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The Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 online

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used, either exposed or concealed, it is becom-
ing the practice to provide sufficient heat by
means of direct radiation to balance the heat
transmitted by walls, windows, etc., also a sup-
ply of tempered air for ventilation only. As
previously explained, when heat is supplied by
means of air, the fuel-cost is greater than with
direct heating ; so that a building can be warmed
with less coal with the direct than with the
indirect system. Furthermore, with the com-
bined system, heating can be done at night, and
at other times when air-supply is not required,
at minimum cost. This system is particularly
adapted for schoolhouse heating and ventilation.

The withdrawal of impure air from rooms is
effected by fans connected to a system of vent-
flues extending upward to an attic space, or
downward to a cellar or basement, if the latter
is more convenient. Another metnod of accel*
erating the outflow of air through flues rising
to the roof of a building is by the use of as-
pirating coils. These are simply coils of pipe,
or radiators, placed in the vent-flues as low
down as possible, the coil heating the air and
thus causing it to rise. Theoretically the aspir-
ating-coil is a more expensive method of moving
air than the mechanical method, as far as fuel-
cost is concerned. It is simpler, however, than
the fan-system.

Fans are of two general types — the disk or
propeller fan, and the centrifugal blower. The
former is constructed somewhat like a ship's
propeller, and the current of air that it produces
is mainly in a direction parallel with the shaft of
the fan. The centrifugal blower, as usually de-



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HEATON — HEAVEN



signed, consists of a wheel with blades, some-
thing like a ship's paddle-wheel, enclosed in a
casing. The air enters at the axis of the fan,
and when the fan-wheel is revolved the air is
discharged radially to the casing by the action
of centrifugal force. Relatively speaking, the
propeller-fan will move a large volume of air
with small expenditure of power, but the pres-
sure at which it will deliver air is limited. The
centrifugal fan will deliver air under a greater
pressure and the power required is therefore
greater. In some buildings, where the system
is of ducts and flues, is long, and the cross-sec-
tions are comparatively small, to save space,
quite a pressure is required to force the neces-
sary amount of air through them. For such
situations the centrifugal blower is best adapted.
When the ducts are snort and of ample area, it
is best to use the propeller type of fan.

Fans are driven usually by small steam-en-
gines or by electric motors. Sometimes gas-
engines have been used with success. Where
an engine is used, it is necessary for the boilers
to operate under a sufficient pressure to drive
the engine, or at least under a higher pressure
than is commonly used with the gravity-system
of connecting radiators. If the steam exhausted
by the engine is condensed in the heating-sys-
tem, as it usually is, a pump is necessary to re-
turn the condensation to the boilers. In large
office buildings, public buildings, theatres, etc.,
where a skilled engineman is employed to care
for the plant, the use of a pump, an engine, etc.,
does not present an objection. On the other
hand, in the case of schoolhouses, large resi-
dences, churches, etc., which are apt to be looked
after by less skilled attendants, an engine, pump,
and other apparatus that must go with them are
open to objection. In such cases electric motors
can be used if current can be obtained from an
electric-supply company. The entire heating
system can then be operated on the simpler grav-
ity-system. Of course the current must be paid
• for, but in many locations its cost will be more
than offset by the greater simplicity of the
motor-driven system.

Heating by electricity is not done to any
great extent, on account of the excessive cost.
When coal is burned under a steam-boiler, it is
not uncommon for 60 per cent of the heat in the
fuel to be realized in the steam which can be
used for heating. If the heat in coal be trans-
formed into electrical energy, and this again
transformed into heat, less than 10 per cent of
the heat in the fuel will be realized for heating.

Bibliography. — Tredgold, ( The Principles of
Warming and Ventilating Public Buildings,
Dwelling Houses, etc.* ; Hood, ( A Practical
Treatise on Warming by Hot Water* ; Peclet,
<Traite de la Chaleur* ; Briggs (and Wolff),
c American Practice in Warming Buildings by
Steam* ; Billings, <The Principles of Ventila-
tion and Heating* ; Mills, <Heat — Its Application
to the Warming and Ventilation of Buildings* ;
Baldwin, < Steam-Heating* ; <Hot- Water Heat-
ing and Fitting* ; Monroe, < Steam-Heating and
Ventilation* ; Carpenter, < Heating and Ventila-
tion of Buildings.* Henry C. Meyer, Jr.,
Consulting Engineer.

Hea'ton, Augustas George, American art-
ist: b. Philadelphia, Pa., 28 April 1844. He
was the first pupil from the United States to
study at the Paris Beaux-Arts, where he was



trained by Cabanel. Later (187&-80) he was in
the studio of Leon Bonnat, and exhibited con-
siderably at the Salon. Among his paintings
are: ( Washington at Fort Duquesne* ; ( The
Recall of Columbus,* engraved on the 50-cent
Columbian Exposition stamp of 1893; a portrait
of Bishop Bowman; and hardships of Emi-
gration,* engraved on the 10-cent Omaha Fair
stamp. He wrote <The Heart of David — the
Psalmist King* (1900).

Heaton, John Henniker, English publi-
cist: b. Rochester, Kent, England, 1848. He
was for some time prominent in Australian
journalism and has sat in the House of Com-
mons for Canterbury from 1885. He carried
the Imperial Penny Postage Scheme in July
1898, introduced telegraph money orders into
England, the parcel-post to France, and has
been connected with other progressive schemes.
He has published: < Manners and Customs of
the Aborigines of Australia* ; Australian Men
of the Time* ; etc.

Heaton, John Langdon, American journal-
ist: b. Canton, N. Y., 29 Jan. i860. He was
graduated from St. Lawrence University in
1880, entered journalism as a member of the
Brooklyn Times staff in 1881, and in 1897 be-
came assistant editor of the New York World,
His publications are: ( The Story of Vermont*
(1889); 'Stories of Napoleon* (1895); <The
Book of Lies* (1896); <The Quilting Bee*

Heaven, in a physical sense, is the azure
vault which spreads above us like a hollow
hemisphere, and appears to rest on the limits
of the horizon. Modern astronomy has taught
that this blue vault is, in fact, the immeasurable
space in which earth, sun, and planets, with
the countless host of fixed stars, revolve. The
blue color of the heavens is due to the action of
minute particles in the air upon the blue rays
in sunlight

In ancient astronomy, heaven denoted a
sphere or circular region of the ethereal heaven.
The ancient astronomers assumed as many dif-
ferent heavens as they observed different celestial
motions. These they supposed to be all solid,
thinking they could not otherwise sustain the
bodies fixed in them; and spherical, that being
the most proper form for motion. Thus they
had seven heavens for the seven planets: the
moon, Mercury, Venus, the sun, Mars, Jupiter,
and Saturn. The eighth was that of the fixed
stars, which was particularly denominated the
firmament. Ptolemy adds a ninth heaven, which
he calls the primum mobile. But others admit-
ted many more heavens, according as their dif-
ferent views and hypotheses required: Eudoxus
supposed 23 ; Regiomontanus 33 ; and Fracastoro
no less than 70.

In theology, this word denotes the upper
and nobler region of God's universe, in contrast
with the earth, the lower part assigned to men
for their habitation. Of the belief in the ex-
istence of some special scene of the presence
of Deity, the majority of the known religions of
the world bear ample evidence. According to
Aristotle all men, whether Greeks or barbarians,
had a conception of God ; and all united in
placing the residence of the gods in the most
elevated regions of the universe. This idea runs
through the Persian, Egyptian, German, Scan-
dinavian, and indeed of all the ancient religions



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HEAVES — HEBREW LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE



in which the belief in a supreme being assumes
any other form than the pantheistic; and even
though the pantheistic philosophers may have
denied that any peculiar locality could be re-
garded as the peculiar habitation of the Deity,
we find that the popular belief and worship of
the sect is evidently grounded upon a contrary
opinion. In addition, however, to its being the
special seat of the Deity, heaven also denotes
the place, or the state or condition of blessed
spirits, and of the souls of just men either
immediately after physical death or at some
certain period subsequent to it. All the relig-
ious systems which include the immortality
of the soul involve, at least in substance, the
idea of a future state of happiness as a reward
for a virtuous life. The delights of the heavens
of the various creeds differ greatly in kind.
The pleasures of the classical Elysian fields
were to a great extent pleasures of sense; the
German warrior believed he would be trans-
ferred to a region where he would be able to
pursue his old fierce enjoyments, and the Amer-
ican Indian cherishes the notion that he quits
this world for a happier hunting-ground.
Among Christians the general opinion is that
heaven is the residence of the Most High, the
holy angels, and the spirits of just men made
perfect, that this abode is eternal, its joys en-
tirely spiritual; it is believed also by many
that the just who are free from sin are admitted
into heaven immediately after death; also that
the souls of the patriarchs, prophets, and in gen-
eral the good, were detained, before the new
dispensation, in a temporary abode till the com-
ing of the Redeemer. See Immortality.

Heaves, or Broken Wind, a disease of
the horse generally described as unsoundness of
the respiratory organs. The disease is not well
understood by veterinarians and the treatment
is unsatisfactory. It is generally conceded that
the disease is incurable. The characteristic
symptoms are labored breathing, dilated nos-
trils, bloodshot eyes and dependent belly.
Horses with this disease often drop down while
at work and succumb to congestion of the lungs,
hemorrhage or suffocation, the direct result of
the heaves. Upon post-mortem examination the
stomach is found distended and to have thinner
walls than in the normal horse.

Hebe, he'be, according to Greek mythol-
ogy, the goddess of youth, and the cup-bearer
on Olympus until replaced by Ganymede. She
was a daughter of &eus and Hera, who gave
her as a wife to Heracles, in reward of his
achievements. At Rome she was worshipped
as Juventas. She is described by some authori-
ties as a divinity who had it in her power to
make old persons young again. In the arts she
is represented with the cup in which she presents
the nectar, under the figure of a charming
young girl, her dress adorned with roses, and
wearing a wreath of flowers. An eagle often
stands beside her, which she is caressing.

Heber, he'ber, Reginald, English Angli-
can bishop and poet: b. Malpas, Cheshire, 21
April 1783; d. Trichinopoli, India, 1 April 1826.
He was educated at Brasenose College, Oxford,
distinguished himself by the English prize poem
— ( Palestine^ was elected to a fellowship in
All Souls' College, traveled in Germany, Rus-
sia, and the Crimea, entered holy orders in



1807, and became the incumbent of Hodnet,
Shropshire. In 1812 he was appointed pre-
bendary of St Asaph, in 181 5 Bampton lecturer
at Oxford, in 1822 preacher at Lincoln's Inn
From 1822 until his death he was bishop of Cal-
cutta, at that time constituting one very ex-
tensive diocese, in all parts of which he traveled
to the furtherance of the mission work in pro-
gress. He completed the establishment of
Bishop's College, Calcutta, begun by Bishop
Middleton. Heber is best known for his hymns,
58 of which, including the familiar < From Green-
land's Icy Mountains,* brightest and Best,*
and ^oly, Holy, HolyP appear in ( Hymns
Written and Adapted to the Weekly Church
Service of the Year.* In prose he wrote ( A
Life of Bishop Jeremy Taylor* (1822), and <A
Journey Through India* (1828). Consult the
<Life> by Smith (1895).

Hubert, Jacques Rent, zhak re-na a-bar,
French journalist and politician: b. Alenc,on,
Orne, 15 Nov. 1755; d. Paris 24 March 1794.
At the beginning of the French Revolution Le-
maire published a journal supporting constitu-
tional principles under the title ( Pere Du-
chesne.* The Jacobins soon established a rival
( Pere Duchesne,* of which Hebert became edi-
tor. The journal owed its success to the cynical
virulence with which it advocated the popular
cause, and abused the court and the monarchy,
and soon had the field to itself. He was a mem-
ber of the Revolutionary Commune that ap-
proved the massacres in the prisons in Septem-
ber 1792, was soon after substitute attorney oi
the commune, and employed all his influence
in forwarding a project to establish the authority
of the commune on the ruins of the national
representation. The Girondists, who were at
that period contending against the Mountain,
had credit enough to procure the arrest of
Hebert 24 May 1793. Again restored to lib-
erty, he assisted with all his power and influ-
ence in the proscription of the Brissotins.
Their downfall hastened his own. With Chau-
mette he established the ( Feast of Reason,* and
afterward accused Danton of having violated
the nature of liberty and the rights of man-
kind. This terrified both Danton and Robes-
pierre, who suspended their mutual jealousies
to accomplish his destruction; and Hebert, with
the greater part of his associates, was arrested
and guillotined.

Hubert, Louis Philippe, Canadian sculp*
tor: b. Sainte Sophie d'Halifax, Quebec, 27 Jan.
1850. He studied for several years in Canada,
and later in Paris, where he established his
studio. In 1894 he won the Confederation
medal awarded by the Canadian government
Among his works are historical subjects ex-
ecuted for public buildings in Quebec, Ottawa,
and Montreal.

Hebrew Language and Literature, the

tongue in which the ancient Jews spoke and
wrote, and. the books produced by that people
during their settlement in Palestine as an inde-
pendent nation; these latter constitute the He-
brew Scriptures and are looked upon by the
Hebrews as containing the inspired word of God.
See Judaism — Hebrew Language; Jewish
Literature; Jewish Philosophical Writers;
The Jew in Art, Science, and Literature;
The Talmud; The Masorah; The Cabala*



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HEBREWS



Hebrews. See Jews in America; Jewish
Sects; Jewish Charities; Judaism— Its
Principles; Jewish History; Reformed Juda-
ism ; Zionism ; Anti-Semitism ; The Karaites ;
Status of the Jew throughout the World;
Rabbinic Legislation; Jewish Emancipation.

Hebrews, one of the canonical books of the
New Testament, usually spoken of as "The
Epistle to the Hebrews." The fact that it lacks
the introductory formula naming author and
recipients, to be expected in every ancient letter,
has led some to deny that this writing is a letter.
But this form may in this case, as often, have
been placed on a separate sheet and become lost,
or for some other reason have failed to be
copied. At any rate many expressions show
that it really was a letter addressed by some
individual to a definite group of early Christians.
In the King James version it was styled "The
Epistle of Paul the Apostle/* and thus has been
perpetuated an early Alexandrian tradition,
which later became the universal opinion for
many centuries. But this view was at first un-
known in Rome and the West, where are the
earliest traces of the use of this writing, and it
differs from the acknowledged epistles of Paul
in both style and thought. The language is
here more idiomatic and choice; clauses and
sentences are connected by an array of con-
junctions largely different from those used by
Paul ; instead of his abrupt, almost disconnected
course of expression, earnest to vehemence, we
find in Hebrews a series of balanced periods,
flowing smoothly even when most emphatic,
and a style abounding in almost artificial devices
of rhetoric. There is no less difference in the
theological conceptions and their presentation.
While not antagonistic to Paul's doctrines, being
rather complementary, the doctrinal teachings
here are yet variant, as, for example, the teach-
ings as to the divine Sonship of Christ; the
nature of faith, and the value of the law of
Moses.

While the Pauline authorship is now set
aside as out of the question by the practically
unanimous judgment of critics of every school,
there is no general agreement as to who did
write the book. Gement of Rome and Luke
have been urged for no reasons except valueless
suggestions made by Clement of Alexandria
and his pupil Origen. Harnack has conjectured
that it may have been written by Priscilla in
association with her husband Aquila, but this
view can satisfy only such as regard it as ad-
dressed to Roman Christians. The conjecture
of Luther that Apollos was the author has been
widely accepted, while the later suggestion that
it was written by Barnabas has met with the
approval of many scholars of the highest rank.
The latter view has in its favor, to be sure, the
only ancient testimony of real weight, that of
Tertullian, but it must be allowed that either
Barnabas or Apollos would meet all the require-
ments of the case so far as they are now known,
and consequently that the authorship cannot be
positively decided.

There is no less uncertainty in naming the
persons to whom it was originally addressed.
The title prefixed very early, though in all proba-
bility not originally, was *To Hebrews,* and the
view that it was addressed to Jewish Christians
is nearly universal. Not a few schofars, how-
ever, have lately declared in favor of the view



that it was written rather to Gentile Christians.
The decision hinges on the answer to the ques-
tion whether the danger against which the author
warns his readers is relapse into heathenism or
relapse into Judaism. On the one side it is
urged that relapse into Judaism could not
properly be designated ^apostasy from the living
God,* while on the other side it is urged that,
while Judaism was in the author's mind good as
compared with heathenism, yet its acceptance at
cost of a surrender of all that was distinctively
Christian might reasonably be styled apostasy.
It has certainly seemed to most that the fact that
the whole thought of the book is the superiority
of Christianity over Judaism proves that the
danger against which the first readers were
warned was relapse into what the author re-
garded as relatively worthless because an out-
grown and outworn stage of divine revelation,
and that the opinion that apostasy into heathen-
ism was the readers' danger is only *an ingenious
parodox,* even though (< an amount of ingenuity
has been expended in support of this hypothesis,
sufficient to render it plausible.*

To some extent the questions as to place and
date depend for their answer upon the con-
clusion as to the character of the first readers.
If addressed to Hebrew Christians, it is scarcely
possible that its date can be later than 68, just
before the Jewish war which resulted in the
destruction of Jerusalem, and the final removal
of the danger of relapse into Judaism, while the
fact that it is addressed to a second generation
of believers and the references to the lapse of
considerable time make it necessary to set the
date as late as possible. If addressed to Gentile
Christians, it might be dated as late as 85 or
even 90. But that in any case it is a first-century
production is guaranteed by the use made of it
by Clement of Rome before the year 100.

Where the first readers are to be looked for
hangs as completely on their character as does
the question of date. If Gentile, most would
think it probable that they were to be found at
Rome, where they may have constituted only a
single group of many among the Christians in
the city. If, however, they were really Hebrews,
it is, if not impossible, at any rate less likely
that they were at Rome. The reference to
a those from Italy* is ambiguous, but it would
seem plausible that Timothy had been im-
prisoned at Rome rather than that on release he
should hasten hither. If the core of the book
is a warning against Judaism, it would be
natural to look for those needing such a warn-
ing nearer the Temple than was Rome. While
it is generally regarded as improbable that the
letter was addressed to the church at Jerusalem,
there may have been many communities within
easy reach of that city where such a group of
Christians as these ^Hebrews* could have been
found. Syrian Antioch and Jamnia have been
named among other places.

The author very fitly styled his work *a
message of appeal.* Such it is throughout.
To be sure, the first ten chapters consist largely
of argument skilfully marshaled and stated, but
all is to strengthen appeal, and exhortation is
constantly inwoven with demonstration. The
great theme is the superiority of Christianity
over Judaism. While this is developed in many
phases, it may be briefly summed up in saying
that in chapters i-vi the stress, is laid on the



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HEBRIDES — HECATE



personal superiority of Christ, as compared with
angels, Moses, Aaron, and then (vii. i-x. 18)
the superiority of the work of Christ is set forth.
But the whole is one plea for persistence in the
Christian profession and life, and while the
changes of the centuries have made much in this
book peculiarly hard to understand and have
robbed other arguments of some of their original
force, yet, when understood, this plea for the
value of Christianity remains cogent as well as
earnest. David Foster Estes,

Professor of New Testament Interpretation,
Colgate University.

Hebrides, heb'ri-dez, The, or Western
Islands, Scotland, an archipelago off the west
coast, extending from lat. 55 35' to 58 32' N. ;
the most southern island being Islay, and the
most northern, Lewis. The group is politically
divided between the shires of Ross and Cro-
marty, Inverness, and Argyll, very nearly in the
line of their coincidence with the coasts of the
respective counties* They number about 400 in
all, but many are inconsiderable islets and rocks,
and only about 90 are inhabited; area, about
2,800 square miles; pop. (1901) 70,159. They
are usually divided into the Outer Hebrides, of
which the principal are Lewis and Harris (form-
ing a single island), North Uist, Benbecula,
South Uist, and Barra; and the Inner Hebrides
— Skye, Mull, Islay, Jura, Coll, Rum, Tiree,
Colonsay, etc. The Outer are separated from
the Inner, and from the mainland, by a strait
or channel called the Minch, which at its nar-
rowest part, between Harris and Skye, is about
".2 miles broad.

The climate is mild and salubrious, but vari-
able, tempestuous, and humid. 'Snow and frost
are almost unknown in the smaller islands, and
are but little felt in the larger. There is com-
paratively little wood in the Hebrides, and on
many of the islands none at all. In Lewis,
Skye, Islay, Mull, and several of the other
islands, however, both forest and fruit trees
have been planted to a considerable extent, with
great success. Oats and barley are almost the
only cereal crops raised. Potatoes are ex-
tensively cultivated. Cattle constitute the staple
product. The native breed are small but hand-
some. Cheese and butter of good quality are
produced. The breed of horses is also small,
but hardy and docile. The native breed of
sheep is very small, but Cheviots have been in-
troduced with success. The productive land is
partly occupied as sheep-farms; much of it is
held by ^crofters,® who occupy holdings usually
of a very few acres, sometimes with a right of
pasturage in common attached. There are also
"cotters® who occupy houses, with or without a
patch of ground, on the land of the crofter, the
farmer, or the landlord, and who are often mere
squatters paying no rent. Grouse-moors and
deer ranges cover a considerable area. Owing
to the minute division of the arable land there
is in many places an excess of population. The



Online LibraryWilfrid RichmondThe Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 → online text (page 128 of 185)