Wilfrid Richmond.

The Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 online

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Hayes' military career began at the outbreak
of the Civil War, when he was elected captain of
a company formed from the old Literary Club
of Cincinnati. A few months later, June 1861,
he was appointed major m the 23d Ohio Volun-
teer Infantry, of which W. S. Rosecrans was
colonel and Stanley Mathews, lieutenant-colonel.
After the promotion and transfer of these two
officers, the regiment was put under his com-
mand, and ordered at once to West Virginia;
it took p<trt in all of the important battles of
Sheridan's campaign. In the battle of South
Mountain he was severely wounded in the arm
but soon recovered and returned to duty again.
At the battle of Winchester, he made the famous
charge across the swamp and saved the day.
Many fell in that charge, but the day was won.
He was no less courageous at Fisher's Hill and
Cedar Creek. For meritorious service he was
promoted to the rank of brigadier-general of
volunteers and later bre vetted major-general.
He was nominated for Congress in his home
district at Cincinnati, and in the fall of 1864,
elected by a majority of 2400; in 1866 he was
re-elected. In 1867 he was nominated for gov*
ernor of Ohio, by the Republicans ; at that time
a strong reaction against many of the policies
of this party was felt in several States of the
North, and the party itself in Ohio was divided
into two factions. Hayes was one of the few
Oien who could unite these factions, and he was

elected by a small majority; and again chosen
governor in 1869. At the close of his second
term, he returned to Cincinnati determined to
retire from public life; and in 1873 he moved to
his old home at Fremont. In 1875, however, he
was nominated for governor, and was with diffi-
culty induced to accept the nomination. The
great issue of the campaign was the money ques-
tion, which though properly a national issue had
been forced into State politics. There were
those who believed and publicly contended that
all that was needed to make money was the
stamp of the government of the United States,
that it was not necessary to have back of it any
intrinsic value. Hayes, however, stood for
a sound money, 9 and after an active campaign
won the election, thus becoming governor of
Ohio for a third time.

When the National Republican Convention
met at Cincinnati in 1876, a number of promi-
nent leaders were candidates for the presidency.
It soon became evident that none of the recog-
nized candidates could be nominated and a Mark
horse* was looked for. Thus it happened that
Governor Hayes was nominated on the seventt
ballot. The campaign which followed proved tc
be one of the most hotly contested in the his-
tory of the nation. The results were uncertain,
and for the first time in our national life, a com'
mission was created to pass upon the validity of
the certificates which had been returned by the
different States. This commission refused to go
behind the returns of the different governors;
and the votes of the Republican electors were
therefore admitted from all of the doubtful
States. This gave Mr. Hayes a majority of one
in the electoral college, and he became the nine-
teenth President of the United States. (See
Electoral Commission.) Two things were
uppermost in his mind: the one, the improve-
ment of the political condition of the South ; the
other, <( the restoration of the civil service to the
system established by Washington and followed
by the early Presidents.* In both of these, he
was opposed by the machine politicians of his
own party. In spite of this opposition, how-
ever, the troops were gradually withdrawn from
the South and self-government re-established;
the people were slow to see the need of civil
service reform, and without effective support, the
President could do little. He preserved his atti-
tude in regard to sound money, and by his veto
prevented dangerous financial legislation.

At the close of his administration, Mr. Hayes
returned to private life. His interest in educa-
tion was shown by the work done as a member
of the boards of trustees of the Ohio Wesleyan
University at Delaware and the Ohio State Uni-
versity at Columbus. Hayes' Hall at the latter
institution bears his name because of his devotion
to the cause of manual training. He was also
president of the John F. Slater Educational Fund
and gave much time to its proper distribution.
As president of the National Prison Reform
Association he did much to educate the public to
a more humane way of thinking about the treat-
ment of convicts, many of bis public utterances
have become maxims in prison management, and
his work along these lines has been exceedingly
valuable and permanent in its results.

Hayes River, called Hill River in the
upper part of its course, rises near Lake Winni-
peg, in Canada, and flows northeast through

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Univ. library, UC Saute Cnc 2001

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Oxford or Holy Lake, Knee Lake, and several
other lakes, into James Bay, near the mouth
of the Nelson River. The largest tributaries
are the Shamattawa and the Fox. The length
of the Hayes is about 300 mUes.

Hayesine, ha'zln, a hydrous borate of cal-
cium, occurring as a sediment consisting of
snowy-white, silky flakes, in the waters of hot
springs , in Chile. It is a somewhat uncertain
species, and is perhaps to be referred in part to
bechilite, and in part to ulexite. In the United
States, specimens are reported from Bergen Hill,
N. J. (Named in honor of A. A. Hayes (q.v.),
an American chemist)

Hay'good, Atticus Green, American Meth-
odist bishop: b. Watkinsville, Ga., 19 Nov. 1839;
d. Oxford, Ga., 19 Jan. 1896. He was educated
at Emory College, Ga., of which he was presi-
dent 1876-90, becoming in the last named year
bishop of the Methodist Church South. He
became bishop in 1890. He wrote: ( The Monk
and the Prince,* a study of Savonarola and
Lorenzo de Medici; <Our Brother in Black*
(1881); < Pleas for Progress 5 (1889); etc.

Hay'market Square Massacre, the murder
of several policemen in Chicago, 4 May 1886, by
a bomb thrown by an anarchist The labor
troubles had long been exploited by the ^prac-
ticaP anarchists (with whom the philosophic
anarchists disclaim connection), who denounced
the efforts for shorter hours and better wages as
tending merely to aggravate capitalistic slavery,
and urged instead the general seizure of prop-
erty and the murder of its owners. In* February
1886 the McCormick Reaper Works had been
closed on account of a demand for the expulsion
of some non-union men, but had reopened.
Meantime a great eight-hour strike had left
some 50,000 unemployed workmen in the city,
and in view of an almost certain conflict with the
police, George Engel proposed at a meeting in
Bohemian Hall on 2 May, and the meeting in-
dorsed, a plan to blow up the police stations,
shoot the emerging police, cut the telegraph
wires, fire buildings to engross the service of the
fire department, and make a general jail deliv-
ery, that the prisoners might aid in a social
revolution. The next day August Spies and
others incited a meeting of the Lumber-shovers*
Union, 16,000 or more, principally Germans and
Bohemians, to assail the McCormick Works in
order to furnish an opportunity for carrying out
this plan, though the works had no connection
with this union. The mob attacked the works
with stones and revolvers, but were driven off.
No one was fatally injured, but Spies immedi-
ately issued a circular headed •Revenge! 5 assert-
ing that six workingmen had been killed, and
calling their brethren to arras. He also pub-
lished a fierce article in his paper, the Ar better
Zeitung, repeating the falsehood, and declaring
that there had been a •massacre* to terrorize the
workingmen, who should have had dynamite
bombs instead of stones. In the evening a meet-
ing was held at Greif's Hall, at which Hugel's
plan was adopted. Spies, Albert R. Parsons,
Samuel Fielden, and Oscar W. Neebe spoke for
a mass-meeting to further the plan above men-
tioned ; at Adolf Fischer's suggestion it was fixed
for next evening in Haymarket Square, that the
dusk and the room for a great crowd might fur-
nish more confusion and better rnean^ of escape.
Rudolph Schriaubelt wished to have all socialists

in other cities notified, so that there might be a
general revolution. The signal was to be
•Ruhe* (Peace), which was printed in next aft-
ernoon's Arbeitcr Zeitung. Meantime Louis
Lingg and others worked all day preparing
bombs, of which the newspaper office was found
to be an arsenal, along with firearms, and with
a confederate carried a satchel of them to a
place where others helped themselves. The air
was full of rumors of intended violence, and the
mayor (Carter Harrison, Sr.) ordered the police
to mix with the meeting, and disperse it if incen-
diary language were used, and 176 were concen-
trated at the nearest station. Spies and Parsons
spoke first, but the mayor was in the crowd,
and they used mild language, till his suspicions
were lulled and he left. Then Fielden began a
frenzied and bloodthirsty harangue, calling for
the "extermination* of the capitalists. The
crowd grew so wild that shortly after 10 the
police in four divisions appeared and covered
the street, and while Fielden was speaking, Capt
Ward ordered the crowd to disperse. Fielden
called out <( We are peaceable* (curiously J ike
"Peace*), and a bomb was at once thrown into
the midst of the police, which exploded and
caused frightful carnage, killing or mortally
wounding eight policemen and injuring a great
number more. The mob instantly followed it up
with a volley from rifles and revolvers, proving
that they had been expecting the signal, but the
police, with a nerve *s fine as that of trained
soldiers, at once rallied and charged the mob,
dispersing it in disorder. Most of the leaders
•whp.had J>een*urgiQg. destruction either did not
attend or ran away. Of the police, besides those
killed, 68 were wounded by shot or bombs, many
maimed for life. Spies, Parsons, Fischer, Engel,
Lingg, Fielden, Michael Schwab, and Neebe
were arrested and tried as accessories before
the fact: the first four were hanged 11 Nov.
1887 J Lingg shattered his jaw in prison with a
bomb and died; Fielden and Schwab were sen-
tenced to prison for life, and Neebe for 15 years.
The last three were pardoned by Gov. Altgeld
in 1893, many prominent men of Chicago and
throughout the country having petitioned for
their release on the ground that the evidence did
not connect them with the actual throwing of the
bomb, which was true, the evidence pointing
strongly to Schnaubelt

Hayne, Isaac, American patriot: b. South
Carolina 23 Sept. 1745; d. Charleston, S. G,
4 Aug. 1781. He was a wealthy planter who
took up arms after the invasion of the colony by
the English forces, and after the capitulation of
Charleston was paroled with the proviso that he
might not be ordered to bear arms against his
countrymen. He was summoned, however, to
the English standard and refusing compliance
as a violation of the compact, hastened to the
American camp. Being shortly after taken pris-
oner by the English, he was tried and hanged.

Hayne, Paul Hamilton, American poet:
b. Charleston, S. C, 1 Jan. 1830; d» Grovetown,
Ga,, 6 July 1886. He was a nephew of R. Y.
Hayne (q.v.) and was educated at the Charles-
ton College, studied law and engaged in journal-
ism. He served in the Confederate army till
forced to resign on account of ill health, and
lost nearly all his property through the bombard-
ment of Charleston and the subsequent pillage.
With the little left to him he retired to Copse

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Hill, Grovetown, Ga., where he spent the rest of
his life, a partial invalid- His verse is marked
by grace and melody and he ranks almost the
first among distinctively southern poets. He

Published Poems' (1855); < Sonnets and Other
> oems ) (1857); <Legends and Lyrics ) (1872);
etc A complete edition of his poems appeared
in 1882.

Hayne, Robert Young, American states-
man : b. Colleton District, S. C, 10 Nov. 1791 ;
d. Asheville, N. C, 24 Sept. 1839. After
studying law he was admitted to the bar in 1812;
and served in the second war with Great Britain,
returning at its close to his practice in Charles-
ton. He was a member of the State legislature
1814-18, and became Speaker, was attorney-gen-
eral of the State in 1818-22, and a United States
senator 1823-32. He vigorously opposed protec-
tion, and in 1832 boldly supported in Congress
the doctrine of nullification. Daniel Webster's
reply to Hayne upon this theme is classed among
the former's ablest speeches. In November
1832 South Carolina adopted an ordinance of
nullification, in December Hayne was elected
governor, and the State prepared to resist the
Federal power by force of arms. A compromise,
however, was agreed to, and the ordinance was
repealed. Hayne was mayor of Charleston in

Hayne, William Hamilton, American
poet: b. Charleston, S. C, 11 March 1856. He
is the son of Paul Hamilton Hayne (q.v.). He
received a secondary education, from 1879 con-
tributed extensively to various periodicals, and
published * Sylvan Lvrics and Other Verses >

Haynes, hanz, Arthur Edwin, American
mathematician: b. Van Buren, N. Y., 23 May
1849. After graduation from Hillsdale College,
Mich., in 1875 became instructor of mathematics
and physics there in the same year; and wa6
professor, 1877-90. He held the same position
in Michigan Mining Schools in 1890-3, and was
professor of mathematics at the University of
Minnesota, 1893-6, and in its engineering depart-
ment 1896-1901. He has published ( The Desir-
ability of Uniformity in the Use of Mathematical
Symbols and Terms J ; etc.

Haynes, John, American colonial gov-
ernor: b. Old Holt, Essex, England; d. Hart-
ford, Conn., 1 March 1654. He came with
Hooker and his company to Boston in 1633, was
soon after chosen assistant, and in 1635 governor
of Massachusetts. In 1636 he removed to Con-
necticut, being one of the prominent founders of
that colony. In 1639 he was chosen its first
governor, and every alternate year afterward,
which was as often as the constitution permitted,
till his death. He was one of the five who in
1638 drew up a written constitution for the col-
ony, which was finished in 1639, the first ever
formed in America, and which embodies the
main points of all our subsequent state constitu-
tions, and of the Federal constitution.

Hays, Isaac, American physician and
editor: b. Philadelphia 5 July 1796; d. there 12
April 1879. He was graduated from the Univer-
sity of Pennsylvania in 1816 and from its med-
ical school in 1820. In addition to his long serv-
ice as general practitioner he was for 52 years
on the staff of the ( American Journal of the
Medical Serviced In 1843 he established a

monthly, the ( Medical News,* and in 1874 the
< Monthly Abstract of Medical Science.* He
edited: c Wilson's American Ornithology *
(1828) ; ^oblyn's Dictionary of Medical
Terms* (1846) ; ( Lawrence on Diseases of the
Eye* (1847) ; and 'Arnott's Elements of
Physics* (1848). He was president of the
Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences
(186579) and connected with many scientific
societies at home and abroad.

Hays, William Jacob, American painter:
b. New York 8 Aug. 1830; d. there 13 March
1875. He studied art under John Rubens Smith,
and his ^ogs in a Field,* exhibited in the
Academy of Design in 1850, won him the repu-
tation of an animal painter of remarkable fidel-
ity to nature and spirit in design. He studied
the bison in the upper waters of the Missouri
and the deer in Nova Scotia. His < Bison Bull
at Bay* and c Herd of Caribou in Nova Scotia*
are characteristic pictures.

Hays, William Shakespeare, American
song- writer and composer: b. Louisville, Ky,
19 July 1837; d. 23 July 1907. In 1057 he be-
came a reporter for the Louisville Democrat,
subsequently was clerk and captain of steam-
boats on the Ohio and Mississippi, and became
marine editor of the Louisville Courier Journal
and Times. He wrote and composed more than
300 songs, among them c Nora O'Neil,* ( Write
Me a Letter from Home,* and c Shamm
O'Brien* ; and published < Poems and Songs.*
His songs sold very extensively.

Hays, Kan., city, county-seat of Ellis
County; on Big Creek, and on the Union P.
railroad ; about 222 miles west of Topeka. It is
in a fertile agricultural region. The chief man-
ufactures are flour, dairy products, and machin-
ery. It has grain-elevators, and there are large
annual shipments of grain, flour, and live stock.
It is the seat of a Normal school and of a State
agricultural experiment station. The experiment
station is connected with the State Agricul-
tural College, which owns near Hays 2,000 acres
of land. Pop. (1910) 1,961.

Hayti. See Haiti.

Hayward (properly a haw-ward,* keeper
of the haws or hedges, and still so pronounced,
or rather as "howard, 1 * in country districts; the
family name Howard as well as Hayward is
from this), a town officer in old New England,
whose duty was to keep the cattle on the roads
from breaking through the hedges or fences into
enclosed grounds and to impound them if they
did so. The title came to be generic for a cat-
tle-ward, and the hog-reeve was frequently
known as a ft hog howard.*

Hayward, Wis., town, county-seat of
Sawyer County; on the Namakagon River, and
on the Chicago, St. P., M. & O. railroad ; *bout
63 miles by rail southwest of Ashland. It is in
the vicinity of the lumber region of the State,
and the chief industry is lumbering. It has a
government Indian school, a public library, and
four churches. Pop. (1910) 2,869.

Hazard, haz'ard, Caroline, American col-
lege president : b. Peacedale, R. I., 10 Jun* 18561
She was educated in Providence and in Europe,
and in 1899 was appointed president of Welles-
ley College, Mass., receiving the degrees of M. A.
and Litt. D. from the University of Michigan and
Brown University the same year. She is I

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granddaughter of R. G. Hazard (q.v.) and has
published ( The Narragansett Friends' Meeting
in the 18th Century* (1899) ; ( Thomas Hazard:
a Study of Life in Narragansett in the 18th Cen-

Hazard, Ebenezer, American author: b.
Philadelphia 15 Jan. 1744; d. there 13 June 1817.
He was graduated from Princeton in 1762, in
1782-9 was postmaster-general, and from 1791
was in business in Philadelphia, where he
assisted in the establishment of the North Amer-
ican Insurance Company. He published his-
torical Collections* (1792-4) and Remarks on a
Report Concerning Western Indians.*

Hazard, Rowland Gibson, American man-
ufacturer and philosopher: b. South Kingston,
R. I., 9 Oct. 1801 ; d. Peacedale, R. I., 24 June
1888. He was a successful business man, being
long engaged in the woolen manufacture in
Peacedale. He also wrote on philosophical sub-
jects; his works including ( Language, its Con-
nection with the Constitution and Prospects of
Man* (1836) ; c Essays on the Resources of the
United States* (1864) ; Causation and Freedom
of Willing* (1869).

Haze, a condition of the atmosphere which
deadens the blueness of the sky, and obscures
the sharp outlines of distant objects. Haze is
due to fine dust in the air or to extreme heat,
the latter being known as heat-haze. In certain
parts of China the haze is like a thin fog.
Extensive forest fires create a smoke-haze, of a
dense, blue color, which drifts like rain clouds
hundreds of miles from the scene of the fire.
Volcanic eruptions throw fine dust into the air
in enormous quantities, forming a haze which is
carried many hundreds of miles. See Dust.

Hazel-nut, or Filbert, a genus (Corylus) of
shrubs and trees of the order Cupulifera, con-
fined to the northern hemisphere. The male
flowers are in long cylindrical aments or cat-
kins; and the fruit, a nut, is marked at its base
with a large cicatrix. The inflorescences of the
hazel are developed in the year preceding their
appearance; the male flowers last over the win-
ter, naked; the female inflorescence is enclosed
in a bud. In early spring the male catkins elon-
gate and produce an abundance of dry pollen,
while the female inflorescences are distinguish-
able from the leafbuds only by their larger size
and projecting red stigmas. The nut is envel-
oped at the base by a sheath of succulent bracts.

The European hazel (C. avellana), from cul-
tivation, has produced several varieties, differing
in the size, shape, and flavor of the nuts, which
are commonly known under the name of filberts.
It grows in all situations, and is easily culti-
vated, but a light and tolerably dry soil is the
most suitable. The best nuts come from Spain,
where they are baked in large ovens before ex-
port, in order to ensure their preservation.
Other species occur in southern Europe and
Asia. The American hazel (C. americana)
very much resembles the European, but is lower
in stature. It is common in most parts of the
eastern United States, but has not been culti-
vated. A second species (C\ rostrata) occurs in

The oil which is obtained from hazel-nuts by

pressure is little inferior in flavor to that of

almonds, and chemists employ it as the basis of

fragrant oils artificially prepared and used by

Vol. to — 30

perfumers, because it easily combines with and
retains odors. In many parts of England hazels
are planted in coppices and hedge-rows for sev-
eral useful purposes, but particularly to be cut
down periodically for charcoal, poles, fishing-
rods, etc. In brewing, the dried twigs were used
as a substitute for yeast when they were soaked
in fermenting liquor. Being extremely tough
and flexible, the branches are used for making
hurdles, crates, and springles to fasten down ,
thatch. They are formed into spars, handles
for implements of husbandry, and when split
are bent into hoops for casks. Charcoal made
from hazel is much in request for forges, and
when prepared in a particular manner is used by
painters and engravers to draw their outlines.
The roots are used by cabinet-makers for veneer-
ing ; and in Italy the chips of hazel are sometimes
put into turbid wine for the purpose of fining it
Finally forked twigs of the European hazel were
formerly used by diviners to determine the posi-
tion of water, gold, etc.

Hazeltine, ha'zel-tin, Mayo Williamson,

American journalist and literary critic: b. Bos-
ton, Mass., 24 April 1841. He graduated from
Harvard, studied also at Oxford, practised law
until 1878, and was then appointed literary editor
of the New York Sun, He became widely known
as a critic for his reviews in the Sun, and has
published in book- form: ( Chats about Books y
(1883) ; ^British and American Education*;
<The American Woman in Europe.*

Ha'zen, Marshman Williams, • American
lawyer and author: b. Beverly, Mass., 1845. He
was graduated from Dartmouth in 1866, from
1873 was a manager for the publishing firms
successively of Ginn & Company and D. Apple-
ton & Company, in 1882 was admitted to the
Massachusetts bar, and in 1885 began the prac-
tice of law in New York. His publications in-
clude, besides a series of 21 school text-books:
Observation, Thought, and Expression ; a
< History of the United States* ; and Govern-
ment. >

Hazen, William Babcock, American sol-
dier: b. West Hartford, Vt., 27 Sept. 1830; d.
Washington, D. C, 16 Jan. 1887. He was grad-
uated at West Point in 1855, went to the front
in the Civil War in command of 41st regiment
of Ohio volunteers, which he himself had re-
cruited in 1861, served actively in Ohio, Ken-
tucky, and through the Atlanta campaign and
in Sherman's march through Georgia, and in
1865, took command of the Fifteenth army
corps. He observed the Franco- Prussian war
on French territory, and was at Vienna as mili-
tary attache to the United States legation dur-
ing the Turko-Russian war. Appointed chief
signal officer in 1880, with the rank of brigadier
general, he employed scientists as observers,
introduced ft cold wave* signals, and suggested
the standard-time meridians at present in use.
He published: ( The School and the Army in
Germany and France, with a Diary of Siege
Life at Versailles ) (1872) ; <Our Barren Lands 5

Si87S) ; and ( A Narrative of Military Service *
Ha'zleton, Pa., a city situated in Luzerne

Online LibraryWilfrid RichmondThe Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 → online text (page 122 of 185)