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The Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 online

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anew upon metaphysics, mathematics, and ex-*
perience. The third of these bases is treated
under the term apperception, which has import-
ant results for e<f

Appcrccptibn- ed this

term, employed it ts first

* meaning is the o: iind to

unify experiences ti; this

is the sense in wl i. The

second meaning i« >n that

takes place when ilready

acquired to interpi is nat-

ural that Herbarl letter

process^ for ttooafeh he could hardly deny the
validity of the first form of apperception, yet
so slight is the original equipment of the mind
— merely the power of preserving itself against
the encroachments of other Rv&te-~ that all the
significance of its activity must be found in ac-
quiring experience. This, ft may be remarked,
is the* process most important to teacHers, for
they can help to supply and order experience,
whereas they have no control whatever over the
original constitution of the mind. Herbart sees
in each new sensation a stimulus to ideas al-
ready possessed,* arn attractive force for the sim-
ilar, a repelling one for the' dissimilar. The
new 'idea therefore at first holds the Centre of
consciousness, gathering about itself similar
ideas, and rebelling hostile ones already in con-
sciousness or newly attracted to it by contrast.
But this very domination of the new idea Is in
most cases the cause of its reduction to a sub-
ordinate place, for by bringing to consciousness
a body of more deeply rooted related ideas, it
enables the old to control the new by placing
the new in its true relation to older and better
ordered experience. "In other words, the new
is apperceived by the old. Herbart's theory,,
thus briefly stated, has been extended and freed
from contra dictions, by subsequent writers, no r
tafojy Lazarus, Steinthal and Wundt (qq.v.). .

Eihics^nAil knowledge, feeling, desire, and
will, being explained by the various relations
htto whieh ideas may come, there is no room in
Herbart's. system for transcendental will, hence
no' ethical imperatives antecedent to those de-
veloped by experience. Ethics consequently be-
conbes a branch of aesthetics, and ethical judg-
ment is founded upon pleasurable or painful
feelings as the case may be. The mind spon-
taneously r approves some. will relations and as
spontaneously disapproves bthers. These basal
relations refer to five fundamental aspects of
conduct, two relating to the setf as such, and
the remaining three to the relations of the self
to others. The first two are Inner Freedom
(the feeling thait arises from good conscience)
and EMciency of Will (the pleasure that is
aroused by efficient action). The three other
ideas are first Good Will (subjective attitude
toward others), the second Justice (the legal
basis of righ,ts), and the third Equity (the de-
mand that requital shall be adequate to deed).

Educaiion.-^-Vpon the, basis of his psychol-
ogy and ethics &s above explained, Herbart
built his educational structure. Since there

Digitized by



is to be adequate tcf his knowledge. This leads
to the

Doctrine of Interest. — By means of direct
interest incited in the pupil lor the subject-
matter itself, not amusement connected with
the subject-matter, as some have erroneously
thought, the pupil's permanent attitude of mind
toward the circle of .thought itself and conse-
quently toward the 1 aspects of life involved will
be established; This interest falls naturally
into two groups, first that pertaining to knowl-
edge itself, and second that pertaining to inter-
course with others. The, first group embraces
empirical/ speculative (causal), and aesthetic in-
terests; the second sympathetic, social, and re-
ligious interests. This doctrine of interest, so
important in modern educational (thought, has
been brought into harmony with our more spir-
itualistic systems of philosophy and psychology
by Professor John Dewey (interest as Re-
lated to WilP). The, next important topic
arises when we ask how the teacher is to lead
the pupil to build his circles of thought ade->
quately, and then to have the right mental atti-
tude toward them. This leads to* the subject o£

Method.- -It is a common experience that
faulty methods may easily lead to inadequacy of
insight; they may still more easily lead to the
wrong attitude of mind, as when the student
hates a subject and everything connected with
it. The first point to consider is Attention,
which is either spontaneous* or forced With
the young where forced attention is painful, it
is better to induce spontaneous attention, for
here the ideas rise freely, producing liveliness
and pleasure. Apperception has two marked
stages, that of absorption, in which the mind
gives itself up to new impressions; and that of
reflection, in which the newly acquired elements
of knowledge find their appropriate place in the
Systems of the old. To bring about this two-
fold process of absorption and reflection most
effectively and* most agreeably to the mind, w*
must observe at least four prominent stages of
method. The first of these is' clearness,' by
which is meant the adequate apprehension of
the single object or element as such, The
second is association, which consists in the
progress from one absorption to another re-
lated one. The third, is system, or the, step in
which each part of that which is learned
finds its proper place in relation to other parts.
Steps two and three may be said to embrace
the process of generalization. The fourth stage
is what Herbart calls method, by which he
understands the well-ordered' activity of the pu-
pil in the soltftiort of problems and tasks.

Making due allowance for those parts of
Herbart's system that are now of historical in-
terest only, it may be seen that many of its
elements are still of importance to the world,
for they involve the most potent of modern
educational processes and aims.

Herbart's chief philosophical works are
<Lehrbuch zur Einleitung in die Philosophie >
(1813) ; ^ehrbuch zur Psycjiologie* (1816) ;
< Psychologie als Wissenschaft,_neu gegrundet
auf Erfanrung. Metaphysik un<l Mathematic
(1824-25) ; ( Allgemeine Metdphysik nebst den

Anfangen der pbilosophischen Naturlehre
(i&28r29); ( Kurze Encyclopadie der Philoso-
phic, aus practischen Gesichtspunkten entwor-
fen* . (1831). The complete works of Herbart
have been edited in 12 volumes, by G. Harten- .
stein (Leipzi 1850-52). Herbart^ aducational
works, including the fAllgemeine Padagogik*
and the ( Umriss Padagogischer Vorlesungen, 1
were edited by Dr. Otto Willmann in two vol-
umes (Leipzig 1880). The Psychology is
translated and $0 .be found, in the International
Series (Appletons) , while the < Aligemeine
Padagogjk* and the ( Umriss ) are also found in
English*: the [former under the title of the
^Science of' Education* > and the latter under
that of ^Outlines i of r Educational Doctrine.*
The Herbartian School has produced a litera-
ture in metaphysics, psychology and education
too voluminous, for mention here*

Charles De Garmo.
Professor of the Science and Art of Education,
■ Cornell Unk/ers4ty; Author of ^Herbart and

the Herbartians*

Herbelot, Barthelemy, d\ bar-tal-me der-
blo, French Orientalist: b. Paris 4 Dec. 1625;
d. there 8 Dec. 1695. Having gone through a
course of study in the university of his native
city, he applied himself particularly to the east-
ern languages, with a view to the elucidation of
the Hebrew Scriptures. He visited Italy, and
while there commenced his great work, the
( Orlental Library.* Recalled to Paris by Col-
bert, a pension was given him, that he might be
at liberty to proceed with his 1 undertaking. It
was his first design to have published his col-
lection m Arabic, and types were cast for the
purpose of printing it. But the death of Colbert
having interrupted this plan, he recomposed the
work in the French language, as likely to prove
more generally useful. He was appointed to
the royal professorship of Syriac in 1692. His
book was published in 1697, under the title of
c La BibHotheque Oriental e*'* The best edition
of the ( Oriental Library* is that of The Hague
(*77?), with the supplements of Gal land and

Herbert, Edward, Load Herbert of Cher-
bur y, English philosopher: b. Eyton-on- Severn,
near Wroxeter, 1583; d. London 20 Aug. 1648.
He was a famous soldier and diplomatist in his
day, but at the present is remembered as an
author and philosopher. At Paris, in 1624, he
printed his famous book, <De Veritate prout
Distinguitur a Revelations, a VerisimiH, a Pos-
sibili et a Falso,* the object of which was to
assett the sufficiency, universality, and perfec-
tion Of natural religion, and thereby prove the
Uselessness of revelation. In 1624 he returned
from France, and was created an Irish peer;
and in 1629 became an English baron with the
title .of Lord Herbert of Cherbury. In the
civil war he at first tried as far as possible to
play a neutral part, but afterwards sided with
the Parliamentary party chiefly with a view, it
appears, to save his .property. The character of ^
Lord Herbert is strongly marked in his memoirs,
which show him to be vain, punctilious, and
fanciful, but open, generous, brave, and disin-
terested. The ( De Veritate > was followed by
works entitled *De Causis Errorum ) (16S5);

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and <De Religione Gentilium ) (1663; Eng.
trans. 1709). In 1649 was published his c Life
and Reign of Henry VIII. > The English style
of Lord Herbert is strong, manly, and free from
the quaint pedantry of his age. He was one of
the first to attempt a systematic proof of the
sufficiency of natural religion. ^Herbert's re-
ligious doctrine,* says Sidney Lee, *starts with
the assumption that religion, -which is common
to the human race, consists merely of the five
innate ideas or axioms that there is a God, that
He ought to be worshipped, that virtue and
piety are essential to worship, that man ought
to repent of his sins, and that there are rewards
and punishments in a future life. He regards
Christianity as on the whole the best religion,
because its dogmas are least inconsistent with his
five primary articles.* His autobiography re-
mained in manuscript till 1764, when it was
published by Horace Walpole. There is a re-
cent critical edition by Sidney Lee (1886).

Herbert, Lady Elizabeth, English writer,
mother of Sir Michael Herbert,. British ambas-
sador at Washington 1902-3. She is well known
as an authoress, and has written books of travel
in Spain, Algeria, and many other countries, as
well as novels and biographies. Among these
may be noted: < Rambles Round the World*;
< Wayside Tales > ; Cradle-Lands*; ( Impressions
of Spain* ; Algeria, or Search
shine* ; ( Love and Sacrifice*
< Edith* ; ( Wives and Mothers 11
Times* ; ( First Martyrs of the H<
in China* ; Children of Nazan
of Monsignor Dupanloup, Garcia M
Gere, General de Stonis, the A
Braga, Geronimo, PSre Eymard,
Hofbauer, Saint John Baptist de
Cajetan, Mother Teresa Dubouche,

Herbert, George, the best known of Eng-
lish religious poets: b. at the Castle of Mont-
gomery, Wales, 3 April 1593; d. Bemerton,
March 1633. His father, Richard Herbert, came
of an illustrious Welsh family; his mother,
Margaret Newport, also of excellent family, is
more remembered for her own noble character.
She was of the best type of Renaissance woman,
cultured, highminded — the companion and friend
of intellectual men. Between her and her poet
son was rare sympathy ; she guided his life in
all things and early destined him to the saintly
career in which he came slowly to find his happi-
ness. Upon her husband's death in 1597* the
-care of her ten children . fell to her. The oldest
son, Edward, Baron Herbert of Cherbury, him-
self a poet and the author of the famous auto-
biography (printed by Horace Walpole in 1764),
went. to Oxford in 1595; there his mother fol-
lowed him with her other children, to watch
over his career. Here George Herbert was
brought up until 1605, when he entered West-
minister School. From the first he distinguished
himself, partly by his learning, partly by his
daring, which showed itself in his attack in
Latin epigrams upon Andrew Melville, the
noted Presbyterian. In 1609 he was elected
scholar of Trinity College, Cambridge, where
three years later he took his degree. In 16T4
he became a Fellow of Trinity, and won his
Master's Degree in 1616. In 1619 he was elected
Public Orator, an office he filled until 1627.

Until this election Herbert had looked
toward a worldly career. Pride of family and
ambition were strong in him; the influence of
his relatives and friends at court was great;
he knew his own powers. But all that the court
favor bestowed upon him was the lay rectorship
of Whitford (1623), a sinecure post which Sir
Philip Sidney had held; and shortly afterward
the death of his most powerful friends darkened
the promise of worldly advancement, and aided
his mother's effort to turn him to the Church.

of his father-in-law's, and the next year he was
presented to the living of Bemerton, with which
his name is remembered. The short remainder
of his life was remarkably active. In these
years he wrote, most of his poems and the best
of them, and also the charming ^Character of
the Country Parson.* It has been thought that
his extraordinary zeal hastened his end. He,
died of consumption in 1633; the date of his
burial was March 3. Later in the same year his
famous book of poems, c The Temple,* was pub-
lished in Cambridge.

Herbert's life rnusjt have seenttd to him an
elaborate and delayed preparation for the last
saintly years at Bemerton— one long turning
from high hopes of a career and broad experi-
ence of the best of worldly society, to the
humble life of the spirit. The wasting of his
physical frame paralleled this increasing other-
worldliness. Yet in his final achievement his
early life counts for more than at first might
be guessed; he could turn from such a past
less completely than he thought. He owed it to
this broad experience of the world at its best
that his nature remained normal. His extreme
saintliness took no strange outward form, as
did the piety of his friend Nicholas Ferrar, nor
did it mar his writing with eccentricities of fer-
vor or mysticism; his genius is entirely sane.
In no English poet, religious or secular, do the
small common-places of life count for more.
In such poems as ( The Elixir,* with its famous
praise of ^Drudgery Divine,** he insists on that
kind of aspiration which scorns no humble or
routine task; and his longest poem, <The
Church Porch* — a series of wise maxims for
the familiar discipline of the soul — sums up the
moral and religious traditions of the English
race, though in his individual way. His genius
i9 for common sense ennobled by lofty faith
and passionate devotion. It is this norma!
quality in him, this quickness to find inspiration
along the highway, rather than his frequent
reference to ecclesiastical customs and offices,
that makes him, as Coleridge said, the repre-
sentative poet of the English Church.

Digitized by



Herberts' wide fame rests on the substance
of his work, rather than on the skill of its ex-
pression. But technically in his own field he is
an accomplished artist. In a certain striving
to crowd too much thought into words or to
secure a striking phrase, he must be classed
With Donne and the other "fantastic poets,*
but in him this quality is rarely pressed beyond
a charming quaintness. He has the artist's
sense of word-values; his verbal felicity, as in
the oft-quoted "Sweet day, so cool, so calm, so
bright,* could hardly be excelled, and in many
of his poems the fine openings and cadences
recall the best manner of the Cavalier Poets
(q.v.), among whom Herbert would naturally
have found his place, had he not devoted his
genius to sacred poetry. Good illustrations of
such qualities, besides the titles already men-
tioned, are the song *I got me flowers to straw
Thy way,® the lovely poem with the fantastic
title ( The Pulley,* and the more passionate
( When blessed Mary wiped her Saviour's
Feet.* In all these verses Herbert's individual-
ity is strong — the quiet depth of his religious
nature, and his indescribable sweetness of tem-
per, the fruit of the winning over of his worldly
ambition to saintly ideals.,

Bibliography. — The best editions are:
George Herbert Palmer; Grosart, in the
Fuller's Worthies Library and in the Aldine
edition; the Pickering edition, with the Life by
Isaak Walton. For criticism, consult: intro-
ductions* to the above, especially to Palmer's
edition; also, for a charming study, consult % the
essay on Lady Dan vers in Louise Imogen
Guiney, ( A Little English Gallery.*

John Erskine,
Associate Professor of English in Amherst

Herbert, Henry William, "Frank Fores-
ter, 3 * American author: b. London, England, 7
April, 1807; d. New York 17 May 1858. He
was graduated from Caius College, Cambridge,
in 1838; removed to the United States in 183 1 ;
and until 1839 was instructor in the Greek an<J
Latin languages in a private school of New
York. In 1833 he established and until 1836 was
editor of the ( American Monthly Magazine,*
during a portion of that time with Charles
Fenno Hoffman (q.v.) as associate. From 1834
he became largely known as the first important
American writer on sports and out-of-door sub-
jects. He wrote also on .French and English
history, and made excellent translations from
Dumas and Sue. His volumes include: ( Crom-
well> (1837); 'Marmaduke Wyvil* (1843);
<The Cavaliers of England* (1852); <The
Chevaliers of France* (1853); ( The Puritans
of New England* (1853); <Field-Sports of the
United States and the British Provinces*
(1848) ; ( Sporting Scenes and Characters*
O857) ; 'Horses and Horsemanship of the
United States and British Provinces* (1859).

Herbert, Hilary Abner, American lawyer
and politician: b. LaurensviUe, S. C, 12 March
1834. He was educated at the universities of
Alabama and Virginia, studied law and was
admitted to the bar. He began practice at
Greenville, Ala., but served in the Confederate
army as captain and colonel of the 8th Alabama

regiment; being disabled at the battle of the
Wilderness (1864), he retired from the array,,
and continued the practice of his profession,
first at Greenville, then at Montgomery (1872).
He was elected to Congress in 1877, and seven
times re-elected ; in three Congresses he was
chairman of the committee on naval affairs.
In March 1895, he was appointed secretary of
the navy by President Cleveland, an office
which he held till 1897.

Herbert, John Rogers, English historical
and portrait painter: b. Maldon, Essex, 23 Jan.
181 o; d. London, 17 March 1890. He studied at
the Royal Academy, where he exhibited as early
as 1830; later went abroad and in 1840 became
a Roman Catholic, after which the subjects of
his paintings were chiefly religious. In 1841
he was elected one of the masters of the govern-
ment school of design at Somerset House, and
in, 18^6 became a member of the Academy. His
principal works are the frescoes in the peer's
robing-room in the House of Lords; <The Ap-
pointed Hour* O834) ; <King Lear Disin-
heriting Cordelia' ; <Sir Thomas More and his
Daughter* in the Vernon collection at the
National Gallery; and < Saint Gregory Teaching
His Chant*

Herbert, Sir Michael Henry, English
diplomatist ; b. England 25 June 1857 ; d. Davos-
Plat?, Switzerland, 30 Sept. 1903. He went to
Paris as attache in 1879; was charge d'affaires
at Washington (1888-9) ; secretary to the Brit-
ish legation at Washington (1892-3) ; at The
Hague (1893-4) ; and at Constantinople
(1894-7). On 4 June 1902 he was appointed
British ambassador to the United States at
Washington, in succession to the late Lord
Pauncefote, and the following year was com-
pelled by ill health to return to Europe.

Herbert, Victor, American musical direc-
tor and composer: b. Dublin, Ireland, 1 Feb.
1859. After studying music from his childhood
in Germany, he was appointed principal 'cello
player in the court orchestra, Stuttgart, from
which time he appeared in concerts throughout
Europe. In 1886 he took the position of solo
'cellist in the Metropolitan orchestra, New York,
and has since been connected as soloist and con-
ductor with the principal orchestras of the
United States. Since 1804 he has been band-
master of the 22d regiment band, New York,
was conductor of the Pittsburg, Pa., orchestra
from 1808 to 1904, and since 1904 has conducted
Victor Herbert's New York Orchestra. As a
composer he has written: <The Captive,* an
oratorio; and the comic operas, ( Prince Ana-
nias' ; 'The Wizard of the Nile> ; <The Sere-
nade* ; Cyrano de Bergerac* ; ( The Ameer*;
<The Viceroy*; <The Idol's Eye > ; <The For-
tune Teller 1 ; <The Singing Girl* ; < Babette ) ;
( Babes in Toyland* ; <It Happened in Nord-
land* ; etc.

Herbiv'ora, a group of mammals charac-
terized by their herbaceous diet; the grazers or
ruminants. The term is no longer in use.

Herbs, Culinary, fragrant or aromatic
plants used to add flavor to food, especially
stews, soups, dressings and salads. They usually
owe these qualities to essential oils, which, being
readily soluble or easily volatilized by heat,

Digitized by



quickly permeate the mass of food in which
they are mixed. The seed of some, as caraway,
anise (qq.v.) and dill, is employed; the foliage
of others, as parsley, sage, thyme, is more fre-
quently used. The former plants are cut and
placed loosely upon sheets as soon as the seed
reaches maturity; allowed to dry a few days;
lightly thrashed and the seed cleaned ; still fur-
ther dried and stored in air-tight packages. The
latter are gathered just before the first blos-
soms would open, because they are then richest
in flavor. With parsley the leaves are gathered
as soon as mature, several cuttings being made
in a season. They are then dried upon trays
at a temperature below 120 degrees and in freely
circulating air until crisp, when they are rubbed
to powder and stored as above. Paper or paste-
board packages are bad, because they allow the
flavors to escape. Both seeds and leaves may
be used in decoction, being covered with vine-
gar or alcohol in stoppered bottles. Fresh
herbs, which are always preferable to dried or
decocted, are especially useful m salads; dried
and decocted in dressings, stews, eta, and at
seasons when fresh ones cannot be obtained. In
the United States the species most in demand
are parsley, sage, thyme, savory, marjoram,
spearmint, dill, fennel, tarragon, balm and basil
(qq.v.) in nearly the order named. Parsley is
beyond question the most popular because of its
double use as a garnish and flavoring plant but
sage is perhaps more frequently used in the lat-
ter capacity. It is most esteemed with pork,
goose, duck, and similar rich meats. Spear-
mint is used mainly with roast lamb; tarragon
with boiled fish ; dill with pickles ; and the other
kinds mentioned with mild meats, such as tur-
key, chicken, veal, venison, etc. The kind, quan-
tity and mixture used with each sort of food
depends upon personal preference.

In general, herbs are of simplest cultivation.
They usually prefer rather light, moderately
rich, well drained soil, and sunny exposures.
Since the seeds of many are small or slow to
germinate they are frequently started in a
greenhouse, hotbed or window, and transplanted
to the garden when they are large enough and
when conditions are favorable. Clean cultiva-
tion and the removal of weeds is essential. The
perennial kinds, such as sage, are often propa-
gated by stem cuttings, divisions or layers; tar-
ragon always thus because it does not produce
seed; spearmint usually by cuttings of the root-
stock. The great majority are grown as annu-
als, being replaced each spring with fresh
plants. Commercially they follow such crops
as early cabbage, peas, etc., thus permitting a
double use of the same soil annually. They
are easily grown for winter use m the borders
of benches in the greenhouse or in boxes placed
in sunny windows.

Consult articles such as Sweet Herbs by
Kains in Bailey's Cyclopedia of American Hor-
ticulture ) (New York igoo-z).

Herculaneum, he'r-ku-Ta'ne-um, or Hercu-
lanum, Italy, an ancient buried city, about
five miles southeast of Naples. Strabo says it

Online LibraryWilfrid RichmondThe Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 → online text (page 141 of 185)