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The Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 online

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many 5 * school of writers,., leading to the ban
against their works, this act of medievalism
affected the poet deeply, and other unpleasant-
ness was added thereto. His only compensa-
tion was his recognition in his fatherland, the
esteem in which he was held in France, and the
love of a beautiful voung Frenchwoman, Ma-
thilde Creszentia Mirat, whom he married in
1841, after having lived with her many years.
Despite many storms and although his wife had
no idea of her husband's eminence, the marriage
was a happy one. The heavy material burden
which she obliged Heine to assume, forced him
in 1836 to receive from the French Government,
when Guizot was head of the Ministry, a pen-
sion of 4»8oo francs — a charity which France
at that time bestowed on all prominent fugi-
tives. It is to be understood, however, that
Heine incurred thereby no obligation to praise
or defend the political administration. Never-
theless, later he was violently attacked for this

\ flis lllness'akd\Last'ty t orks. - T\it death of
his rich uncle from whom he received an annual
sum of 4,000 francs threw him into a terrible
state. He was not mentioned in the will, and
anxiety was added lest his cousin Carl Heine
would refuse the further payment of his stipend
unless he would submit his writings to a rigid
censure by the family. Violent conflicts fol-
lowed that cost the poet his rest and his health,
which last had long been undermined. A se-
vere nervous trouble had tortured him from his
youth, and now as added illness came paralysis
of the eye.

In 1843-4 Heine visited his old mother in
Hamburg. The poetical description of his
journey in the winter tale ( Germany,> which
appeared in 1846 with his <New Poems, > and
the epic poem ( Atta Trolly which was issued in
1837, showed an entirely new line of poetical
genius; for both these satirical epics are pearls
of poesy. Since 1848 Heine was practically
chained to his bed of illness — his famous
"mattress grave. » He bore his sufferings, how-
ever, with true heroism; his intellectual power
was not weakened. But a great religious change
took place which led him back through the
Bible to. belief in God and to the memories of
his race. The two great works of the last pe-
riod of his life, ^omancero* (1851) and Con-
fessions* (in Lutetia, 3 vols. 1854), are proofs
of this great change, both in poetry and prose.
Once more did the poet reveal himself to his
admirers in agonizing strains of sorrow, in
classical ballads, in Hebrew melodies, in pro-
found lamentations of vivid effectiveness. Once
more steps the great writer before us, and in
prose of the loftiest beauty and streigth he
seeks to answer the most vital questions of our
human existence.

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On 17 Feb. 1856 he died after much suffering.
He rests at Montmartre, next to his wife. His
grave is adorned with a monument, the work
of the sculptor Hasselriis. An artistic memorial
was erected by an enthusiastic admirer, the late
Empress Elizabeth of Austria, at her country
palace Achilleion, near Corfu in the Ionian Sea,
with its classic memories. The continued ef-
forts, however, made to place a memorial to
the poet in his home on the Rhine have so far
been fruitless, and have but led to bitterest con-
flicts between clericals and anti-§emites on the
one side, and the large body of his admirers on
the other. It is not without significance that
the Loreler fountain which could find no lodg-
ment in Germany, has been placed in New York,
the metropolis of the United States, a country
where Chas. G. Leland's translation of the
< Pictures of Travel* appeared in 1855, and
where the poet's works have appeared in numer-
ous editions and translations. The poet's body
of admirers grows from dav to day, and with
this vast congregation of thoughtful men and
women in every land the history of literature,
judging without prejudice, gladly recognizes
Heine as the greatest German lyric poet, after
Goethe, and as one who is and will remain
among the most illustrious poets in the world's

B ; bliograf>hy. — John Weik edition (Phila-
delphia 1856) ; Strodtman, original edition
(Hamburg, 1861-3) ; Karpeles, popular edition
(Hamburg, 1885) ; Karpeles, critical edition
(Berlin, 1891) ; Elster, (Leipsic, 1892) ; Bio-
graphical and other writings, by Strodtman
(Berlin, 1867); Karpeles (Berlin, 1886; Leip-
sic, 1896) ; Maximilian Heine (Berlin, 1867) ;
Alfred Meissner (Hamburg, 1887) ; Camille
Selden (Paris, 1886) ; Alexander Weill (Paris,
1887) ; Marie Princess della Rocca (Hamburg,
1889) ; D. Kaufmann, *Aus Heinrich Heine's
AhnensaaP (Breslau, 1876) ; J. Snodgrass,
Heine's Wit, Wisdom, and Pathos' (Boston,
1888) ; Emma Lazarus, < Poems and Ballads of
Heinrich Heine (New York, 1881). A good
bibliography can be found in the memoir of W.
Sharp in ( Great Writers' series.

Gustav Karpeles,
Author of ( Jewish Literature and other Essays?

Heinemann, hf'ne-man, William, English
publisher and author : b. Surbiton 18 May 1863.
He founded the publishing house which bears
his name in 1890. He has published under the
pen name of Cassandra Vivaria*: < Via
Lucis* ; 'The Garden of Olives' ; 'The First
Step,' a play (1895) ; ( Sammer Moths,' a play
(1898); <War,' a play (1901).

Heinrich, H. H., American horologist: b.
Granz, Germany, 1822; d. Brooklyn, N. Y., Feb-
ruary 1903. He was apprentice to a Hamburg
watchmaker, studied with Martin Zeller of
Vienna, in Switzerland became a manufacturer
of watches and escapements, and there taught
for 10 years in a horological school which he had
established. He became known as one of the
foremost European chronometer-makers, came
to the United States and finally set up in busi-
ness for himself in New York. In 1880 his time-
recording instruments excelled all others at the
prize tests held in Washington. He also received
highest awards from the expositions at Berne
1858, Paris 1889, and Chicago 1893.

Heintxelman, hlnt'sel-man, Samuel Peter,

American military officer: b. Manheim, Pa^ 30
Sept. 1805; d. Washington, D. C, 1 May 188a
Graduated at the United States Military Acad-
emy 1826, and served during the Mexican War.
In 1861 he commanded a division at Bull Run,
where he was wounded 21 July. Afterward pro-
moted brigadier-general of volunteers, Heintz-
elman, during the organization of the army in
the winter of 1861-2, held command of a divi-
sion. On the moving of the Army of the Po-
tomac, in March 1862, the 3d Army Corps was
placed under his command. His corps formed
the right wing of Pope's army at the second
battle of Bull Run 30 Aug. 1862. During the
Maryland campaign he commanded the defenses
at Washington, and was afterward appointed to
the command of the Department of Washington,
and of the 22d Army Corps, which he held dur-
ing the battles of Chancellorsville and Gettys-
burg, in May and July 1863. He retired in 18S69,
with the rank of major-general.

Heir (Lat h&~es). in law, one entitled by
descent and right of blood to lands, tenements,
or other hereditaments. Hence It is an ancient
apothegm, that *God only can make an heir. 1
An heir is really one who is bom or begotten in
lawful wedlock, and on whom the law casts the
estate, in lands, tenements, or hereditaments
immediately on the death of his ancestor. The
rights of heirs in most of the United States are
determined by the principles of the common
law unless specially modified by statute. It is a
matter of judicial decision that the rights of
heirs in the United States are statutory only
Hence they cannot plead, for instance, that an
inheritance tax is unconstitutional. An heir
presumptive is one who will be the heir at the
death of the owner, as the elder son of a de-
ceased brother in England, or all the children of
a brother in the United States, where the owner
has no children; for they will be heirs if he
dies without issue. As an heir presumptive may
lose his heirship by a change of circumstances,
he does not become an heir apparent so long a<
this change is legally orobablv, though physic-
ally or naturally impossible. Thus the nephew
of the owneT can never be his heir apparent,
however aged or feeble or near to death the
owner may be ; for in contemplation of law it is
always possible that a son may be born to him.
who would be an heir apparent, and who would
therefore supersede an heir presumptive. An
heir apparent is one who must be the heir if he
survive the owner, as the eldest son in Great
Britain, or all the children in the United States.

Heiss, his, Michael, American Roman
Catholic prelate : b. Pfahldorf, Bavaria, 12 April
1818; d. Milwaukee 26 March 1890. He studied
at the University of Munich and at the Catholic
seminary at Eichstadt, and was ordained in 1840.
In 1843 he came to the United States, and was
first assigned to a church in Covington, Kj. ; he
next went to Milwaukee as missionary priest and
secretary to the bishop. In 1868 he was con-
secrated as the first bishop of La Crosse^ Wis.;
in 1880 he was appointed coadjutor to the arch-
bishop of Milwaukee, with the right of succes-
sion, and two years later became archbishop of
Milwaukee, He has taken an important part in
American councils, and was a member of the
Vatican Council (1860-70). He has written:

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<The Pour Evangelists,* and a treatise on mar-
riage (in Latin).

Heistand, Henry Oloot Sheldon, American
soldier: b. near Richwood, Ohio, 30 April 1856.
He was graduated from West Point 1878, and
was assigned to nth United States infantry as
ad lieutenant He was appointed government
inspector and instructor Ohio National Guard in
1892, and during the presidential campaign of
1896 was confidential secretary to McKinley. He
was promoted lieutenant-colonel in 1900, and be-
came adjutant-general and chief of staff in the
China expedition for relief of Peking 1900. He
has written: ( Alaska, Its History and De-
scription ) (1898).

Hejra, or Hijra. See Hbgira.

Helen, in Greek legend, the most beautiful
woman of Greece, daughter of Zeus by Leda.
By advice of Ulysses her numerous suitors were
bound by oath to respect her choice of a hus-
band, and to maintain it even by arms. She
chose Menelaus, but was afterward carried off to
Troy by Paris, the Trojan war arising from the
claim made by Menelaus for the fulfilment of
the oath. After the death of Paris she married
his brother Deiphobus. On the fall of Troy she
returned to Sparta with Menelaus, but at his
death was driven from the country, and was
murdered at Rhodes by the queen of that is-

Helena, heTe-na, Saint, the mother of the
Emperor Constant ine the Great. She was of
humble origin, probably the daughter of an inn-
keeper of Bithynia. She captivated Constantius
Chlorus, and became his wife ; but when Diocle-
tian elevated him to the dignity of Csesar, in 292
a.d. he was compelled to repudiate her. The
succession of her son, and the influence she had
exercised in educating him as a Christian, com-
pensated her for previous humiliations, while
her piety and zeal tor the propagation of Chris-
tianity have made her a saint in the Roman
Catholic calendar.

Helena, heTe-na or hele'na, Ark., city,
county-seat of Phillips County, on the Missis-
sippi River, and on the St Louis, I. M. & S., the
Yazoo & M. V., the Arkansas M. R.R.'s., and is
the terminus of the Arkansas Central ; about 75
miles below Memphis and 95 east by south from
Little Rock. It has boat communications with
all important river-ports. A conflict between the
Federal and Confederate forces took place here
4 July 1863. The Union army, about 4»5<»» was
under Gen. Prentiss, the Confederate, about
9,000, under Gen. Holmes. The Confederate loss
was about 1,800, including killed, wounded and
prisoners. Helena is in an agricultural and
lumbering region; the chief manufactures are
lumber, cottonseed-oil, and foundry products.
It has cotton-compresses, a shingle-mill, brick-
yards, and large lumber-yards. Some of its edu-
cational institutions are the Jefferson High
School, and the Sacred Heart Academy ; it has a
public library, nine churches, and three banks.
Pop. (1910) 8,772.

Helena, Mont., city, capital of the State,
and county-seat of Lewis and Clarke County;
on the Northern Pacific and the Great Northern
R.R/s; about 70 miles north by east of Butte.
The city is surrounded on all sides by the Rocky
Mountains; on the south and west the moun-

tains are within two miles of the city, while to
the north there is a wide valley between the city
and the foothills, and the same condition exists
on the east The city is protected from severe
wind storms, and in the winter season there is
a difference in temperature between the city and
the mountain country of from 10 to 20 degrees.
The country tributary to the city is rich in both
mineral and agricultural resources. The mines
are principally gold-producing, while the prod-
ucts of the farms are cereals and the ordi-
nary vegetables. Tributary to the city are large
areas devoted to the raising of cattle and horses,
but this industry is gradually being replaced by
diversified farming.

Helena is noted as the richest city per capita
not only in Montana, but in the entire Rocky
Mountain country. It is principally a city of
homes; cattlemen, miners, and others engaged
in industries elsewhere in Montana have their
residence in Helena because of its church, school,
and social attractions. It is the best built city
in the State ; its hotels, office buildings, mercan-
tile establishments and private residences being
equal to any found in cities of 100,000 in the east.

The geographical situation of Helena has
made it a great distributing centre. Before the
days of the railroads, when stage lines and
freight wagons drawn by oxen were the only
means of transportation, the geographical posi-
tion of the city brought to it many travelers and
great stores of merchandise. From Helena the
people and the goods were distributed to other
settlements. The Northern Pacific Railroad, the
first to reach the city, following the trend of
business, built branch lines from Helena, and
thus it retained its commercial supremacy. Later
the Great Northern was also extended to the
capital ^ city, and it likewise reached out for
trade in tie surrounding country by building
branches. The original of Helena was «Last
Chance Gulch* ; the town came into existence as
a result of discoveries of placer gold. The first
discovery of gold was made in 1864, by four
prospectors John S. Cowan, John Crab, D. J.
Miller, and Robert Stanley. These four men
started early in the spring of 1864 from Alder
Gulch, now Virginia City, in the southern part
of the State, to search for placer gold. They
went first to western Montana, and finding noth-
ing there started east, prospecting the streams.
They finally found what is now known as
Prickly Pear Creek, running through the valley
north of Helena, and here they discovered a few
traces of gold, but they continued their journey
north. Provisions becoming scarce they re-
traced their steps, intending to return to Vir-
ginia City, and again they came to Prickly Pear
Creek where they noticed a little gulch. One of
them said: a Boys, this is our last chance to
strike it. If we do not find gold here we must
strike straight for Alder .» On 16 July 1864, they
sunk two holes to bedrock, and in each they
found gold. It was the a last chance* that turned
out favorably, and that was the name of the
camp until 30 October of the same year. The
news of the find spread, and soon there were 500
men in the camp. At the meeting to name the
town, Pumpkinville, Squashtown, Tomahawk,
and Tomah were suggested. Finally John Som-
erville suggested Saint Helena. This was
amended to Helena, and on a ballot Helena won
by two votes over Tomah.

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The educational institutions are public and
parish schools, the Montana Wesleyan Univer-
sity (M. E.), opened in 1890, Saint Vincent's
Academy, and the State, city, and other

Among the principal buildings at Helena are
the Government building, costing $500,000;
State capitol, costing $400,000 ; the county court-
house, costing $100,000 ; the high school building,
costing $150,000, and seven graded school build-
ings valued at $200,000. There are also Saint
John's Hospital, Saint Joseph's Orphanage, and
several fine churches. Twelve miles from
Helena, on the Missouri River, is located the plant
of the Missouri River Power Company. This
company furnishes electrical power for operating
street cars and lighting the city of Helena, and
for manufacturing purposes. It also transmits
electrical power to Butte for use in the mines, a
distance of 100 miles. Four miles from Helena
is located the smelter of the American Smelting
and Refining Company. The principal gold mine
now operated in the vicinity of Helena is the
Big Indian, located in a gulch four miles south
of the city. Marysville is the largest mining
camp tributary to the city. Here is located the
Drum Lummon mine, owned by an English com-
pany, and in the near vicinity are other mines
which are large gold producers.

In the 20 years after the opening of the a Last
Chance Gulch,* gold to the amount of $25,-
000,000 was taken out of the gulch and the town
grew to a city of 20,000 and became the capital
of the State.

From the discovery of gold until 22 Feb. 1881,
when the city government was organized under
a charter from the State government, the gov-
ernment of the city was by a committee repre-
senting the merchants and bankers.

The government is now vested in a mayor,
who holds office two years, and a council. The
executive appoints, subject to the approval of
the council, all the subordinate officials except
the city treasurer and police magistrate, both
of whom are chosen at a popular election. The
assessed valuation of property is now about

Helena has been the capital of Montana since
1869. In that year the capital was removed by
popular vote from Virginia City. After Mon-
tana was admitted as a State two elections were
held for the permanent location of the capital,
and in 1894 Helena was chosen. Its growth be-
gan rapidly to increase.

The altitude of Helena is 4,200 feet. The
climate is not severe, the average temperature in
January and February, the two coldest months
in the year, being 20 above zero, with no mois-
ture in the air. In summer the average tem-
perature is 75. The growth of the city from now
on may not be as rapid as in the early days ; but
it promises to be a healthy, steady development
Pop. (1910) 12,515.

Charles D. Greenfield.

Helena, Battle of. Helena, Ark., is on
the west bank of the Mississippi River, about
82 miles below Memphis. Since 13 July 1862,
when Gen. Curtis arrived there from western
Arkansas, it had been occupied by Union troops,
and on 4 July 1863, was held by a division of
the Thirteenth corps, under Gen. Salomon, and a
brigade of cavalry, in all 4,129 effective men, un-

der command of Gen. B. M. Prentiss. The place
is surrounded by hills, and those nearest the city
were occupied by strong redoubts ; Graveyard Hill
in the centre. Fort Righter on the north or right,
and Fort Hindman on the south or left, were
all connected by a line of bastions and rifle-pits,
both ends of which rested on the river. In the
river lay a gunboat. Toward the middle of
June it was determined by the Confederates to
take the place, whereby it was hoped to raise
the siege of Vicksburg or, if Vicksburg fell, still
to keep the river closed. Gen. Holmes was
ordered to move from Little Rock with about
7,600 men, Price's and Marmaduke's divisions,
Fagan's brigade of infantry, and Walker's
brigade of cavalry. Holmes bivouacked about
four miles from Helena on the evening of 3 July,
and at midnight advanced to within a mile
of the outer works. The assault was ordered at
daylight. On the Confederate right Fagan with
1,770 men advanced on Fort Hindman, carried
all the . outer entrenchments, and made a des-
perate attempt to take the fort, but was repulsed
with a loss of over 400 men. On the Confederate
left, Marmaduke's division of infantry and
Walker's cavalry brigade, aggregating 2780
men, attacked Fort Righter and were repulsed.
Price, in the centre^ with 3,100 men, made a
strong assault, earned all the entrenchments
in his front, seized Graveyard Hill, and ordered
one brigade to move on the town and another
to assault Fort Hindman in the rear, but the
Union troops checked the advance of the two
brigades and drove them back and, the attacks
on the right and left being repulsed, the fire of
the forts, rifle-pits, and gunboat was concen-
trated on Price, and at 10.30 a.m. Holmes gare
the order to withdraw, and led his troops back
to Little Rock. The Union loss was 57 killed,
146 wounded, and 36 missing; the Confederate
loss was 173 killed, 687 wounded, and 776 miss-
ing. Consult: 'Official Records,* Vol. XXII.;
Greene, ( The Mississippi 3 ; The Century Com-
pany's < Battles and Leaders of the Civil War, }
Vol. III. £ a. Carman.

Herenin, a chemical substance extracted
by hot alcohol from the root of the elecampane
(Inula heleniutn). It has the formula GHA
and is nearly insoluble in water, but very soluble
in alcohol. The first crystals obtained from the
root-extract contain considerable quantities inula-
camphor; but this may be removed by repeated
crystallization from alcohol. Pure helenin crys-
tallizes in white prisms or needles, melting at
232 F.

Helicidae, he-lisl-de", the family of terres-
trial pulmonate mollusks which includes most of
the land and many fresh-water snails. Sec

Heligoland, heTi-go-land, or Helgoland,
heTgo-lant (Dan. a holy land*), a small island
and popular sea-bathing resort in the North Sea,
belonging to Germany, situated about 40 miles
northwest of the mouth of the Elbe. It is about
a mile long and one third of a mile broad, and
has an area of about one quarter of a square
mile. It consists of two parts, the Oberland, a
flat-topped rock 206 feet high, affording a little
soil for pasture and the growth of potatoes, etc,
and communicating with the Unterland, a small
stretch of shore at its foot, by 192 steps and an

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elevator. Most of the houses stand on the Ober-
land. The Unterland gives partial shelter to the
shipping. Steamboats ply between the island
and Hamburg. The principal buildings are the
church, lighthouse, and a royal Prussian biolog-
ical station for the study of the fauna and flora
of the North Sea. The bathing facilities, which
attract so many visitors, are found in a dune or
sand-bank separated from the main island by a
channel about a mile wide. This Sandy Island,
as it is called, is slowly being reduced in size by
jhe inroads of the sea. The inhabitants are
chiefly employed in fishing, and speak a Friesian
dialect The island 'is well fortified, and has
cable communication with Cuxhaven and Wil-
helmshaven. Christianity was first preached
here by St. Willibrod in the 7th century. Taken
from the Danes in 1807, it was ceded to Great
Britain in 1814, but was transferred to Germany
in 189a Pop, about 2,500, in the bathing sea-
son increased by several thousand visitors.

Heliocentric, he"li-6-sen'trfk, ^having the
sun as centre,* a term applied to the Copemican
system, -as in opposition to the Ptolemaic system,
which was geocentric, that is, ^having the earth
as centre 5 of the solar system. In modern
astronomy the word is applied to calculations in
which the sun is referred to as centre of the
planetary system. Thus the heliocentric place
of a planet is the position it would occupy at a
given time when calculated from a point of view
in the centre of the sun.

Heliodorus, he-ll-d-do'nis, the earliest of
the Greek writers of romance: b. Emesa, Syria,
and lived near the end of the 4th century. He
became a believer in the Christian religion, and
bishop of Tricca in Thessaly. His youthful
work, < yEthiopica (that is, iEthiopic Affairs),
or the Loves of Theagenes and Charicleia,* is a
tale in poetical prose, with an almost epic tone.
It is distinguished by its strict morality from the
other Greek romances, and interests the reader
by the wonderful adventures it recounts. One
of the best editions is that of Hirschig in the
^rotici Scriptores* (1856). An English trans-
lation by R. Smith appeared in 1855.

Online LibraryWilfrid RichmondThe Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 → online text (page 132 of 185)