Wilfrid Richmond.

The Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 online

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1833. He was educated for the law, but did not

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practice, devoting his time to entomology and
botany. He was the founder of the Entomo-
logical Society of London, a member of the
Linnsean Society, and the Hull Botanical Gar-
dens were planned by him, and laid out under
his direction. His collections were large and im-
portant and his works are still standard. He
wrote: Observations on the Genus Mesem-
bryanthemum* (1704) ; <Prodromus Lepidop-
terorum Britannicorum > (1802) ; and < Synopsis
Plantarum Succulentarum ) (1812) ; and many
minor papers.

Haworth, ha'werth, Joseph, American
actor : b. Providence, R. I., 1855 ; d. 29 Aug. 1903.
His first appearance was as a member of Ellsler's
stock company at Cleveland, Ohio, and subse-
quently he supported Edwin Booth, Lawrence
Barrett, and John McCullough. From 1883 he
toured for several years as a star in <The Bells.*
<Th€ Leavenworth Case,* ^Hamlet,* and other
productions; in 1896-8 was Macbeth to Mod-
jeska's Lady Macbeth, and later Storm in Caine's
< Christian,* Vinicius in Stange's adaptation of
Sienkiewicz's <Quo Vadis,> and Cassius in the
Mansfield presentation of < Julius Caesar. >

Hawser, a manila or wire rope used in
mooring or towing boats, etc., over four or
three inches in circumference respectively. The
name is now usually applied to all large ropes,
though formerly it signified ropes ^hawser-laid,"
that is, with three "plain-laid,* three-stranded
ropes laid up left-handed, now usually called a
cable-laid rope.

Hawthorn, or White Thorn (Crategus
vxyacantha), a small spiny European tree, ris-
ing sometimes to the height of 20 to 25 feet,
much admired for the beauty of its foliage. The
leaves are smooth, shining, more or less deeply
lobed, and of a beautiful green color; the flowers
are white, sometimes with a reddish tinge, dis-
posed in corymbs, and possess an agreeable
perfume. The species of Cratagus are about
50 in number, all shrubs or small trees, spiny,
with red fruit resembling in miniature that of
the apple, from which plant they are distin-
guished chiefly by their seeds, and are arranged
with it in the family Rosacea. Fifteen species
are recognized in North America. When young
the hawthorn springs up rapidly, a shoot of a*
single year being sufficient for a walking-stick.
It thus, if well pruned and kept down, quickly
grows into a thick and intricately woven hedge.

Hawthorne, ha'thorn, Julian* American
novelist and journalist, son of Nathaniel Haw-
thorne (q.v.) : b. Boston, Mass., 22 June 1846.
He was graduated from Harvard University in
1867 and afterward studied civil engineering in
Dresden, but soon forsook this occupation for
literature. His first successful story was ( Bres-
sant ) (1872), the forerunner of a long list of
novels, of which may be particularized < Garth >
(1875); 'Sebastian Strome> (1884); 'Archi-
bald Malmaison > (1884) ; <A Fool of Nature*
(1896). He has also published <Saxon Studies*
(1876); and < Nathaniel Hawthorne and His
Wife* (1885). His best work suggests more
than one element that distinguishes his father's
stories. There is a psychologic accent, the touch
of mystery, and the avoidance of the stock prop-
erties of romance.

Hawthorne, Nathaniel, American novelist:
b. Salem, Mass., 4 July 1804; df Plymouth,

N. H, 19 May 1864. The founder of the family
in America was William Hathorne (as the name
was then spelled), a typical Puritan and a pub-
lic man of importance. John, his son, was a
judge, one of those presiding over the witch-
craft trials. Of Joseph in the next generation
little is said, but Daniel, next in descent, fol-
lowed the sea and commanded a privateer in
the Revolution, while his son Nathaniel, father
of the romancer, was also a sea captain. This
pure New England descent gave a personal
character to Hawthorne's presentations of New
England life; when he writes of the strictness
of the early Puritans, of the forests haunted by
Indians of the magnificence of the provincial
days, of men high in the opinion of their towns-
people, of the reaching out to far lands and
exotic splendors, he is expressing the stored-up
experience of his race. His father died when
Nathaniel was but four and the little family
lived a secluded life with his mother. He was
a handsome boy and quite devoted to reading,
by an early accident which for a time prevented
outdoor games. His first school was with Dr.
Worcester, the lexicographer. In 1818 his
mother moved to Raymond, Maine, where her
brother had bought land, and Hawthorne went
to Bowdoin College. He entered college at the
age of seventeen in the same class with Long-
fellow. In the class above him was Franklin
Pierce, afterward 12th President of the United
States. On being graduated in 1825 Hawthorne
determined upon literature as a profession, but
his first efforts were without success. <Fan-
shawe ) was published anonymously in 1828, and
shorter tales and sketches were without im-
portance. Little need be said of these earlier
years save to note that they were full of read-
ing and observation. In 1836 he edited in Bos-
ton the < American Magazine for Useful and
Entertaining Knowledge,* but gained little from
it save an introduction to <The Token,' in which
his tales first came to be known. Returning to
Salem he lived a very secluded life, seeing
almost no one (rather a family trait), and de-
voted to his thoughts and imaginations. He was
a strong and powerful man, of excellent health
and, though silent, cheerful, and a delightful
companion when he chose. But intellectually
he was of a separated and individual type, having
his own extravagances and powers and sub-
mitting to no companionship in influence. In
1837 appeared < Twice Told Tales' in book
form: in a preface written afterwards Haw-
thorne says that he was at this time ^the ob-
scurest man of letters in America.* Gradually
he began to be more widely received. In 1839
he became engaged to Miss Sophia Peabody,
but was not married for some years. In 1838
he was appointed to a place in the Boston cus-
tom house, but found that he could not easily
save time enough for literature and was not
very sorry when the change of administration
put him out of office. In 1841 was founded the
socialistic community at Brook Farm : it seemed
to Hawthorne that here was a chance for a
union of intellectual and physical work, where-
by he might make a suitable home for his future
wife. It failed to fulfill his expectations and
Hawthorne withdrew from the experiment. In
1842 he was married and moved with his wife to
the Old Manse at Concord just above the historic

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bridge. Here chiefly be wrote the bosses of
an Old Manse* (1846). In 1845 he published a
second series of ( Twice Told Tales* ; in
this year also the family moved to Salem,
where he had received the appointment of sur-
veyor at the custom house. As before, official
work was a hindrance to literature; not till
1849 when he lost his position could he work
seriously. He used his new-found leisure in
carrying out a theme that had been long in his
mind and produced ( The Scarlet Letter* in
1850. This, the firct of his longer novels, was
received with enthusiasm and at once gave him
a distinct place in literature. He now moved
to Lenox, Mass., where he began on <The
House of Seven Gables,* which was published
in 1851. He also wrote ( A Wonder- Book* here,
which in its way has become as famous as his
more important work. In Dec. 1851 he moved
to West Newton, and shortly to Concord again,
this time to the Wayside. At Newton he wrote
<The Blithedale Romanced Having settled
himself at Concord in the summer of 1852, his
first literary work was to write the life of his
college friend, Franklin Pierce, just nominated
for the Presidency. This done he turned to
<Tanglewood Tales, > a volume not unlike the
< Wonder- Book.* In 1853 he was named consul
to Liverpool: at first he declined the position,
but finally resolved to take this opportunity to
see something of Europe. He spent four years
in England, and then a year in Italy. As before,
he could write nothing while an official, and re-
signed in 1857 to go to Rome, where he passed
the winter, and to Florence, where he received
suggestions and ideas which gave him stimulus
for literary work. The summer of 1858 he
passed at Redcar, in Yorkshire, where he wrote
< The Marble Faun.* In June i860 he sailed
for America, where he returned to the Way-
side. For a time he did little literary work:
in 1863 he published <Our Old Home,* a series
of sketches of English life and planned a new
novel, ( The Dolliver Romance,* also called
( Pansie.* But though he suffered from no dis-
ease his vitality seemed relaxed: some unfortu-
nate accidents had a depressing effect, and in the
midst of a carriage trip into the White Moun-
tains with his old friend, Franklin Pierce, he ,
died suddenly at Plymouth, N. H, early in the
morning, 19 May 1864.

The works of Hawthorne consist of novels,
short stories, tales for children, sketches of life
and travel, and some miscellaneous pieces of
a biographical or descriptive character. Besides
these there were published after his death ex-
tracts from his notebooks. Of his novels ( The
Scarlet Letter* is a story of old New England :
it has a powerful moral idea at bottom, but it is
equally strong in its presentation of life and
character in the early days of Massachusetts.
( The House of Seven Gables ) presents New
England life of a later date: there is more of
careful analysis and presentation of character
and more description of life and manners, but
less moral intensity. ( The Blithedale Romance*
is less strong : Hawthorne seems hardly to grasp
his subject. It makes the third in what may
be called a series of romances presenting the
molding currents of New England life: the
first showing the factors of religion and sin,
the second the forces of hereditary good and
evil, and the third giving-a picture of intellectual

and emotional ferment in a society which had
come from very different beginnings. ( Sep-
timius Felton,* finished in the main but not
published by Hawthorne, is a fantastic story
dealing with the idea of immortality. It was
put aside by Hawthorne when he began to write
c The Dolliver Romance,* of which he com-
pleted only the first chapters. ( Dr. Grimshaw's
Secret* (published in 1882) is also not entirely
finished. These three books represent a pur-
pose that Hawthorne never carried out. He
had presented New England life, with which
the life of himself and his ancestry was so in-
dissolubly connected, in three characteristic
phases. He had traced New England history
to its source. He now looked back across the
ocean to the England he had learned to know,
and thought of a tale that should bridge the
gulf between the old world and the new. But
the stories are all incomplete and should be
read only by the student. The same thing may
be said of ^anshawe,* which was published
anonymously early in Hawthorne's life and later
withdrawn from circulation. ( The Marble
Faun* presents to us a conception of the old
world at its oldest point. It is Hawthorne's
most elaborate work, and if every one were
familiar with the scenes so discursively de-
scribed, would probably be more generally con-
sidered his best. Like the other novels itj
motive is based on the problem of evil, but we
have not precisely atonement nor retribution, as
in his first two novels. The story is one of de-
velopment, a transformation of the sou!
through the overcoming of evil. The four
novels coMStitute the foundation of Hawthorne's
literary fame and character, but the collections
of short stories do much to develop and com-
plete the structure. They are of varioos kinds,
as follows: (1) Sketches of current Yiie or ot
history, as < Rills from the Town Pump,* c The
Village Uncle,> <Main Street,> <01d News.*
These are chiefly descriptive and have little
story; there are about twenty of them. (2)
Stories of old New England, as < The Gray
Champion,> <The Gentle Boy,* ( Tales of the
Province House. * These stories are often
illustrative of some idea and so might find place
in the next set (3) Stories based upon some
idea, as < Ethan Brand,* which presents the idea
of the unpardonable sin; ( The Minister's Black
Veil, > the idea of the separation of each son!
from its fellows; ( Young Goodman Brown.*
the power of doubt in good and evil. These are
the most characteristic of Hawthorne's short
stories: there are about a dozen of them. (4)
Somewhat different are the allegories, as c Thc
Great Stone Face,* 'Rappacini's Daughter,*
*The Great Carbuncle.* Here the figures are
not examples or types, but symbols, although
in no story i3 the allegory consistent. (5)
There are also purely fantastic developments
of some idea, as ( The New Adam and Eve.*
( The Christmas Banquet,* < The Celestial Rail-
road.* These differ from the others in that
there is an almost logical development of some
fancy, as in case of the first the idea of a per-
fectly natural pair being suddenly introduced
to all the conventionalities of our civilization.
There are perhaps twenty of these fantasies.
Hawthorne's stories from classical mythology,
the ( Wonder-Book* and ( Tang1ewood Tales,*
belong to a special class of books, those in

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which men of genius have retold stories of the
past in forms suited to the present. The stories
themselves are set in a piece of narrative and
description which gives the atmosphere of the
time of 'the writer, and the old legends are
turned from stately myths not merely to chil-
dren's stories, but to romantic fancies. Mr.
Pringle in ( Tanglewood Fireside' comments on
the idea: ^Eustace,** he says to the young col-
lege student who had been telling the stories
to the children, a pray let me advise you never
more to meddle with a classical myth. Your
imagination is altogether Gothic and will in-
evitably Gothicize everything that you touch.
The effect is like bedaubing a marble statue
with paint. This giant, now! How can you
have ventured to thrust his huge disproportioned
mass among the seemly outlines of Grecian
fable? 9 (< I described the giant as he appeared
to me,* replied the student. "And, sir, if you
would only bring your mind into such a rela-
tion to these fables as is necessary in order to
remodel them, you would see at once that an
old Greek has no more exclusive right to them
than a modern Yankee has. They are the com-
mon property of the world and of all time*
(< Wonder- Book,' p. 135). < Grand father's
Chair' was also written primarily for children
and gives narratives of New England history,
joined together by a running comment and nar-
rative from Grandfather, whose old chair had
come to New England, not in the Mayflower,
but with John Winthrop and the first settlers
of Boston, biographical Stories,' in a some-
what similar framework, tells of the lives of
Franklin, Benjamin West and others. It should
be noted of these books that Hawthorne's writ-
ings for children were always written with as
much care and thought as his more serious work.
< Our Old Home ) was the outcome of that less
remembered side of Hawthorne's genius which
was a master of the details of circumstance
and surroundings. The notebooks give us this
also, but the American notebook has also rather
a peculiar interest in giving us many of Haw-
thorne's first ideas which were afterwards
worked out into stories and sketches.

One element in Hawthorne's intellectual
make-up was his interest in the observation of
life and his power of description of scenes, man-
ners and character. This is to be seen espe-
cially, as has been said, in his notebooks and in
<Our Old Home,' and in slightly modified form
in the sketches noted above. These studies
make up a considerable part of ( Twice Told
Tales' and ( Mosses from an Old Manse, 5 and
represent a side of Hawthorne's genius not al-
ways borne in mind. Had this interest been
predominant in him we might have had in Haw-
thorne as great a novelist of our everyday life
as James or Howells. In the ( House of Seven
Gables' the power comes into full play: 100
pages hardly complete the descriptions of the
simple occupations of a single uneventful day.
In Hawthorne, however, this interest in the life
around him was mingled with a great interest
in history, as we may see, not only in the stories
of old New England noted above, but in the
descriptive passages of < The Scarlet Letter.'
Still we have not, even here, the special quality
for which we know Hawthorne. Many great
realists have written historical novels, for the
same curiosity that absorbs one in the affairs

of everyday may readily absorb one in the recre-
ation of the past. In Hawthorne, however, was
another element very different. His imagina-
tion often furnished him with conceptions
having little connection with the actual circum-
stances of life. The fanciful developments of
an idea noted above (5) have almost no relation
to fact : they are ^made up out of his own head.*
They are fantastic enough, but generally they are
developments of some moral idea and a still
more ideal development of such conceptions
was not uncommon in Hawthorne, ^appacini's
Daughter' is an allegory in which the idea is
given a wholly imaginary setting, not resembling
anything that Hawthorne had ever known from
observation. These two elements sometimes ap-
pear in Hawthorne's work separate and distinct
just as they did in his life: sometimes he seclud-
ed himself in his room, going out only after
nightfall ; sometimes he wandered through the
country observing life and meeting with every-
body. But neither of these elements alone pro-
duced anything great, probably because for any-
thing great we need the whole man. The true
Hawthorne was a combination of these two ele-
ments, with various others of personal character,
and artistic ability that cannot be specified here.
The most obvious combination between these
two elements, so far as literature is concerned,
between the fact of external life and the idea of
inward imagination, is by a symbol. The sym-
bolist sees in everyday facts a presentation of
ideas. Hawthorne wrote a number of tales that
are practically allegories: ( The Great Stone
Face' uses facts with which Hawthorne was
familiar, persons and scenes that he knew, for
the presentation of a conception of the ideal.
His novels, too, are full of symbolism. <The
Scarlet Letter > itself is a symbol and the rich
clothing of Little Pearl, Alice's posies among
the Seven Gables, the old musty house itself,
are symbols, Zenobia's flower, Hilda's doves.
But this is not the highest synthesis of power,
as Hawthorne sometimes felt himself, as when
he said of <The Great Stone Face,' that the
moral was too plain and manifest for a work
of art. However much we may delight in
symbolism it must be admitted that a symbol
that represents an idea only by a fanciful con-
nection will not bear the seriousness of anal-
ysis of which a moral idea must be capable.
A scarlet letter A has no real connection with
adultery, which begins with A and is a scarlet
sin only to such as know certain languages and
certain metaphors. So Hawthorne aimed at a
higher combination of the powers of which he
was quite aware, and found it in figures and
situations in which great ideas are implicit.
In his finest work we have, not the cir-
cumstance before the conception or the con-
ception before the circumstance, as in allegory.
We have the idea in the fact, as it is in life,
the two inseparable. Hester Prynne's life does
not merely present to us the idea that the break-
ing of a social law makes one a stranger to
society with its advantages and disadvantages.
Hester is the result of her breaking that law.
The story of Donatello is not merely a way of
conveying the idea that the soul which con-
quers evil, thereby grows strong in being and
life. Donatello himself is such a soul growing
and developing. We cannot get the idea with-
out the fact, nor the fact without the idea.

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This is the especial power of Hawthorne, the
power of presenting truth implicit in life. Add
to this his profound preoccupation with the
problem of evil in this *world, with its appear-
ance, its disappearance, its metamorphoses, and
we have a clue to Hawthorne's greatest works.
In c The Scarlet Letter,* ( The House of Seven
Gables,* ( The Marble Faun,* ( Ethan Brand,*
c The Gray Champion, * the ideas cannot be sep-
arated from the personalities which express
them. It is this which constitutes Hawthorne[s
lasting power in literature. His observation is
interesting to those that care for the things that
he describes, his fancy amuses, or charms or
often stimulates our ideas. His short stories
are interesting to a student of literature because
they did much to give a definite character to a
literary form which has since become of great
importance. His novels are exquisite speci-
mens of what he himself called the romance, in
which the figures and scenes are laid in a world
a little more poetic than that which makes up our
daily surrounding. But Hawthorne's really
great power lay in his ability to depict life so
that we are made keenly aware of the dominat-
ing influence of moral motive and moral law.

Bibliography. — Hawthorne's life has been
written by G. P. Lathrop (library edition
of his works), by Henry James ( ( Eng-
lish Men of Letters*), and by Moncure D.
Conway ('Great Writers' Series*). Con-
sult also: 'Memorials of Hawthorne,* by
Rose Hawthorne Lathrop. Criticism will be
found in G. W. Curtis, 'Literary and Social
Studies* ; T. W. Higginson, 'Short Studies of
American Authors' ; Leslie Stephen, 'Hours in
a Library* ; W. D. Howells, 'My Literary Pas-
sions* ; J. T. Fields, 'Yesterdays With
Authors* ; R. H. Hutton, 'Essays in Literary

Edward Everett Hale, Jr.,
Professor of English, Union College, Schenec-
tady, N. Y.

Hawtrey, Charles Henry, English actor,

glaywright, and manager: b. Eton, 1858, son of
ev. John Hawtrev. He was educated at
Rugby and Oxford, becoming an actor when he
was twenty-three years old. His greatest suc-
cess was in 'The Private Secretary,* adapted
from Von Moser's 'Der Bibliothekar,* first pro-
duced in Cambridge in 1883, and played 844
consecutive times. Other plays in which he has
been unusually successful are 'Jane,* 'Mr. Mar-
tin,* 'A Message from Mars,* and 'The Man
from Blankley's.* With the last two plays he
several times visited the United States. For
several years he has controlled the Comedy and
Avenue theaters in London.

Haxo's System, a style of fortification in-
troduced by Baron Francois Nicolas Benoit
Haxo, a French military engineer, employed by
Napoleon and put in command at the siege of
Antwerp in 1832. His casemated batteries have
earthen parapets along their front, and their
arches are mantled with earth. The apertures
in front of the guns open into embrasures
formed in an extension of the parapet at these
points beyond its ordinary retired position.
Being open in the rear the circulation of air
obviates the inconvenience of confined smoke.
This method of construction is now pretty gen-
erally adopted.

Hay, George, Scottish artist: b. Edin-
burgh. At 17 he entered the architectural pro-
fession, which he afterward abandoned for
painting, and has been a prolific genre painter
since he first attracted attention by his 'Bar-
ber's Shop in the Time of Elizabeth* (1863).
Other works by him are: 'A Visit to the Spae-
wife* (1872); 'Caleb Balderston's Ruse* (1874);
and 'A Scene at Chatsworth* (1899).

Hay, John, American statesman: b. Salem,
Ind., 8 Oct. 1838; d. near Newbury, N. H. f
1 July 1905. He was graduated from Brown
University in 1858, and on leaving college
entered the office of Abraham Lincoln in
Springfield, III, to study law. In 1861 he was
admitted to the bar, but did not practise, as
in that same year he went with Lincoln to
Washington as one of the President's privat*
secretaries. During the Civil War period he
was also Lincoln's adjutant and aide-de-camp,
and served in the field for some time under
Generals Hunter and Gillmore. He was brev-
etted lieutenant and lieutenant-colonel.

After the death of Lincoln he was made
secretary of legation at Paris, remaining there

Online LibraryWilfrid RichmondThe Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 → online text (page 120 of 185)