quality, and has carried
the fame of the city of Philadelphia to every
quarter of the globe. A process has also been
perfected whereby pure nutria and beaver fur.
may be successfully utilized in superfine hat

Another important improvement in hat mak-
ing is that known as the tt Boss w raw-edge kettle
finished hat This was introduced in the early
seventies. Prior to this time all soft hats were
made with bands and bindings, the latter being
used to hold the brim in shape. The € Boss* raw-
edge hat, as its name indicates, has no binding
around the edge. It is shaped in hot water by
frequent immersions and by the skillful hand
work of an expert. The brim curling is a fea-
ture that cannot be accomplished in any other
factory. This hat is, beyond question, the most
remarkable specimen of headwear the world has
ever seen. The John B. Stetson Company has
been awarded the grand prize or gold medal at
nearly every world's fair since 1876, but it holds
as of almost equal value an order which it re-
ceived from the British government for 10,000
hats for the South African constabulary during
the Boer war. Prior to this war a number of
American miners and cattlemen drifted into
South Africa wearing Stetson's hats. They came
in contact with General Baden- Powell, who ad-
mired the hats they wore and made inquiries
about them. They were made of nutria fur, were
better in quality than those produced anywhere
in Europe. General Powell requested his gov*
emment to order 10,000 of these hats, and
the Stetson factories made and delivered them
within six weeks of the receipt of the order.
In 1876 the Stetson Company was awarded a
gold medal by the Philadelphia Centennial Ex-
position. In 1879 it won a medal at Paris. In
1889 and in 1900 it won the grand prix at Paris.
The official report making the award at the
Paris Exposition in 1900 said, concerning the
Stetson exhibit: *The products displayed here
are, from every point of view, absolutely remark-
able, but very especially the manufacture of soft
hats, which is incontestably the acme of perfec-
tion of this epoch. 9 William F. Fray,
First Vict-Prts. John B. Stetson Company.

Haf teraa, Cape. See Cafe Hatteras.

Hatteras Inlet, Capture of. In the fore-
noon df 26 Aug. 1861, a Union fleet of 7
vessels carrying 143 guns, under command of
Flag-officer Silas H. Stringham, and 3 trans-
ports, carrying 930 men and a light battery,
under command of Gen. Butler, set sail from
Hampton Roads. Next afternoon the fleet ar-
rived off Hatteras Inlet, the entrance to Pam-
lico Sound which was guarded by Forts Hat-
teras and Clark, built by North Carolina on the
south end of Hatteras Island, and mounting
respectively 25 and 5 heavy guns. The forts,
which were garrisoned by over 700 men, were
under command of Maj. Andrews. At 10 a.m.
of the 28th Stringham began the bombardment
of the forts, and a little later about 300 troops,
with two howitzers^ were landed on the island
above the forts. Fort Clark was silenced be-
fore noon, the greater part of its garrison re-
treating to Fort Hatteras, some escaping from
the island by boats. At night the fleet withdrew,
but renewed the attack upon Fort Hatteras
early in the morning of the 29th, drove the
gunners from iheir guns to the shelter of the
bomb-proofs, 2nd before noon the fort sur-
rendered, after a loss of 30 killed and wounded.
The Union loss was one wounded. Stringham
and Butler returned to Hampton Roads, leav-
ing three vessels as a sea-force and detach-
ments of the Ninth and Twentieth New York
and the Union coast-guard, under Col. R C
Hawkins, to garrison the captured forts. The
immediate results of the expedition were the
capture of the two strong forts with their
garrisons of 715 men, 31 heavy guns, r,ooo stand
of arms, and the possession of the best sea en-
trance to the inland waters of North Carolina.
Consult : The Century Companv's ( Battles and
Leaders of the Civil War,> Vol. I.; Maclay,
'History of the Navy,> Vol. II.

E. A. Carman.

Hatti-Sheriff, the Turkish name of an edict
signed by the sultan, who subscribes it usually
with these words: e Let my order be executed
according to its form and import.* These words
are usually edged with gold, or otherwise orna-
mented. An order given in this wav is irrevoc-
able. The firman of 18 Feb. 1856, called usually
Hatti humayun, ^exalted writing,* is the consti-
tutional charter of the Turkish empire. It is a
long document, undivided into articles, and pre-
scribing various reforms administrative and
financial, etc, but its chief importance consists
in its explicit recognition of the principle of re-
ligious liberty, already admitted by the hatti of
Gulhana, 3 Nov. 1839.

Hattiesburg, Miss., city, county-seat of
Perry County,* on the Leaf River, and on the
Gulf & S. I., the New Orleans & N., the Mobile,
J. & K. C, and the Pearl & L. R. R.R/s; about
65 miles north of Biloxi and 84 miles southeast
of Jackson. The Gulf & Ship Island railroad is
the shortest route to the Gulf of Mexico. Hat-
tiesburg is the trade centre of a large fertile
agricultural region in which an excellent quality
of cotton is extensively cultivated. The indus-
tries are growing rapidly and its good railroad
facilities mean good markets. The chief indus-
trial establishments are saw-mfll9, planing-mitfc,
cottonseed-oil mills, a cotton compress, a foun-
dry, machine-shops, boiler works, brick-yard*

Digitized by



m naval store factory, railroad shops, an ice-
plant, and the electric light and power plant It
lias three banks, a number of fine public build-
ings. Pop. (1900) 4J75; (1910) n,733.

Hatto, haYta, the name of two- archbish-
ops of Mainz, both somewhat conspicuous in
the history of Germany* The first was chosen
archbishop of Mainz in 891, d. 913. The sec-
ond Hatto (d. 970) was a monk of the monastery
of Fulda, and succeeded the celebrated Rabanus
Maurus as abbot of the monastery of St. Boni-
-face, about the year 042 and hi 968 was raised to
the see of Mainz,. and continued one of the chief
advisers of the emperor. Of his after-life and
of his personal character most opposite accounts
have been given. By some he is represented as
an upright and successful administrator ; by oth-
ers as a selfish and hard-hearted oppressor
of the poor; and the strange legend of nis be-
ing devoured by rats, which Southey has per-
petuated in his well-known ballad, is repre-
sented as ?n evidence of the estimate that was
popularly formed regarding him. It is quite
possible that this legend is of much later date,
and that its real origin is to be traced to the
equivocal designation of the tower on the
Rhine, Mausethurm, near Bingen, which has been
selected as the scene of the occurrence. Mause-
thurm, € Mouse-tower* is possibly only a corrup-
ted form of Mauth Thurtn, *Toll-tower,* a suf-
ficiently descriptive name ; but the modified form
of the word might readily suggest a legend of
mice or rats. The date at which the Mausethurm
was built is unknown, and it is far from certain
that it is not much later than the time of Hatto.
See Baring-Gould, < Curious Myths of the Mid-
dle Ages* (1869) ; Max Beheim, <Die Mause-
thurmsage > (1888).

Hat' ton, Sir Christopher, English states-
man: b. at Holdenby about 1540; d. 1591. Lord
chancellor of England, a favorite of Queen
Elizabeth; was entered a gentleman commoner
at Saint Mary Hall, Oxford, but removed with-
out taking a degree, to the Inner Temple in
1560. He was introduced at court some time
previous to the middle of the year 1564, and it
is said Queen Elizabeth was so much struck
with his graceful person and dancing that an
introduction to her favor was the result, and
gained him the name of ^the dancing chancel-
lor * He was a furious enemy of the Jesuits,
and did not hesitate to accuse Parry, their de-
fender in Parliament, and secure his execution.
He was elected a member of Parliament in 1571,
oecame captain of the Queen's Guard in 1572,
vice-chamberlain and a privy-councillor in 1577,
lord-chancellor m 1587. He was one of the
•commissioners for the trial of Mary Queen of
Scots, in 1586. His artful speech to the un-
liappy queen, *If you are innocent you have
nothing to fear; but by seeking to avoid a trial
you stain your reputation by an everlasting
blot? is supposed to have been mainly influential
in inducing her to submit to trial. Spenser,
whose patron he was, dedicated to him c The
Faerie Queen.*

Hatton, Frank, American journalist: b.
Cambridge, Ohio, 28 April 1846; d. Washing-
ton, D. C, 30 April 1894. He served through
the Civil War in the Army of the Cumberland,
•beitmc commissioned and was subsequently part-

ner with Robert J. Burdette (q.v.) in the pro-
prietorship of the Burlington Hawk eye. He was
assistant postmaster-general (188 1-4) ; post-
master-general (1884-5); editor of Chicago
Mail (1884-8); and editor of the Washington
Post (1888-94).

Hatton, John Liptrot, English composer:
b. Liverpool 1809; d. Margate, Kent, 20 Sept.
1886. Removing to London in 1832 he became
famous for his many operas, cantatas, overtures,
entr'actes, etc., and was musical director of the
Princess Theatre 1853-9. He is now, however,
remembered chiefly for his admirable settings of
English songs, such as < Good-bye, Sweetheart, >
<The Tar's Song,> <The Bait,* etc.

Hatton, Joseph, English journalist, novel-
ist, and playwright: b. Andovcr 3 Feb. 1841 ; d.
London 31 J[uly 1907. Beginning journalism on
the Derbyshire Times, he went to London, where
he edited the < Gentleman's Magazine ) (1868-74) ;
and became a newspaper correspondent for the
New York Times and other journals. Among
his numerous novels are: < Clytie ) (1874);
< Queen of Bohemia > (1877) ; <John Needham's
Double* (1885), dramatized for E. S. Willard;
<By Order of the Czar,* a novel of Russian
life; Princess MazarofP ; < Under the Great
Seal*; < When Greek Meets Greek,* a novel of
the French Revolution successfully dramatized;
^hen Rogues Fall Out* (1899). Among his
miscellaneous publications the best-known are:
* Journalistic London* ; <The New Ceykm* ;
i Henry Irving's Impressions of America > ; ( 01d
Lamps and New ) ; while among his plays may
be cited a version of <The Scarlet Letter > suc-
cessfully acted in the United States ; < The Prince
and the Pauper > ; < Liz > ; and <A Daughter of

Hauck, hak, Minnie, American vocalist: b.
New York 16 Nov. 1852. She appeared in con-
cert in New Orleans at 13, afterward studied
with Errani in New York and made her d£but as
an opera singer in <La Sonnambula ) in 1868.
She has been uniformly successful both in the
United States and Europe, but is best known
in the title role of Carmen. She is married to
the Chevalier de Hesse- Wartegg.

Haupt, howpt, Herman, American engi-
neer: b. Philadelphia, Pa., 26 March 181 7; d. 14
Dec. 1905. He was graduated at West Point
jn 1855, but became a civil engineer, and
joined the staff engaged on the public works
of Pennsylvania. For three years he was pro-
fessor of civil engineering and mathematics in

Online LibraryWilfrid RichmondThe Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 → online text (page 116 of 185)