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The Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 online

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confined chiefly to Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri,
Nebraska, and California, though considerable
hemp, in past time, has been produced in New
York. Lately it has been experimented with in
the South, notably in Mississippi and Texas.
The bulk of the crop is grown at the present
time "in Kentucky and California.

The Kentucky hemp industry is very old, for
the fibre was cultivated in the early part of the
last century. The annual production, in 1859*
reached a total of 75^)00 tons, but 20 years
later it had fallen off to such an extent that 5,000
tons only were recorded for the entire country.
Since that time it has fluctuated between 5,000
and 12,000 tons as the total crop of the country,
the annual production at the present time being
less than the smaller figure. In late years the
price has ruled at about zA cents per pound,
though now it is quoted at 4I6 cents. American
hemp was at one time used to some extent for
the rigging of vessels, although its largest use
was for bagging. As early as 1824 it was em-
ployed in the navy, and efforts were made later
by the government toward the production of
better grades of hemp by water retting. The
fibre has also been used for twines, and for
woven fabrics. In late years the demand has
been largely for a low grade fibre that could be
manufactured into binder twine, though the bulk
of the binder twine is made from manila and
sisal. Very recently there has been a demand
for a better grade of fibre, which has resulted
in more careful methods, particularly on the
Pacific coast, where a fibre has been produced
fit for fine twines and cordage. Kentucky, Illi-
nois, and Nebraska hemps are coarse, dark in
color, and are not carefully prepared, which
is the reason for the low price of 3j4 cents
against 8 and 10 cents per pound for finer im-
ported hemps. The best hemp comes from Italy,

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chiefly, from the provinces of Bologna and Fer-
rara, the fibre being very white, very well pre-
pared, and of superb strength. Breton hemp
from France is almost as good, but rarely im-

Sorted. Russian comes in several grades, some
ght, but not as light as the Italian, some dark
like the native fibre, and low in grade. Some
good hemp comes from Austria-Hungary* and a
trifle from other portions of Europe. Little
if any of the Japan fibre reaches this market,
though the best Japanese is as good as the Ital-
ian. We consume annually less than 10,000
tons, including both the native and imported.

There are many varieties of the hemp plant,
four or five having? been grown in the United
States, though it is said that the bulk of the
seed at present sown is the China hemp and a
Japanese variety. Five varieties are cultivated*
in Europe, a common form reaching a height
of 5 to 7 feet; Piedmontese or Bologna, an Ital-
ian variety that averages 12 feet in height; China
hemp, introduced in 1846; a small hemp found
in the valley of the Arno, and around Tus-
cany, and Arabian hemp, cultivated for the res-
inous principle or drug.

Limestone soils and the alluvial soils of the
river bottoms are best adapted to hemp culture,
and the seed bed should be almost as carefully
prepared as for flax. One to three bushels of
seed are sown per. acre broadcast, and lightly
covered. The planting, in Kentucky, usually be-
gins in April, and the crop may be harvested in
100 days. For further particulars regarding the
culture and preparation of this fibre, see Special
Reports Nos. 1, 8, and 11, office of Fibre Inves-
tigations of the Department of Agriculture, and
Hemp Culture in the United States, Year-book
of Agriculture for 1901. See also the diction-
ary of the Economic Products of India. }

While some 300 patents have been issued in
this country for hemp machines, the bulk of the
fibre is extracted by means of the old-fashioned,
clumsy wooden *slat brake 3 * that has been em-
ployed from time immemorial and without im-
provement or change. With one of these brakes
a Kentucky negro can extract perhaps 150 pounds
of fibre in a day. The brakes used in European
hemp countries are little better, though they are
smaller and less clumsy. The best foreign hemps
are water retted, the stalks dried with great
care, often in loins, and therefore are more
evenly prepared, and the fibre soft, strong,
and light in color — almost white as in the Ital-
ian and French hemp. On the contrary most of
the American hemps are dew retted, and are
exposed to alternate freezing and thawing, as
the stalks lie on the ground, giving an inferior
product, uneven, and very dark in color, often
a slate gray. See Cordage ; Cordage Industries ;
Fibre ; Flax ; Maihla Hemp ; Ramie ; Sisal.
Chas. Richards Dodge.
Hemp-agrimony. See Eupatomum.

Hemp-nettle, a genus (Galeopsis) of Euro-
pean plants of the mint family, two species of
which have become naturalized as weeds in the
eastern United States.

HempTiill, James C, American journalist:
b. Due West, Abbeville County, S. C, 18 May
1850. Was graduated at Erskine College in
his native town in 1870 and entered journalism
as editor of the Abbeville, S. C, * Medium > in
187 1. In 1880 he joined the staff of the

Charleston Htw$ and Courier, of which since
1888 he has been manager and editor.

Hempl, George, American philologist: b.
Whitewater, Wis., 6 July 1859. He was grad-
uated at the universities of Michigan in 1879 and
of Jena in 1889, and was appointed instructor
in German at Johns Hopkins University in
r88jL After spending three years abroad
(1886-9) in study at Gottingen, Tubingen,
Strasburg, and Berlin, he became junior pro-
fessor of English in the University of Michigan,
where he has been professor of English philology
and general linguistics since 1897. He has been
a voluminous writer, and among his technical
works may be mentioned < German Orthography
and Phonology > (1897) ; ( German Grammar >

Hemp'stead, N. Y., village, in the town of
the same name, in Nassau County; on the Long
Island Railroad; ab~"* r * •~« 1 — -«-* ~* * u - th-
ough of Brooklyn, ;
The village was se
New England. T]
Hempstead claim th
nation in the count
this village in. 1644

section of Long Island in wmcn mere are many
summer homes. During the war with Spain an
encampment for State troops was located at
Hempstead; it was called Camp Black after
the then governor of the State. The chief- in-
dustrial interests are market gardening, farming,
and the manufacturing of cork insoles, phos-
phates, and carriages. Pop. (1910) 4,964.

Hempstead, Texas, town, county-seat of
Waller County; on the Houston & T. C. rail-
road ; about 50 miles northwest of Houston and
1 13 miles east by south of Austin. It is situated
in a fertile agricultural region, noted for its
cotton fields and its vegetable products. It has
a cottonseed-oil mill, cotton-gins, and its trade
is chiefly m cotton, grain, fruits, and vegetables.
Pop. 1,078.

Hems, or Horns, h6ms (I

ria, an ancient city, near tl

the Lake of Horns, 86 mil

Damascus. Its temple of the !

lus was famous, and one of 11

emperor of Rome, assuming

Here in 272 Zenobia was defe;

and m 1832 the forces of the

by Ibrahim Pasha. The town i

by its ancient walls now in a r

It has some manufactures of silk goods and gold

ornaments, and a trade in oil and agricultural

produce. Pop. est. 30,000.

Hem'street, Charles, American journalist
and author: b. New York 20 Sept. 1866. He en-
tered the profession of journalism as a reporter
in 1886, and was connected with the City Press
Association until 1900, when he resigned to
devote himself to literature and historical re-
search. He has published: < Manhattan > (1888) ;
( Nooks and Corners of Old New York* (1809) ;
<The Calendar of Old New York> (1900) ; <His-
tory of New York City> (1901) ; c When Old
New York was Young* (1901).

Hem'yng, Bracebridge, English author: b.
London 1832; d. 1891. In early life a journal-
ist he began at the age of 35 a series of sensa-
tional tales for boys known as the ( Jack Hade-

Digitized by



away' stories, which for a dozen years had great
vogue in Great Britain and the United States.
He wrote not only some 20 serial stories having
to do with the adventures of < Tack Harkaway,*
but upward of 40 volumes of sensational fic-
tion, none of which, however, found readers in

Hen-hawk, or Chicken-hawk, any kind of
hawk which attacks poultry, or is supposed to
do so. Two or three large buzzard-hawks are
popularly so called in the eastern United States,
and at least two smaller falcons. In the West,
and in other parts of the English-speaking world,
are other species of the same repute, more or
less well-deserved. In England the analogue
of the American marsh-hawk (q.v.) is known as
^hen-harrier.* Certain owls everywhere kill
much poultry where it is not safely housed
at night. In North America the best known
hen-hawks are the broad-winged, red-tailed, and
red-shouldered (q.v.; also Buzzakd). They are
comparatively harmless to poultry, however,
feeding mainly on squirrels, mice, frogs, etc
The broad-wing (Buteo pennsylvanicus) is one
of the most familiar of our hawks, breeding
numerously in the woods all over the country.
It is 16 inches long, with the tail 7 inches,
and the wing 11 inches. The upper parts are
dull umber-brown, the tail almost black, crossed
by two to four pale brown bands; the lower
parts are dull rufous brown, nearly unbroken
on the breast. It is rather sluggish in tem-
perament, though capable of swift and bold ac-
tion, and feeds mainly on mice, but will now
and then seize young chickens, ducklings, etc.
On the whole, as in the case of the other buz-
zard-hawks, it is of more service than injury to
the agriculturist. The real culprits are two
small, swift, agile falcons, Cooper's (Accipiter
cooperi), and the sharp-shin (A. velox). The
former is nearly two feet long, grayish-brown on
the upper parts and white below, with the sides
and breast barred with dusky red-brown, and
tail barred with blackish. The sharp-shin has
much the same colors, but is little more than
half as large, and is further distinguished by
the triangular shape of the tarsus, giving it an
edge in front. These bold and active falcons
live mainly on birds, and on farms prey largely
on chickens and house-sparrows, compensating
somewhat for the former by killing the latter.
Consult Fisher, < Hawks and Owls of the United
States } (Washington 1893).

Henbane, a dangerous plant (Hyoscyamus
niger) of the order Solanacccc, which contains
the tobacco, stramonium and other plants
abounding in narcotic poisons. The black hen-
bane (Hvoscyamus niger) represents some 15
species of the Mediterranean region, and springs
up in waste places throughout Great Britain
and the eastern United States, where it has
become naturalized. It is an annual, somewhat
bushy, about two feet high, with large sinuated
or sharply lobed leaves without leaf-stalks, and
large dingy yellow flowers with purplish veins.
The whole plant is covered with unctuous hairs,
and has a nauseous smell. The seeds contain
in largest quantity the specific alkaloid hyos-
cyamin, which crystallizes in stellated acicular
crystals of a silky lustre. The symptoms of
poisoning by henbane are similar to those pro-
duced by other narcotic poisons, and the proper
treatment is the same as in cases of poisoning

by opium. In medicine henbane is employed
both externally and internally. The leaves are
the part commonly used ; they are gathered and
quickly dried when the plant is in full flower.
Fomentations of henbane are applied to painful
glandular swellings, parts affected with neu-
ralgia, etc., and are often found to afford re-
lief. An extract of henbane is sometimes em-
ployed instead of belladonna to dilate the pupil
of the eye. Tincture and extract of henbane are
often administered in cases of annoying cough,
spasmodic asthma, and other diseases requiring
sedatives and antispasmodics. For many cases
it has one great advantage over laudanum, in
not producing constipation. The other species
of henbane possess similar properties. The dried
stalks of H. albus are used by smoking in
Greece to allay toothache.

Hen'derson, Charles Hanford, American
educator and author: b. Philadelphia 30 Dec
1861. He was graduated from the University
of Pennsylvania in 1882, was lecturer at the
Franklin Institute 1883-5, 1885-6; lecturer on
education at Harvard 1897-8: and director of
Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, 1808-9. He has pub-
lished ( Elements of Physics* (1900); Uohn
Percyfield: the Anatomy of Cheerfulness*
(1903) ; <The Children of Good Fortune 5 (1904).

Henderson, Charles Richmond, American
educator: b. Covington, Ind., 17 Dec 1848. He
was graduated from the University of Chicago
in 1870, and has been professor of sociology
there since 1802. He was president aGth Na-
tional Conference of Charities 1898-9, and vice-
president National Prison Association. He has
published < Social Spirit in America > (1896);
< Social Settlement (1807); < Social Element*

Henderson, David Bremner, American
statesman: b. Old Deer, Scotland, 14 March
1840; d. Dubuque, Iowa, 25 Jan. 1906. He was
educated in the public schools and Upper Iowa
University; in 1861 entered the army as ben-
tenant of the Twelfth Iowa regiment; lost
a leg at Corinth (1863), and was discharged
from the service. He then became coramis-
sioner of the board of enrolment in the 3d
Iowa district, but re-entered the army a*
colonel in 1864. He studied law and was ad-
mitted to the bar in Iowa in 1865* *n d **
United States district attorney in the northern
division of Iowa 1869-71. He early became
prominent in the local politics of his district,
and was a delegate to three Republican national
conventions. In 1882 he was elected to the
House of Representatives, and was re-elected
biennally till 1002. He was for manyjears
one of the leaders of the Republicans in the
House, served on the committee of appropria-
tions for 10 years, and was chairman of the
'judiciary committee and a member of the com-
mittee on rules in the $4*h and 55th Congresses.
He assisted Speaker Reed (q.v.) in the making
of the *Reed rules," was consistently an advo-
cate of sound money, and a strong supporter oi
President McKinley's Cuban policy. At the
organization of the 56th Congress in 1899 »J
was chosen speaker of the House, and re-elected
in ioor ; he was an impartial presiding officer
and took important part in shaping the ^ sl K
rion made necessary by the Spanish war and
the acquisition of new territory. In loa* hc

Digitized by



declined a unanimous renotnination from his
district, because he could not support the policy
of tariff revision then made a prominent issue
fcy Iowa Republicans.

Henderson, Isaac, American Journalist
and novelist: b. Brooklyn, N. Y., 13 Feb. 1850;
d. 1 April 1909. He was graduated from Wil-
liams College in 1872, and joined the staff of the
New York Evening Post, of which journal he
became publisher in 1876. He sold his interests
in 1880, and went abroad in 1888, making his
home in London and Rome. Arthur of < The
Prelate ) (1898); < Agatha Page> (1900). ,

Henderson, James Pinckney, American
soldier and politician: b. Lincoln County, North
-Carolina, 21 March 1808; d. Washington, D. C,
4 June 1858. He practised law in Mississippi;
went to Texas in 1836, and became secretary of
state of the Texan Republic 1837-9. In the
latter year he was sent as a minister to England
and France to secure the recognition of Texan
independence, and went to Washington in 1844
to secure annexation. He was a member of the
Texas constitutional convention 1845, and the
following year was elected first governor of
the State. In 1857 he was appointed senator
from Texas as a State Rights Democrat. Hen-
derson fought in the Mexican War and Con-
gress gave him a sword for his gallantry.

Henderson, Mary N. Foote, American
writer on domestic science: b. New York 184a.
She was married to J. B. Henderson, and in
1876 organized the St. Louis School o£ Design.
•She is the author of ( Diet for the Sick,* prac-
tical Cooking and Dinner Giving.*

Henderson, Peter, American horticultur-
ist: b. Porthead, Scotland, 1823: d. Jersey City,
N. J., 17 Jan. 1890. He came to America in
1843, and opened a seed-store in New York city
in 1862. He has been called a the father of
horticulture and ornamental gardening in the
United States.* He published Practical Flori-
culture* (1867) ; hardening for Profit* (1866) ;
hardening for Pleasure* (1875) ; ( Garden and
Farm Topics 5 (1884) ; <How the Farm Pays*

Henderson, Richard, American pioneer: b.
Hanover County, Virginia, 1734; d. North Car-
olina 1785. He studied law and in 1769 was
appointed associate justice of the superior court
of North Carolina. After the adoption of the
Declaration of Independence he declined re-
election to the bench, in order to participate in
the scheme of the Transylvania Land Company.
By this scheme the company organized as a
political community with president, legislature,
and judges, all the territory lying between the
Cumberland River, the Cumberland Mountains,
and the Kentucky River. The State of Virginia
annulled the deed of sale of this tract of terri-
tory which the Cherokee Indians had given to
the Transylvania Land Company, but as a re-
ward for the pioneer work of the company,
granted them an area 12 miles square on the
Ohio River, below the mouth of the Greene

Henderson, William James, American
-musical critic and author: b. Newark, N. J.,
4 Dec. 1855. He was graduated from Princeton
College in 1876, and joined the staff of the
New York Tribune, the following year becoming
lausical critic of the New York Times. He

of <The Standard Diction-
ublished: * The Story
•eludes and Studies*
Boys* (1894); ( Afloat
( Elements of Naviga-
t Cruise of the Mo-
jood Music ?> (1898);
(1899) ; <The Orches-

Music* (1899) ; < Richard

Vol. 10 -

was associate editor

ary> (18c "
of Musi<


with the

tion* (iJ

hawk 5 (i

<How M

tra and Orchestral

Wagner * (1901).

Henderson, Ky., city, county-seat of Hen-
derson County; on the Ohio River, and on the
Illinois C, the Louisville & N., the Louisville, H.
& St. L. R.R.'s; about 10 miles below Evans-
ville, Ind., and 103 miles, in direct line, south-
west of Louisville. It has regular steamboat
connection with Louisville, Evansville, Mem-
phis, and other river ports. It is one of the
oldest settlements on the Ohio River, but it
was not incorporated until 1797. It is situated
m a fertile agricultural region, rich in timber
and coal. The chief manufactures are cotton
and woolen goods, flour, hominy, lumber, to-
bacco products, furniture, carriages and wagons,
foundry products, car-works, and agricultural
im p l e ments. Large shipments are made of corn,
wheat, and tobacco. It has large coal and lum-
ber yards, grain-elevators, tobacco-stemmeries,
fine fairgrounds, and Atkinson Park, the area
of which is about 100 acres. It has a sana-
torium and a number of well-built churches and
schools. The charter of 1893 provides for a
mayor, who holds office four years and is not
eligible for re-election, and a common council.
The city owns and operates the electric-light
and gas plants and the waterworks. Pop.
(1910) 11 ,452.

Henderson, N. C, town, county-seat of
Vance County, on the Southern and the Sea-
board A. L. R.R/s; about 12 miles east of
Oxford and 42 miles north of Raleigh. Hen-
derson was settled in r820, but was not incor-
porated until 1842. It is situated in a cotton
and tobacco region of the State. The chief
industrial establishments are cotton-gins, cot-
ton-seed oil mills, cotton-mills, knitting-mills,
tobacco warehouses, wagon-factories, flour-
mills, and lumber-yards. Its chief trade is in
cotton and tobacco. Pop. (1890) 4,191; (1900)
3,746; (1910) 4,503.

Henderson, Texas, town, county-seat of
Rusk County; on a branch of the International
& G. N. railroad;- about 122 miles southeast of
Dallas and 165 miles north by east from Hous-
ton. It is situated in an agricultural section,
and the chief industries are connected with ag-
ricultural products. Its chief industrial estab-
lishments are a foundry, a pottery, and cotton-
gins. The trade is in manufactured articles,
live-stock, cotton, and vegetables. It is the seat
of a normal college.

Hen'dereonyille, N. C, town, county-seat
of Henderson County; on the Southern Rail-
way; about 21 miles south of Asheville and
100 miles west of Charlotte. It is situated in a
mountainous portion of the State, but in the
valleys are fertile farm lands. The chief in-
dustrial establishments are a furniture factory,
a tannery, a canning factory, and a lumber yard.
Apples and vegetables are among the agricul-
tural products shipped to other markets. Hen-
dersonville has a large number of summer


Digitized by



guests owing to the hcalthfulness of the climate
and the beauty of the scenery. Pop. (1910)

Hen'dricks, Thomas Andrews, American
politician, 21st Vice-President of the United
States: b. near Zanesville, CL 7 Sept. 1819; d.
Indianapolis, Ind., 25 Nov. 1885- He was grad-
uated at South Hanover College, Indiana, in
1841 ; studied law and was admitted to the
Indiana bar in 1843. In 1845 he was elected
to the legislature, and in 1850 and 1852 to Con-
gress. In i860 he was the Democratic candi-
date for governor of Indiana, but was defeated.
He was a United States senator 1863-9; and at
the Democratic National Convention of 1868
received 132 votes for the Presidential nomina-
tion. In the same year he was again defeated
for the governorship of Indiana, but in 1872
was elected. In the Democratic National Con-
vention of 1876 he was nominated for the Vice-
Presidency, but the ticket, headed by Tilden,
was defeated. Hendricks was again nominated
for the Vice- Presidency in 1884, however, on the
ticket with Cleveland, and on this occasion was

Hen'drix, Eugene Russell, American
Methodist bishop : b. Fayette, Mo„ 17 May 1847.
He was graduated from Wesleyan University,
Middletown, Conn., 1867; and the Union Theo-
logical Seminary 1869. Appointed bishop of
the Methodist Episcopal Church South, in 1886,
he has since made official visits to China, Japan,
Korea, Mexico, and Brazil. He is the pos-
sessor of John Wesley's manuscript < Journal >
written in America 1736-7. He has written
< Around the World* (1878); ' Skilled Labor
for the Master* (1900).

Hengist, hen g' gist, Saxon founder of the
kingdom of Kent in Great Britain : d. about 488.
He and his brother Horsa were renowned among
the Saxons for their bodily strength and the
antiquity of their family, which derived its ori-
gin in a direct line from Odin. Jn 449 the
Britons sued for aid from the Saxons against
the inroads of the Scots and Picts. Under com-
mand of Hengist and Horsa the Saxons landed
at the mouth of the Thames, attacked the ene-
mies of the Britons, and defeated them near
Stamford in 450 a.d. As soon as they had
received reinforcements from home they sought
occasion for a quarrel, and uniting with the
Scots and Picts they attacked the Britons, who
were forced to flee or submit to the Saxons.
Some fled to Armorica (Haute-Bretagne), to
which they gave their name. Hengist, who had
lost his brother in the battle near Eglesford
(now Aylesford) in 455 a.d., founded the king-
dom of Kent. He established his residence in
Canterbury. By some of our writers Hengist
and Horsa are regarded as mythical personages.

Hening's Statutes, the first complete col-
lection of the laws of any American State, in-
cluding those of its colonial times, those repealed
and those dropped in revision. These were the
•Statutes at Large of Virginia, 1619-1792,* in
13 volumes, published at Richmond 1809-23, by
William Waller Hening, clerk of the court of
chancery; Jefferson is said to have suggested
the publication. It is highly valued as a histor-
ical source.

Henley, WilHam Ernest, English poet,
critic, and journalist : . b. Gloucester 23 Aug.

1849; d. Woking 12 July 1903. He entered on a
journalistic career in London, and in 1877 be-
came first editor of the magazine ( London. >
He was then editor successively of the < Maga-
zine of Art* (1882-6), of the 'Scots*— later the
' National Observer* — (1888-93), and of the

Online LibraryWilfrid RichmondThe Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 → online text (page 135 of 185)