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The Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 online

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98 manufactories of cut stock, aggregate capi-
tals $641,927,: value of product, $3,495,433; &
manufactories of boot and shoe findings, capital,
$262,586, value of product, $811,515. The num-
ber of cases of shoes annually sent forth is about
450,000, and the market for them is not alone
the United States, but England, Germany, Aus-
tralia, the South American states, and other for-
eign countries. Other important industries are
hat and woolen manufactures, box making, brick
making, machine building, etc.

Schools. — The public school buildings, in
19 10, were 37, their aggregate value about $700,-
000. There were 199 teachers employed in the
day schools, and an enrollment of 5,700 pupils.
There are three parochial schools, Saint Jamas
(Irish), with a membership of 921; Saint Jo-
seph's (French), with an enrollment of 372, and
the Brothers of the Sacred Heart (French) ,
with an enrollment of 334* Haverhill is also the
seat of Bradford Academy, a famous and flour-
ishing school for young ladies, established in

Board of Trade. — The membership of the
Board of Trade includes ail of the leading men
of business and influence, and its object is *to
forward the mercantile interests of Haverhill
•through the medium of equitable laws and regu-
lations of the General Court and of the munici^
pal government; to procure and spread such
information as will conduce to the advancement
and elevation of commercial dealings, and the
extension of wise and just methods of business.*

Parks. — There are 27 public parks in the
city. Winnikenni Park, adjacent to Lake Ke-
noza, is very extensive, diversified, and beautiful,
and abounds in delightful drives.

Public Buildings, Institutions, etc.-— -The Pub-
lic Library was founded in 1875 by the generosity
of E. J. M. Hale, whose gifts to it, including a
legacy of $100,000, amounted to more than $i75r
000. The library contains nearly 100,000 vol-
umes, with an annual circulation of nearly 160,-
000. There are four branch libraries for the
accommodation of the more remote parts of the
city, and 12 loan libraries placed in the district
schools. Loan libraries are also established in
connection with each grammar school, books be-
ing sent to and from these schools each week.
The Hale Hospital occupies a set of buildings o£
the most modern type and equipment The His-
torical Society occupies the a Buttonwoods* a
large old mansion house on Water street, for-
merly the seat of the Saltonstall family, marking
very closely the site of the first settlement of
Haverhill. The Whittier homestead, the birth-
place of the poet, John Greenleaf Whittier (17
Dec. 1807) and the scene of his poem ^now-
Bound,* is situated about three miles from the
heart of the city on the Merrimac road. The
house, with the grounds surrounding it, is owned
by the Whittier Association, and it is visited
annually by many pilgrims. The Y. M. C A.
occupies a magnificent set of buildings, including
a thoroughly equipped gymnasium. The. Pen-
tucket Qub occupies an elegant mansion, for*
merly the Duncan residence, more than a centuiar

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old, designed by the celebrated architect, Havi-
!and, but harmoniously enlarged to meet the
needs of the social club now occupying it. The
local military organization is Company F, of
Eighth Regiment, M. V. M., organized in 1869,
and attached to the Second Brigade. Among
the numerous fraternal and other organizations
may be mentioned seven Masonic bodies, main-
taining a Freemason's Hall Association, with a
capital of $50,000 ; eight lodges of Odd Fellows,
maintaining an Odd Fellows' Hall Association,
with a capital of $100,000; Elks, Foresters, G.
A. R., Sons of Veterans, Woman's Relief Corps,
Red Men, Daughters of Pocahontas, Knights of
Malta, American Workmen, Knights of Pythias,
Patrons of Husbandry, Royal Arcanum, Boot
and Shoe Workers' Union, Shoe Workers' Pro*
tective Union, etc., while two literary clubs, the
Monday Evening Club and the Fortnightly Club,
are noteworthy.

History.— The first settlement of Haverhill
was made in June 1640, by twelve men from
Newbury and Ipswich, the new settlement being
known as Pentucket. In the following year
(1641) the Rev. John Ward came from Ipswich,
to be the minister and leader of the colonists,
and so pleased were they with his character, at-
tainments, and zeal that they named the place
Haverhill from the older Haverhill in England,
which was his birthplace. In 1642 title to the
tract of land, 14 miles in length, was obtained
by purchase and deed from the Indians, Passa-
quo and Saggahew. In 1660 the first public
school was established, - its teacher, Thomas
Wasse, his salary £10 a year. For many years
Haverhill was a frontier town, and suffered
from the forays of the Indians. On 15 March
1607 the savages attacked the house of Thomas
Duston, carrying away his wife Hannah, her
infant child and her nurse, Mary Neff. The
child was soon killed, but Mrs. Duston, taken to
an island in the Merrimac River above Concord,
N. H., in the night, with the assistance of her
nurse and a captive youth, killed the Indians
who were guarding her, as they lay asleep,
scalped them, and escaped in a canoe, carrying
the scalps as proof of tier deed. A monument
to her in City Hall Park commemorates her
heroism. On 29 Aug. 1708 the Indians made a
murderous foray upon the centre of the town,
setting fire to the church and the houses, killing
the Rev. Benjamin Rolfe and 15 others, carrying
away about 20 captives, but leaving about 30 of
their own number dead. These are the more
notable among many Indian attacks upon the
place. At the outbreak of the Revolution Haver-
hill contributed to the patriot cause her guota of
men, 74 of her sons being engaged in the battle
of Bunker Hill. On 4 Nov. 1789 George Wash-
ington visited the town, remaining over night at
Harrod's tavern, on the site where the City Hall
now is, and paying delightful compliments to the
town and its beautiful location. In 1793 a stage
coach line was established between Boston and
Haverhill, € fare, 3d. a mile, 9 running twice a
week. 6 Sept. 1793 the first newspaper printed
in the town was published. It was called < The
Guardian of Freedom,* and was issued weekly
at nine shillings a year. In 1794 the first bridge
across the river was erected. In 1827 the Haver-
hill Academy was opened, one of the students,
John G. Whittier (q.v.), writing an ode for the
dedication. In 1828 the Rocks Bridge was com-

pleted, and in the same year the steamer Merri-
mac, the first on the river, began running be-
tween Haverhill and Newburyport In 1837 the
railroad, now the Boston & Maine, was extended
from Andover to Haverhill. In 1842 certain citi-
zens of Haverhill presented to Congress, through
John Quincy Adams (q.v.), the famous petition
for the dissolution of the Union, the object being
to rebuke the Congressional agitators. In the
civil war Haverhill contributed to the Union
cause about 1,300 men, her first troops leaving
for the front on the day when the Massachusetts
Sixth was attacked in Baltimore. To those who
fell in that war she erected in 1869 on one of
her principal squares a beautiful soldiers' monu-
ment. Haverhill became a city in 1869. The
old place has suftered from several disastrous
fires, one in 1775 which destroyed 17 buildings
in the little town ; one in 1873, which burned out
35 business houses, and the most disastrous one
of 17 Feb. 1882, which burnt out about 300 busi-
ness firms and destroyed about $2,000,000 worth
of property. On 6 Nov. 1888 the City HaD,
built in 1861, was gutted by fire, but it was imme-
diately rebuilt.

The shoe and leather industry of Haverhill
dates back almost to the time of the first settle-
ment, for in 1643 Job Clement established a
tannery, and at about the same time Andrew
Greeley practised the trade of shoemaker for the
little settlement. In 1679 Benjamin Webster and
Samuel Parker were permitted to live in the
town and to follow the trade of shoemaker. In
1812 Moses Atwood sent a wagon-load of shoes
to Philadelphia, probably the first export of this
product from the town. In 1818 a special two*
horse wagon was regularly run between Haver*
hill and Boston for the transportation of shoes,
and in 1835 the traffic employed 40 horses and
two yoke of oxen. The coming of the railroad
to Haverhill in 1837 furnished a better means oi
transportation and gave new impetus to manu-
facturing. In 1850 about 50,000 cases of shoes
were sent out ; in i860 about 94,000, valued at
about $3,750,ooo. The change in 1870 from town
government to city government was coincident
with an awakening to new life. Old residential
streets were changed to manufacturing centres,
old farms and pastures became thickly covered
with residences, and in manufacturing the city
rapidly grew to be one of the three cities leading
in the output of shoes. To-day fully 10 per cent
of the total output of shoes in the United States
and nearly one-fourth of the total number pro-
duced in Massachusetts is made in the Haverhill
factories. In 1890 Haverhill celebrated the 25°*°
anniversary of its settlement amid a great gath-
ering of distinguished sons and guests, the ad-
dress being by the Rev. Samuel JL Duncan, the
historical poem by Dr. John Crowell, and the
beloved and distinguished son of the town, the
poet Whittier, sending as a tribute bis beautiful
poem, *Haverhill *

Population.— The populati m of Haverhill (U.
S. Census of 1900) was 37,175, an increase from
27,412 in 1890. A part of this increase was due
to the annexation or Bradford, the population of
which in 1805 was 4,736. The population of the
chy, according to the census of 19x0, was 44» -
115, which showed an increase of 0,040, or 187
per cent, since the last official enumeration was

Albert L. Bartlett.

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Haverhill, N. H., village, county-seat of
Grafton County; on the Connecticut River, and
on the Boston & M. railroad; about 70 miles
northwest of Concord. The town contains sev-
eral villages, the largest of which is Haverhill.
The sui rounding region is largely devoted to
agriculture, but the granite quarries in the vicin-
ity add to the industrial wealth of the village.
Some of the manufactures are flour, lumber,
wagons, furniture, whetstones, made from__the
stone found nearby, and dairy products. Pop.
(1910) 3498.

Havers, Clopton, English anatomist and
physician: b. 1650; d. 1702. After study at
Cambridge he proceeded to Utrecht, where he
graduated M.D. in 1685. He established himself
as a practising physician in London, and ac-
quired a reputation by his profound studies on
bone structure, which are exhaustively sum-
marized in his ( Osteologia Nova ) (1691). His
name is perpetuated in osteology by the tech-
nical term ^Haversian canals/ Among his
other works are: Researches on the Lach-
rymal Gland' (1691) ; < Survey of the Micro-
cosm > (1695); and ( Discourse on the Concoc-
tion of Food* (1699).

Haverschmidt, Francis, Dutch poet: b.
Leeuwardien 1835; d. Schiedam 1894. Edu-
cated for the Church, he completed his studies
at Leyden. He became known as ^Piet Paalt-
jens,* the pseudonym under which he published
^nikken en Grimlachjes ) (1867), a collection
of poems, six editions of which were sold in
two years. He published also ^amilie en Ken-
nissen > (1876), a collection of prose essays.

Haversian (h£-ver'zian) Canals, See

Hav'erstraw, N. Y., village in Rockland
County; on the Haverstraw Bay, a part of the
Hudson River, and on the West Shore and the
New Jersey & N. Y. R.R/s; about 30 miles
north of New York and 35 miles south of West
Point The first settement was made by the
Dutch, who established here, about 1 7 10, a trad-
ing post It became a precinct in 1719, but the
town was not incorporated until 1854. A short
distance north of the village of Haverstraw, and
near West Haverstraw, is the «01d Treason
House,* the house owned in Revolutionary days
by Thomas H. Smith, and the place where
Arnold and Andre met in September 1780, and
made all arrangements for the surrender of
West Point. Except the addition of a wing, the
house is to-day about as it was when Arnold
visited it From the room in which the final
arrangements were made, may be seen the Hud-
son and the opposite shore along which Andre"
journeyed toward Tarrytown. The a Haver-
straw Community* was organized in Haver-
straw in 1825, but remained in existence as a
community only a few years. The chief indus-
try of the village is brickmaking. Other manu-
factures are dynamite, baskets and brickmaking
machinery. The village has an excellent high
school and a public library. Pop. (1910) 5,669.

Havestad, Bernard, German Jesuit and
missionary: b. Cologne 1715; d. Munster 1778.
In 1748 he was sent as a missionary to Chile,
where he rapidly learned the native dialect. He
traveled through the lesser known parts of the
oountry, visiting the Araucanians, the Cuen-
Vol. 10 — 29

ches, the Huillichos, the Guaicurus, etc., and
collected a great mass of interesting informa-
tion on the customs, the natural productions,
statistics, etc., of the region. On the expul-
sion of his order in 1768, he was arrested and
conducted to Lima. He escaped death from
shipwreck, and returned to Germany, where he
published ( Chilidugu, sive Res Chilenses*

Havet, Ernest Auguste Eugene, French
scholar and philosopher: b. Paris 11 April 1813;
d. 1889. As a brilliant student, he received sev-
eral educational appointments, and in 1840 was
called to Paris as professor of Greek literature
on the staff of the normal school. In 1855 he
was appointed professor of Latin eloquence in
the College de France. The chief of his many
learned works is *Christianisme et ses origines >
(4 vols., 1871-S4).

Hav'iland, John, American architect and
engineer: b. England 15 Dec. 1792; d. Philadel-
phia 28 March 1852. He studied architecture
with ^ Elmes in London, subsequently went to
Russia with a view of entering the imperial
corps of engineers, and in 1&16 emigrated to
the United States. The Pittsburg penitentiary,
one of his earliest works, introduced the radiat-
ing form of constructing prisons, which was
extensively adopted in the United States and
in Europe. Among the principal edifices built
after his plans are the halls of justice, better
known as the *Tombs* (q.v.), in New York,
rebuilt in 1902; the Unil^d States navai asylum
in Norfolk, Va. ; the State penitentiaries of New
Jersey, Rhode island, and Missouri; the United
States mint, and the deaf and dumb asylum in
Philadelphia; the Pennsylvania insane hospital
at Harrisburg, besides numerous churches.

Haviland, William, British soldier: b. Ire-
land 1739; d. 1784. He served in Ireland dur-
ing the rebellion of 1845. During the years
I 757-8 he fought under Abercromby at Ticon-
deroga, and also under Amherst In 1760 he
fought his way at the head of 34,000 men
through the French lines at Lake Champlain
to join Murray and Amherst, who were con-
verging on Montreal. After the capture of
Montreal he served in the West Indies and was
present at the conquest of Havana in 1762. He
was made general in 1783.

Havre, a-vr, Le, France (formerly Le
Havre-de-Grace, la-vr-de gras), an important
commercial and seaport town in the department
of Seine-Inferieure, on the north side of the
estuary of the Seine, 108 miles by rail northwest
of Paris. The town, comparatively modern, is
built of brick or stone, with regular, straight,
wide and well-cleaned streets. The public build-
ings include the Church of Notre Dame, in
bastard architecture, partly Gothic; the town-
house, formerly the governor's palace ; # the
Palais de Justice ; the round tower of Francis I. ;
the theatre, arsenal, exchange, library, and bar-
racks. Havre has a large commerce, for which
it possesses great advantages.

Its harbor is entered by a narrow channel,
formed by two long jetties stretching from cast
to west, and kept clear by constant dredging.
This channel leads to the outer harbor, an
irregular expanse of no great extent, which is
left dry at ebb-tide. Within the want port are

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capacious wet-docks, lined with fine quays and
extensive warehouses. Havre commands the
greater part of the import and export trade of
Paris, and of the more important towns in the
north of France; importing vast quantities of
colonial and other produce, among which cotton
holds a most important place; and exporting
numerous articles of French manufacture. It
is the second port in France. The manufactures
consist of paper, starch, lace, oil, refined sugar,
cables, and other marine cordage, sulphuric acid,
earthen and stone-ware. There are also brew-
eries, gun factories, and electrical works. A
government tobacco factory employs 300 work-
men; and from the building-yards a great num-
ber of sailing vessels and steamers are annually
fitted out. In the 15th century Havre became of
importance to form a new harbor in consequence
of the silting up of that of Harfleur. The proj-
ect was conceived, and some progress made in
it, by Louis XII.; but Havre continued little
more than a fishing village till the time of
Francis L, who erected numerous works, and
at immense expense gained the greater part of
the present site of the town from the sea. A
citadel was afterward built; and Havre, as a
place of strength, became the object of repeated
contests between French and English. Pop.
about 133,000.

Havre de Grace, hav'er de gras, Md., city
in Harford County; on the Susquehanna River,
near its entrance into Chesapeake Bay; and on
the Philadelphia, W. & B. and the Baltimore &
O. R. R.'s ; about 36 miles east-northeast of Bal-
timore. It is the south terminus of the Tide-
water canal. A small settlement was made here
in about 1670. The chief manufactures are
flour, sash, doors and blinds, lumber, and canned
fruits. The fisheries, especially shad and her-
ring, are important. The trade is principally
in the manufactured articles, coal, and fish. A
povernment fish hatchery is located on Battery

Haw, Battle of the, in the Revolution, 21
Feb. 1781. Henry Lee had been commissioned
by Greene to prevent Tory reinforcements com-
ing to Cornwallis, who had taken position at
Hillsboro, and in the course of the movement
attempted to surprise Tarleton. Tarleton had
moved ; but hearing that about 400 Tories under
Col. Pyle were on their way to join him, Lee
determined to pass off his own •legion® as
Tarleton's and capture them all. Forcing two
captured British officers to keep up the decep-
tion, he moved forward, with Pickens' and
Oldham's companies following, and met two
young men who had been sent by Pyle to find
Tarleton's camp; he was presented to them as
Tarleton, and directed them to have Pyle's men
drawn up beside the road while his «weary
veterans* passed. — his object being to capture
and disarm them all. The plan succeeded per-
fectly till, just as he had taken Pyle^s hand,
part of the Tories discovered Pickens' militia
and saw the trap, and at once fired on the Amer-
ican rear; the latter poured in a volley that
killed 90 of the enemy at the first fire, and in
the melee, despite appeals for quarter, a great
number of the rest were killed and the majority
wounded. Pyle escaped badly hurt, and the rest
of the body dispersed unpursUed.

Hawaii, a Territory of the United States;"
geographically, the Hawaiian (formerly Sand-

wich) Islands, the northeasternmost group of
the Pacific, lying near the northern edge of the
Tropics (lat. 18 54' to 22 15' N. ; long. 154
50' to 160 30' W.), 2,100 miles southwest of

San Francisco. It consists of eight inhabited
islands, vis., Hawaii, Maui, Kahoolawe, Lanai,
Molokai, Oahu, Kauai, and Niihau besides sev-
eral rocky islets. They extend from Hawaii on
the southeast, 390 miles to Kauai on the north-
west, and are continued in a chain of islets, sand
banks, and shoals 1,200 miles farther to Midway
Island. The total area of the group is 6,454
square miles, of which Hawaii contains nearly
two-thirds or 4,015 square miles; the next island,
Maui, 728; the third, Oahu (which takes the
lead in wealth and population, and Contains
the capital and chief seaport), 598; and the
fourth, Kauai, 547 square miles.

Topography. — The islands are entirely vol-
canic, consisting in fact of the summits of a
gigantic submarine mountain chain rising from
the bottom of the ocean, which is three miles
deep within 30 to 50 miles from the shores. The
volcanic action seems to have moved from
northwest to southeast, Kauai being the oldest

The last but one, Maui, contains the vast ex-
tinct crater of Haleakala, which is at its high-
est point 10,032 feet above sea level, 20 miles
in circumference, and 2,000 feet deep; while
Hawaii is made up of four volcanic mountains,
Mauna Kea (White Mountain), 13^05 feet
high, the loftiest peak in the Pacific; Mauna
Loa (Long Mountain), 12,675 feet; HualalaL
8,273 feet; and Kohala, 5,490 feet high. Oi
these Hualalai has been dormant since 1801, but
Mauna Loa is still active at intervals, having
an oval summit crater, 9.5 miles in circumfer-
ence, with nearly vertical inner walls 500 to
600 feet high. Twenty miles to the southwest
is the famous crater of Kilauea, eight miles in
circumference and 4.000 feet above the sea,
which is almost constantly in action.

The windward sides of Oahu and Molokai,
and the northwest side of Kauai, present prec-
ipices 2,000 feet in height, while the northeast
slopes of Hawaii and Maui end in bluffs sev-
eral hundred feet high, furrowed by deep and
narrow canyons cut by the streams. "In West
Maui and Kauai may be found valleys that al-
most rival Yosemite" (Dutton). Coral reefs
line the greater part of the shores of Kauai,
Oahu, and the southern shore of Molokai, but
are nearly absent from Hawaii and Maui.

The best harbors are found in Oahu at
Honolulu, and at Pearl Harbor, seven miles
west, but Hilo Bay, Hawaii, only needs a break-
water to make a commodious harbor. The only
rivers worthy of the name are found in the
island of Kauai. Several of them were formerly
crossed by ferries.

Climate and Rainfall. — The climate of the
islands is much cooler than that of other coun-
tries in the same latitude. This is due not
only to the northeast trade winds, which blow
nine or ten months in the year,, but also to the
return ocean current from the region of Bering
Straits. At sea level the mean temperature is
73° F., the maximum and minimum being 89*
and 52 , respectively. The islands are entirely
exempt from the cyclones which so often make
havoc in the central and western Pacific. The
contrast in climate between the windward and
leewarcj sides of each island is very striking, the

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northwest slopes being rainy and heavily
wooded, while the opposite coast has a warm
and dry climate. From the differing eleva-
tions and exposures there is an extraordinary
variety in the rainfall even within narrow limits.
Thus the annual rainfall in the district of Hilo,
Hawaii, averaged 136 inches in 20 years, from
1880 to 1900, while in Honolulu it averaged
30.9 inches, and at Luakaha, in the valley back
of Honolulu, 128.9 inches.

Production and Industries. — The Hawaiian
: Islands, from the lack of coal and metals, are an
\ agricultural country, and about the only manu-
facture is that of sugar. The Honolulu iron
• foundry annually turns out over $1,000,000
worth of work, and is now making sugar mills
for Mexico, Formosa, and the Philippines.

The soil of the islands in general is poor,
with the exception of the valleys and some of
the coast plains, which are of limited extent.
The greater part of the interior consists of
rugged, barren mountain sides, extensive tracts
covered with lava, and forest land, which needs
to be protected for the preservation of the water
supply. Extensive tracts of formerly barren
land, however, have been made productive by
irrigation and the use of fertilizers. On Oahu
there are over 200 artesian wells, yielding daily
from 250 to 300 million gallons, and on some
plantations pumps are employed which raise
over 10,000,000 gallons of water a day, and in
some places to an elevation of 350 feet.

In Kauai electricity generated by water-
power in the Wainiha Valley is carried 30
miles by wire to run the pumps of the McBryde
plantation. Extensive aqueducts have been

Online LibraryWilfrid RichmondThe Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 → online text (page 118 of 185)