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The Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 online

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Pennsylvania College but in 1847 became con-
sulting engineer of the Philadelphia Railroad.
He was afterward chief engineer of the Hoosac
Tunnel and during the Civil War chief of the
United States Bureau of Military Railroads.
The Royal Polytechnic Society of Great Britain
gave him their highest prize for the drilling ma-
chine which he invented, and he first made
practicable the transportation and distribution
of oil from the well side. He wrote <Hints on
Bridge Building* (1840) ; < General Theory of
Bridge Construction (1852); C A Consideration
of the Plans Proposed for the Improvement of
the Ohio River> (1855); <Miiitary Bridges*

Haupt, Lewis Muhlenberg, American en-
gineer: b. Gettysmirgi Pa., si March 1841. He

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' was educated at Harvard and West Point. From
1872 to 1892 he was professor of civil engineer-
ing in the University of Pennsylvania, and for
the year ending 1886 edited the Engineering
Register. > From 1807 to 1899 he was a member
of the Nicaraguan and the Isthmian Canal Com-
missions. a His published works include: ( Work-
ing Drawings and How to Make and Use Them*
(1881) ; < Canals and Their Economic Relation
to Transportation ) (1890).

Haupt, Paul, American Assyriologist: b.
Gorlitz, Germany, 2$ Nov. 1858. He was. grad-
uated at the Gymnasium Augustum, Gorlitz, in
1876; studied in Leipsic and Berlin, and settled
in Gottingen where in 1883 he was appointed
extraordinary professor of Assyriology. In the
autumn of the same year he accepted the chair
of Semitic languages at Johns Hopkins Univer-
sity, Baltimore, Md. He projected and continued-
to edit the so-called Polychrome Bible. (See
Bible, Polychrome.) Among his many writ-
ings in periodical, pamphlet and book form, the
most important volumes are ( Das babylonische
Nimrod-Epos ) (1891) ; c Akkadische und sumer-
ische Keilschrifttexte ) (1882) ; Prolegomena to
a Comparative Assyrian Grammar > (1888).

Hauptmann, howpt'man, Gerhart, German
dramatist: b. Salzbrunn, Silesia, 15 Nov. 1862.
After study at the Breslau Art School, he at-
tended the universities of Jena and Berlin,
traveled in Italy and Switzerland, and first
appeared in literature with his epic, ( Prometht-
denlos ) (1885). This he followed by a swift
succession of dramas — ( Vor Sonnenaufgang >
(1889), frankly socialistic and provocative of
violent discussion; <Das Friedensfest* (1890);
<Einsame Menschen* (1891) ; and ( Die Webet^
(1892), a story of an unsuccessful uprising of
the Silesian weavers, typifying the hopeless
condition of the proletariat In these works
Hauptmann reveals the influence of Tolstoi
and Ibsen, and a strong revolt against the con-
ditions imposed, particularly upon the work-
ing-class, by a military and plutocratic regime.
To this motif he returns in ^uhrmann Hen-
scheP (1898). But he strikes a different note
in ^anneles Himmelfahrt ) (1893), a mystic
< dream-poem ) as the author styles it, and <Die
versunkene Glocke* (1897; Eng. trans, by Melt-
zer 1900), which harks back to an indefinite
period of the Middle Ages and makes artistic
use of the primitive Germanic fairy-lore. In
<Kollege Crampton> (1892), <Der Biberpelz>
(1893) w * tn > ts inferior sequel *Der rote Hahn*
(1901), and < Schluck und Jan > (1900) he dis-
plays gifts o£ humor and satire. Other works
are \Florian Geyer ) (1895)^ and < Michael
Kramer ) (1900). Hauptmann is the chief figure
in modern German drama. He excels less in
dramatic structure than in art of characteriza-
tion, and despite crudity and occasional dulness
attains genuine poetic value.

Hauptmann, Moritz, German musician: b.
Dresden 13 Oct. 1792; d. Leipsic 3 Jan. 1869.
He studied at Gotha; was violinist at the court
in Dresden in 1812; in 1815-20 was employed as
music teacher in the family of a Russian prince ;
in 1842 he was appointed cantor of the Tbomas-
schule in Leipsic, and the next year became
professor of counterpoint at the Leipsic con-
servatory, where he was very successful and
popular as a teacher. His compositions include

motettes, an- offertory, and sonatas for violin
and piano. In 1853 he published his < Die Natur
der Harmonik und Metrik, ) a very important
theoretical work.

Haus'maimite, a native manganate of man-
ganese, having the formula MnO.Mn*0*, and
crystallizing in the tetragonal system, with oc-
tahedral habit. It is brownish black in color,
and opaque with a submetallic lustre. It has a
hardness of from 5 to 5.5, and a specific gravity
of from 4.72 to 4.86. Hausmannite dissolves in
hydrochloric acid, with evolution of chlorine
gas. It occurs in Germany, Sweden, and else-
where, usually in connection with porphyry. It
was named in honor of the German metallurgist,
J. F. L. Hausmann.

Haussa, how'sa. .See Houssa.

Haussmann, Georges Eugene, zhorzh
e-zhan Ss-man, Baron dk, French municipal
officer: b. Paris 27 March 1809; d. there 11 Jan.
1891. He studied law, and under Louis Philippe
was sous-prefect of various places. The Febru-
ary revolution of 1848 caused the forfeiture of
his office, but Louis Napoleon in 1853 made
him prefect of the Seine, and he applied him-
self to the improvement and adornment of Paris
with such energy that the city became trans-
formed under his administration.

Hautboy. h6T)oi (French hautbois, ^hlgft
wood,* alluding to its tone) ; a wooden wind-
instrument of two- foot tone, played with a
double reed. Also an organ stop, consisting of
reed pipes slightly conical, and surmounted by
a bell and cap of eight feet pitch. The tone is
thin and soft.

Hatty, Ren6 Just re-na zhust a-u-e or
a-we, French mineralogist: b. St. Just, Oisc,
28 Feb. 1743; d. 3 June 1822. He was trained
for the Church and took priest's orders, but
turned to mineralogy, and acquired a great
reputation by a series of important discoveries.
Among the chief of these is the geometrical
law of crystallization, according to which a
given mineral uniformly contains the same pri-
mary form as its basis of crystallization. From
that time, according to Herschel, mineralogy
first ceased to be a a mere laborious cataloguing
of stones and rubbish.* In 1794 Haiiy became
keeper of the cabinet of the School of Mines,
and in 1802 professor of mineralogy in the
Museum of Naturaf History. His works in-
clude: ^raite de Mineralogie* (1801), and
<Trait6 de Crystallographie ) (1822).

Haiiynite, ha'wtn It, .or Hatiyne, ha'win, a
mineral of the sodalite group, occurring in cer-
tain igneous rocks, and notably in the lavas of
Mt Vesuvius. It is a silicate and sulphate of
sodium, palcium and aluminum, crystallizing in
the isometric system. It is usually translucent
with a vitreous lustre, a hardness of from 5.5
to 6, and a specific gravity of about 2.45.
Haiiynite is commonly blue or green, though
red and yellow specimens are also known. It
was named in honor of the French mineralo-
gist, R. J. Haiiy.

Havan'a (Sp. La Habana, la haba'na),
Cuba, its capital and the commercial centre
of the West Irftiies, second city of Spanish
North America; pop. 242,055. It occupies nine
square miles on the west side of the Bay of
Havana on the north coast, one of the noblest

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I. Cathedral of Havana. 2. Colon Park, Havana.

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Library. UC Santa Craz 2001

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harbors in the world, with deep water up to
the quays; entered by a narrow channel H oi
a mile long, protected by Punta Castle on the
west and Morro Castle and La Cabafia on
the east. It is in two sharply distinct sections.
The old city, the commercial quarter, was built
on the small western peninsula dividing the
sea from the harbor, a low plain cut by a small
stream on the west, strengthened by a city wall
only torn down a generation ago. It is largely,
and was entirely till the American occupation,
a maze of narrow, crooked lanes traversed by
one or two broader streets; the chief of which
are the Caile O'Reilly, the main business street,
running from the governor's palace to the city
wall, and the Calle Obispo (Bishop Street).
The new city is on a ring of hills 150 feet high
south and west of the old, with the castle of
El Principe on the crest, and has a wealth of
broad and finely shaded macadamized streets,
drives, promenades, parks, plazas, flower-gar-
dens, fountains, statues, etc., which make it one
of the handsomest cities in the world. There
is no <( West End* in Havana, the houses of
the wealthy being scattered through every part,
usually of classic pattern, with an inner court-
yard or patio surrounded by marble or stucco
columns, containing a garden of tropical vege-
tation and a central fountain. The handsomest
residence street, next to the new suburb Vedado,
is the Cerro, a long thoroughfare running up a
hill at the farther end, and bordered by immense
old villas in the midst of splendid gardens. The
finest drives and promenades are the Malecon,
a new thoroughfare along the water front from
Prado to the Vedado. the Prado, a boulevard
with a double row of shade-trees -in the middle,
running from Punta Castle outside the old wall,
and ending in the largest park in the city, Colon
Park or Campo Marte, and the Calle de la Reina
(Queen Street) starting west from this park
and continued as the Paseo de Tacon to the
citadel of El Principe. The Alameda de Paula
along the bay is also a favorite promenade.

Among buildings, the most interesting are
the palace of the old captains-general, facing
the Plaza de Armas near the harbor front, the
cathedral, built 176^. and supposed to contain
the ashes of Columbus in an urn till it was
removed to Spain in 1898 (but the San Domin-
gans claim they have his authentic bones), and
the Tacon Theatre, perhaps the largest in the
world. There are several other theatres and
opera-houses, and many clubs, etc. The chief
educational institutions are the University of
Havana, founded 1670 bv the Dominicans; the
Jesuit boys' college de Belen, with a museum,
observatory, a library rich in old Cuban historr.
etc.; College of American Augustinian Fathers,
founded 190 1. Famous among benevolent in-
stitutions are the Casa de Beneficencia, founded
by Las Casas for infants. There are three gen-
eral hospitals, a great lazaretto for lepers, and
an insane hospital in the city and vicinity. Over
100 newspapers, etc., are published in the citv.

The water supply of the city was installed
by a Cuban engineer, Albear, some 40 years
ago, and is considered a remarkable specimen
of good workmanship. It comes from the
Vento by an aqueduct T2. miles long, known as
the Canal of Albear. In all other respects the
Americans at the conquest found an undescrib-
able state of filth and disease. The city was the

prey of yellow fever; the sewers had seldom
been deaoed since they were had down, and
some of them were ctooked with generations: of
rottenness; the buildings were pest-holies; and
in that dungeon of horrors, the military hospital,
70 per cent of the inmates died. The United
States forces in their short stay transformed
this reeking home of pestilence into one of the
healthiest cities in America. In systematic
order streets were cleaned, repaved, widened;
squads of cleaners were sent from house to
house, emptying the Augean stables under them,
whitewashing and disinfecting them, and wher«
they were shanties that were nests of infection,
tearing them down;- the hospital was cleaned,
disinfected, and covered deep with whitewash,
and turned into a school house. New business
streets were made by widening old lanes; parks
were cleared up, and a fine sea-wall along the
ocean to the north was built. The average
deaths from yellow fever 1887-98 were 440; in
1896 they were 1,262 ; in 1901, for the first time
in its history, only three or four. A Cuban
physician of Irish descent, Dr. Carlos Fin lay,
now chief sanitary officer of Havana, was the
originator of the mosquito theory of the yellow
fever. Gen. Wood and the American army sur-
geons, however, deserve much credit for mak-
ing the theory of practical use.

The climate is not severe. The mean annual
temperature is 77"; the range from hottest to
coldest 82 to ?l ; the highest recorded, ioo.6%
the lowest 49^6*. The mean rainfall is 54 inches.

Havana is the market of western Cuba, the
head of the island's banking and commercial
interests, and the emporium of the West Indies.
Besides being the centre of the island railway
system and of a great domestic shipping trade,
especially with Santiago, it is the focus of a
vast foreign commerce with Spain, France,
England, and the United States, regular ocean
lines running weekly to the first three and semi-
weekly to the latter, besides others to the other
West Indies. It has excellent covered wharves
and a capacious dry-dock to aid this. Regla, on
the opposite side of the bay, contains the sugar
wharves and railway termini. In 1909 it had
exports of about $47,203,167, more than half to
the United States, an increase of $41,177 in one
year, mainly ours ; and its imports had increased
from $60,962,528 to $65,075,683, a difference of
$4,113,155 in the single year from 1908 to 1909.
The entrances and clearances of ocean vessels
in 1009 were over 1,500,000, and of domestic
vessels nearly 3,000, with an average tonnage of
about 635. The exports are chiefly of sugar,
tobacco, cigars, and cigarettes; the imports,
flour, rice, lard, and other foods, cotton, and
metals. Its manufactures are mainly tobacco
products; its cigar factories, of which there are
over 100 of the first rank, are the largest in the
world, one covering an entire square. It also
manufactures confectionery, perfumes, rum, etc.
The new electric street railway system is one
of the finest of its kind, with 36 miles of

Popul<rti&*< — In 1869 it was 242,055, 52,905
being foreign; in 1910 it was about 302,526.
About one third were unable to read ; ana about
one third from 5 to 17 attended school.

History. — Havana was founded here (trans-
ferred from an older site) by Diego de Velas-
quez in 1519, and called by him *the key of the

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New World. 9 Burnt by buccaneers in 1528,
it was rebuilt and made the chief naval station
of Spain in this hemisphere, twice sacked in
1555 and 1563. it was a storm centre of wars
and piracies lor two centuries. In 1762 the
English captured it, but restored it to Spain
the next year. In 1802 it was partly burnt, but
under the famous Governor Tacort, its second
founder, commemorated at every turn, it was
rebuilt from a straw-thatched wooden town to
a city of brick and stone. For its late history,
see Cuba. Consult: Norton's ( Handbook of
Havana and Cuba* (1900).

Havana, 111., city, county-seat of Mason
County; on the Illinois River, and on the Chi-
cago, P. & St. L. and the Illinois C. R.R/s;
about 39 miles northwest of Springfield. It is
situated in an agricultural region and is the
trade centre for a large extent of country. The
chief manufactures are flour, agricultural im-
plements, drills, gasoline engines, and some
factory supplies. Its trade is chiefly in grain,
fruit, vegetables, and dairy products. The
waterworks are owned and operated by the
city. Pop. (1910) 1,842.

Havelock, hav'e-16k, Sir Henry, English
soldier; b. Bishop- Wearmouth, near Sunder-
land, 5 April 1795; d. Dilkusha, India, 24 Nov.
1857. Entering the army, he served with dis-
tinction in the Burmese war (1824-6); in 1829
married, became a Baptist, and was distinguished
during the remainder of his life by. his earnest
religious zeal. He participated in the Afghan
war, and in the defeat of Mohammed Akbar,
1843, He took part in the Mahratta war, and
distinguished himself in the Sikh war of 1845.
He commanded a division in the Persian war
(1856-7) and on the outbreak of the Indian
mutiny was despatched to Allahabad in order
to support Sir H. Lawrence at Lucknow and
Sir H. Wheeler at Cawnpore. On arriving at
Cawnpore he found that Nana Sahib had mas-
sacred the prisoners. Pursuing his march to
Lucknow, he defeated the rebels at Bithoor,
and finally won the battle of Alumbagh. Having
captured Lucknow, Havelock and Outram were
shut up there until relieved by Sir Colin Camp-
bell 17 Nov. 1857. He was raised to the rank
of major-general, made a K. C. B., and (before
his death was known) created a baronet. Con-
sult lives by Brock (1858) ; Marshman (1890) ;
Forbes (1890).

Havemeyer, haVe-rai'er, William Fred-
erick, American banker: b. 31 March 185a
He received his education in private schools
and entered into commercial business, and as
a successful financier became vice-president and
director of the National Bank of North Amer-
ica, and of the Queens County Bank of Long
Island, and took a place in the board of directors
of numerous railroad and banking corporations*

Ha'ven, Alice Bradley, American author:
b. Hudson, N. Y., 1828; d. 1863. Her maiden
name was Emily Bradley, and while a school
girl she sent under the pseudonym of a Alice G.
Lek* many sketches to the Saturday <Gazette, )
then recently established by Joseph C. Neal in
Philadelphia. She was married to Mr. Neal
in 1846, and at his request assumed and re-
tained the name of Alice. On the death of her
husband in 1847, she conducted the < Gazette >
for several years. She published in 1850 < Gos-

sips of Rivertown, with Sketches in Prose and
Verse, > and became widely known by her series
of juvenile stories, as l Helen Morton, 3 < Pic-
tures from the Bible, } c No such Word as Fail/
( Patient Waiting no Loss/ < Contentment
Better than Wealth/ < All's not Gold that Glit-
ters/ <Out of Debt Out of Danger/ etc In
1853 she was married to Mr. Samuel L. Haven.

Haven, Erastus Otis, American Methodist
bishop and educator: b. Boston, Mass., 1 Nov.
1820; d. Salem, Ore., 3 Aug. 1881. He was
graduated at the Wesleyan University, Middle-
town, Conn., in 1842, soon after entered the
ministry of the Methodist Episcopal Church,
was appointed teacher of natural science m the
Amenta Seminary, N. Y., and in 1845 was
elected principal of that institution. He was
professor of Latin and Greek in the University
of Michigan 1854-6; editor of lion's Herald >
1856-63, and sat in the Massachusetts Senate
1862-3. He was president of the University
of Michigan 1863-7, and of Northwestern Uni-
versity, Evanston, 111., 1869-72. He was sub-
sequently chancellor of Syracuse University and
was elected bishop in 1880. He published <The
Young Man Advised* (1855); < Pillars of
Truth* (1866) ; «Rhetoric> (1869).

Haven, Gilbert, American Methodist
bishop: b. Maiden, Mass., 19 Sept 1821 ; <L
there 30 Jan. 1880. He was an able writer, and
a forceful preacher. In the Civil War he was
the first commissioned chaplain in the Federal
army. He was editor of <Zion's Herald* 1867-
72, and was elected bishop in the latter year.
He published <The Pilgrim's Wallet, or Sketches
of Travel in England, France, and Germany*
(1865); 'National Sermons* (1869): <Life of
Father Taylor, the Sailor Preacher 5 (1871);
<Our Next-Door Neighbor, or a Winter in
Mexico* (1875); etc.

HaiKerford College, under the auspices of
the Society of Friends founded in 1833 in Haver-
ford, Pa. It was first known as Haverford School,
but in 1845 it was suspended for the purpose of
collecting an endowment, and in 1856 it was
made a college. It was the first collegiate in-
stitute in the United States which was founded
and conducted entirely within the Society of
Friends. Others besides the sons of Friends
have been admitted as pupils since 1849. It is
well equipped in laboratory requirements and
in its library facilities. In 1910 the college re-
ported 22 professors and instructors and 150
students. There were in the library about
55,000 volumes.

Havergal, hav'er-gal, Frances Ridley,
English hymn-writer: b. Astley, Worcestershire.
14 Dec. 1836; d. Swansea, Wales, 3 June 1879.
She was a frequent contributor to <Good
Words, } and the chief English religious peri-
odicals, and her musical harmonies were praised
by the German composer Hiller. Her poems
and hymns were collected in several volumes,
<The Ministry of Song> (1870) being ^he first.
Her ( Poetical Works> (1884) appeared under
the editorship of M. V. G. Havergal. 01 her
hymns, which contain her best work and are
found in all collections, the most familiar is
<Take my Life and Let it Be.>

Haverhill, ha'ver-il, Mass., city in Essex
County; on the Merrimac River at the head of
navigation, and on the Boston &. M. railroad;

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Univ. Library, UC Santa Craz 2001

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about 3Q miles from Boston. It is an important
centre of street railway traffic, electric lines ra-
diating from it connecting it 'with all of the im-
portant cities and towns of northeastern Massa-
chusetts and southeastern New Hampshire.
Three highway bridges span the river, connecting
the city respectively with the Bradford district,
with Groveland, and with West Newbury.
Haverhill, including Bradford, which was an-
nexed to it, 4 Jan. 1897, is 9 miles long and
3^4 miles wide, and covers an area of 32 square
miles. Bounding the entire southern length of
the original city and separating it from its new
adjunct, Bradford, from Groveland, and from
West Newbury, flows the Merrimac River, navi-
gable from the sea to the very heart of the city,
and affording for freightage or pleasuring a de-
lightful waterway. From the river on both sides
the land slopes upward, the lower parts near the
river being occupied for manufacturing and com-
mercial purposes, the higher lands for resi-
dences. Five large lakes — Kenoza, Round
Pond, Saltonstall, Crystal, and Chadwick's
Pond — lie entirely within the limits of the city,
and three of them, with a large artificial lake at
Mill Vale, afford an abundant supply of water
for all purposes. The eastern and western parts
of the city are known as East Haverhill and
West Haverhill, their more thickly settled parts
being respectively Rocks Village and Ayers Vil- ,
lage ; the southern portion, in the Bradford dis-
trict, is known as Ward Hill.

Government. — The municipal government is
administered by a mayor, board of aldermen con-
sisting of seven members, one from each ward
of the city, but elected by the votes of the
whole city, and 14 councilmen, two from
each ward of the city and elected by the
votes of the ward. These officials are elected
annually and hold office for a single year.
The schools are administered by a school
board of 21 members, one member being
elected annually by each ward and holding office
for three years. The administrative officer of
the board is the superintendent of schools, and
the mayor is, ex-omcio, chairman of the board.
The water board consists of five members, each
appointed by the city government for a term of
five years; the park commission consists of five
members, each appointed by the city government
for a term of five years; the trustees of the
Public Library, six in number, and the trustees
of the City Hospital, five in number, hold office
for life, vacancies being filled by the boards of

Financial. — The assessed valuation of the
city, 1 Jan. 191'i, was $24,738,350. The tax levy
for 1003 was $490,267,514; the State tax, $22,875;
the county tax, $28,726.40 ; the rate of taxa-
tion per $100, $1.90. The net bonded debt
in 191 1 was: Municipal loans, $909,126.14;
water loans, $573,873,02 ; total, $1,482,999.16* The
interests of the business community are served
by six national banks, having an aggregate capi-
tal of $795,000. There are three savings banks,
two co-operative banks with an authorized cap-
ital of $1,000,000 each, and a safe deposit and
trust company.

Manufactures.— The city has many and va-
ried manufactures, the number of manufacturing
establishments of all kinds being (U, S. Census
of 1910) 346, with an aggregate capital of $14,.
786,000. The average number of wage-earners

j employed is 11,689, to whom is paid an aggre-
gate of $7,365,000. The principal manufactures
ire those connected with the boot and shoe in-
dustry. There are over 150 boot and shoe fac-
tories, with an aggregate capital of $3,500,000,
and an annual production valued at $15,500,000;

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