Wilfrid Richmond.

The Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 online

. (page 143 of 185)
Online LibraryWilfrid RichmondThe Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 → online text (page 143 of 185)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

is descended from a long line of ancestors pos-
sessing a desired combination of characters, but
any animal is pure if it produces gametes (germ-
cells) of only one sort, even though its grand-
parents may among themselves have possessed
opposite characters.*

The bearings of Mendel's discovery, con-
firmed by De vries' experiments, on the origin
of species is of great interest and moment The
problem is whether aberrations, sports, or dis-
continuous variations may not sometimes result
in the formation of new species and types, or
whether species are all the result of slow, contin-
uous variations. As stated by Castle, a A sport
having once arisen affecting some one character
of a species, may by crossing with the parent
form be the cause of no end of disintegration
on the part of any of all of the characters of
the species, and the disintegrated characters may,
indeed must, form a great variety of new com-
binations of characters, some of which will
prove stable and self-perpetuating.

Mendel's discoveries also, explain the prin-
ciple that new types of organisms are extremely
variable, whereas old types are subject to little
variation. A new type which has arisen as a
sport will cross with the parent form. The off-
spring, says Castle, will then inherit some dom-
inant character, others latent, and this will re-
sult in polymorphism of the race. Thus the
suggestion of Galton that species may arise from
sports is confirmed, while added cases are af-
forded by the recent remarkable experiments of
De Vries, resulting in the origination of seven
new species of primrose by sudden variations, or
what he calls 'mutations *

Homochronous Heredity. — This is a form
of heredity called by Darwin ^inheritance at
corresponding periods of life.* It is exemplified
in animals with a metamorphosis, whose larvae
lead a different life and differ greatly m struc-
ture and form from the parent. Thus the but-
terfly inherits in its infancy the caterpillar stage,
then the pupa, finally, the features of the imago ;
one character or set of characters appear by
heredity, are cast aside, and new features arise,
those of the pupa stage, and so on. Each but-
terfly, beetle, or bee, as well, as the fluke-worms,
tapeworms, etc., inherit at different periods of
their lives stages which have, become fixed by
homochronous heredity*

The Physical Basis of Heredity.-— A number
of biologists from Spencer to Jaeger and Wets-
marm have supposed that heredity is due to the
transmission from patent to* offspring of parti-

cles developed in the reproductive cells of the
.parent, whence arose the theory now generally
held that the nucleus of the spermatozoon and
of the egg is the bearer of heredity. Even in
the protozoa, if one be divided into nucleate
and enucleate halves, the portion without a
nucleus degenerates, while the part containing
the nucleus lives and regenerates the lost parts.
The nucleus contains a portion which stains
readily with reagents, and is called the *chro-
matin,* which consists of particles called
<c chromosomes. J> Now the nucleus of the egg
and that of the spermatozoon contain the same
number and quantity of chromosomes, to what
are called the cleavage-spindles, hence the
chromatin, that is, the chromosomes, are re-
garded as the bearers of heredity, some of these
passing down from one generation to another.

Consult: Weismann, ( The Germ-Plasm*
(New York 1893); Bateson, 'Mendel's Princi-
ples of Heredity* (Cambridge, England, 1902) ;
Castle, ( Mendel's Law of Heredity ) (Cam-
bridge, Mass., 1903) ; with the earlier works of
Darwin, Brooks, Galton, Hertwig, and others.
Alpbetjs S. Packard,
Late Professor of Zoology, Brown University.

Hereford, heVe-f6rd, England, a city and
parliamentary borough, capital of Herefordshire
on the Wye, 120 miles northwest of London.
The chief building is the cathedral, built in
1012-56, rebuilt in 1072, and restored in 1863.
It is of early Norman architecture, 33$ feet long
and 174 feet wide, contains many fine monu-
ments, some as ancient as the cathedral, and its
accessory features include a lady chapel, charter-
house, cloisters, an episcopal palace and a li-
brary containing valuable MSS., Wydif s Bible,
and a 13th century map of the world. A musi-
cal festival of the united choirs of Gloucester,
Worcester, and Hereford is given in the cathe-
dral triennially. The see dates from 673; the
city was incorporated in the reign of King John.
Pop. about 22,000.

Her'esy (Gr. haresis) primitively means a
choice or election, and in to application to re-
ligious belief is used to designate as well the
act of choosing for one's self, and maintaining
opinions contrary to the authorized teaching,
as also the heterodox opinions thus adopted.
In the Acts of the Apostles the word seems to
be used of a sect or party, apart from the con-
sideration of its character, whether good or bad ;
but in the Epistles and in the early Christian
writers it is almost invariably used in a bad
sense, which is the sense uniformly accepted in
all subsequent theological literature.

Even in the apostolic times heresies had
arisen in the Church, and before the Council of
Nice the catalogue of sects had already swelled
to considerable dimensions.

From the very date of the establishment of
Christianity in the Roman empire heresy ap-
pears to have been regarded as a crime cogniz-
able by the civil law; and Constantine enacted
several severe laws for its repression, which
were continued and extended by his successors,
and were collected into a single title, <De Haere-
ticis,* in the Justinian code. The penalties of
heresy ordained by these enactments are very
severe, extending to corporal punishment, and,
even to death ; and they all proceed on the dis-
tinct assumption that a crime against religion

Digitized by



is a crime "against the 'state. The9e enactments
of die Roman law were embodied in the various
codes of the European kingdoms; in English
law heresy consisted m holding opinions con-
trary to the faith of Holy Church. By common
law the offender was to be tried in the pro-
vincial synod by the archbishop and his council,
and, after conviction, was to be given up to the
king to be dealt with at his pleasure. But the
statute 2 Hen. IV. chap. 15 {De h<*retico com-
burendo) empowered the diocesan to take cog-
nizance of heresy, and, on conviction, to hand
over the criminal directly, and without waiting
for the king's writ, to the sheriff or other com-
petent officer. This statute continued practically
m force, with certain modifications, till the 39
Charles II. chap. 9, since which time heresy is
left entirely to the control of ecclesiastical legis-

The doctrines considered heretical by the
Christian Church may be found in the ( Diction-
naire des Heresies,* by the Abbe Pluauet, with
the history, progress, nature, and also the refuta-
tions of their errors.

Herpetic, in ecclesiastical terminology, one
who embraces a heresy. It is evident that the
word heretic can have only the relative mean-
ing of heterodox. The early Christian Church
always made a distinction between heretics who
obstinately persisted in their heresy, and here-
tics merely through error, or who had been born
in heresy. The fathers of the Church declare
themselves ignorant of the final condition of the
latter. Again, peaceable heretics are distin-
guished from those whose doctrines produce pub-
lic confusion and disorder. However^ the gen-
eral view is that all heresies lead, sooner or
. later, to disturbances and bloodshed.

Hereward, her'e-ward, a Saxon yeoman
who flourished about 107a He was practically
the last to withstand the Normans, holding the
Isle of Ely against William the Conqueror
1 070-1. After William had succeeded in reach-
ing the refuge of the Saxon patriots, Hereward,
' scorning to yield, , fled to the fastness of the
swampy fens to the northward. He was com-
monly styled Hereward the Wake, and his
character and adventures form the theme of
Charles Kingsley's popular historical romance,

< Here ward.*

Her'ford, Oliver, American humorous au-
thor and illustrator : b. England. He -is at pres-
ent on the staff of the ( Criterion^ Among his
works are: ( Artful Antics*; <The Bashful
Earthquake and Other Fables and Verses }
(1808); < Alphabet of Celebrities> (1899); <A
Child's Primer of Natural History* (1899) J

< Wagner for Infants* (1899) ; ( Overheard in a
Garden* (,1900).

Hering. Ewald, German psychologist: b.
Altgersdorf, Saxony, 5 Au£. 1834. He studied
medicine, and settled at Leipsic as physician in
i860; in 1862 he was lecturer in physiology at
the Leipsic University, and in 1865 was pro-
fessor of physiology and medico-physics in a
medical school at Vienna, and in 1870 held the
same chair at Prague. Hering is best known
* for his work in the field of psychophysics, espe-
cially for his investigations of visual space per-
ception and for the color theory which he orig-
inated. This theory is opposed to the empiristic
theory of Helmholtz and is most generally ac-

cepted by psychologists at the present time. His
writings include: ( Die Lehre vom Binocularen
Sehen ) (i860) ; <Zur Lehre vom Lichtsinne >
(1872-4); <Der Raumsinn und die fiewegung
des Auges* ; <Das Gedachtnias als eine allge-
meine Funktion der organisietteft Materie )

Her'ing, Rudolph, American hydrawiic
and sanitary engineer: b. Philadelphia, Pa., .26
Feb. 1847. He was graduated at the Dresden
(Germany) Polytechnic School, 1867, and be-
came assistant engineer of Prospect Park,
Brooklyn, N. Y., the following year. He was
assistant engineer of Fairmount Parle, at Phila-
delphia, 1869-71, and astronomer at Yellowstone
National Park in 1872. After serving as assist-
ant city engineer J873-60 he opened an office for
private practice in engineering and has furnished
designs for sewerage and water supply for
numerous towns and cities in the United States,
Canada and South America. He is member of
many professional societies both in Europe and
America, and has written many published reports
on sewerage and water supply of cities.

Heriot, herl-6t f George, Scottish philan-
thropist: b. Edinburgh 1563; d. London 12 Feb.
1624. His father was a goldsmith in Edinburgh,
and the son followed his father's profession,
and was admitted a member of the Incorpora-
tion of Goldsmiths in May 1588. In 1597 he
was appointed goldsmith to the queen by a char-
ter from James VI., and on the accession of the
latter to the English crown followed the court
to England. From the period of Heriot's settle-
ment in London little is known of his history.
He died on 12 Feb. 1024^ and was buried at St
Martin's-in-the-Fields. fey his will he left nearly
the whole of his fortune toward the found-
ing and erecting of a school for poor boys in
Edinburgh, styled t in the bequest a hospital*
The foundation of tne present structure, known
as Heriot's Hospital, was laid in July 1628;
and the expense of the erection exceeded £30,000

.sterling. From the rise in value of property the
yearly revenue of the hospital has very greatly
increased; and the governors were empowered
in the reign of William IV. to establish elemen-
tary schools within the city for the gratuitous
education of poor children, 16 day schools being
ultimately established, besides evening schools.
In 1885, however, an entirely new scheme wa*
introduced and a great part of the funds are
now devoted to the support of Heriot's Hospital
School and the Heriot- Watt College. The
former is a day school for boys of 10 and up-
ward, and the Heriot- Watt College is a college
giving a thorough technical, commercial, and
literary education chiefly by evening classes,

- though there are also day classes* The annual
revenue is now about $150,000.

HerTrimer, Nicholas, American military
officer: b. about 1715 ; d. Danube, N. Y., 17 Aug.
1777. He became a lieutenant of militia, served
in the French and Indian war, and defended
Fort Herkimer in 1758. Promoted brigadier-
general of inihtia in 1776, he directed operations
against Sir John Johnson, and when Fort Stan-
wix was threatened by a combined force of
Indians, Tories, and regulars, advanced to its
relief. He was ambushed by Col. Saint Leger
at Oriskany, and one of the most closely-fought
battles of the Revolutionary War followed.

Digitized by



Herkimer having lost a third of his, force* was
unable to continue, and Saint Leger's army was
rendered thoroughly ineffective, Herkimer him-
self was wounded, and died as the result of an
unskilful operation. The towrj and county of
Herkimer, N. Y., were named in his honor.

Herkimer, N. Y., village, county-seat of
Herkimer County; on the Mohawk River, the
Erie Canal, arid on the New York C. &H. R. rail-
road ; about 25 miles east of Ufcica and 68' miles
northwest of Albany. The chief manufactures
are flour, furniture, mattresses, knit goods, beds,
paper, creamery products, and cigars. The city
owns and operates the electric plant and the
waterworks. It is die seat of Folts Mission In*-
stitute. Pop. (1910) 7,520.

Waal, Bava
wood carver
turned to Et
1857. Hube:
that city, wl
school for di
Dudley Gall
gained recog
and in 1871
stitute of W
ture exhibite
Toil of the
tracted atten
a great repu
senting ( The

honor was a _ # _.

tures are: ( Eventide: a Scene in Westminster
Union* 0878), <( a worthy companion of the
Other realistic yet more heroic study 'of old age,
which the artist made in his Chelsea Pension-
ers*,' c Missing: a Scene at the Portsmouth
Dockyard Gates* (1881), ff a masterpiece in its
way*; fOn Strike* (1891), his diploma work;
c Back to Life: a District Nurse Taking out a
Child for the First Walk after a Long Illness*
(1806) ; and ( The Guards' Cheer* (1898), rep-
resenting a scene in the Diamond Jubilee proces-
sion. Among many portraits painted by him the
best known are those of Wagner, Ruskin, and
Tennyson. His best water-color pictures are;
<Im Walde* ; < The Woodcutter's Rest* ; <The
Poacher's Fate* ; and <At the Well.* Mr. Her-
komer was elected associate of the Royal Acad-
emy in 1879, and full member in 1890, and
from 1885 till 1895 held the Slade professorship
of fine art at Oxford in succession to Mr. Rus-
kin. He holds a life professorship at Munich,
superintends an art school founded by himselt
at Bushey in Hertfordshire, and for the theatre
connected with it has written several plays.
Herkomer also occupies a high place as an
etcher and mezzotint engraver. He has pub-
lished : lectures on Etching and Mezzotint En-
graving* (1892). See Courtney, ( Life* (1892).

Hermandad, er-man-dafh', a confederation
of the cities of Aragon, formed to defend them-
selves against the usurpations and the rapacity
of the feudal nobility. This object was most
clearly apparent in the brotherhood (Herman-
dad) formed about the middle of' the 13th cen-
tury in Aragon, and that formed- about 1282
in Castile. In 1395, 35 cities of Castile and Leon
formed a joint confederacy for the same ob-
ject. These fraternities were the model of the

later Hermandad of the municipal communities,
which was formed in Castile under the reign
of Ferdinand and Isabella. It was established
in i486 with the approbation of the king. The
city authorities raised a military force, and ap-
pointed judges in different parts of the kingdom.
Neither rank nor station protected the offender
against the 'tranquillity of the country, nor could
he find safety even in the churches. The Santa
Hermandad (holy brotherhood) which readers
of Don Quixote will be acquainted with, had,
like the earlier institution, of which it was a
continuation, the object of securing internal
safety, and seizing disturbers of the peace and
highway robbers, but did not act except in case
of offenses actually committed. It consisted of
a company of armed police officers, who were
distributed in the different provinces of the
kingdom of Castile; and whose duty it was to
provide for the security, of the roads outside
of the cities. One of their strictest regulations
was not to use their power within the cities.
They were subject to the Council of Castile.
The principal divisions of the company had
stations at Toledo, at Ciudad Rodrigo, and at

Herr '" ' - - *

Great A
sons in
as skill
States 11
elder pi
ander r.
made a
in ms ^iuivniuiii

Hermann (her'man) und Dorothea, dor-6-
ta'a, a pastoral poem by Goethe, published
in 1797. It contains about 2*000 hexameter lines,
The scene is the broad Rhine plain, and the time
the poet's own. The standard English trans-
lation is that by Miss Ellen Frothinghan*

Hermann, Mo., a town in Roark Township,
the capital of Gasconade County, on the south
bank of the Missouri River, here crossed by a
bridge, 81 miles west of St. Louis, and on the
Missouri Pacific railroad. It is in a grape-vine-
growing region and manufactures wine, beer.
Hour, tools and cigars. Pop. 1,700.

Hermannstadt, or Nagy-Szeben, Austria,
the capital of a county in Transylvania. See
S2EBEN, Nagy.

H of both

kinds ame ani-

mal, s begins

with e in the

anim Is which

are r s and in

the ; I Hydra

(q.v. lis occur

in tl 1 highly

speci exist in

diffei iid to be

bisexual, or dioecious, as opposed rto bettna-
phroditic forms. r

True or Natural Hermaphroditism.— This
is found in many flowering plants,' in sponges,
most coelenterates, many worms, tnclndiikg'thft
earthworm, many mollusks, and in roost berna-

Digitized by



cles, and this appears to be in relation with their
more or less fixed mode of life. As a rule testes
and ovaries occur in the same animal, but situ-
ated in different regions of the body, while in
land snails there is a hermaphroditic gland which
produces spermatozoa and eggs in the same
follicle. Certain animals, or frogs, which are
bisexual as adults, pass through an embryonic
hermaphroditism. Normal hermaphroditism is
very rare in insects and vertebrates ; in the latter
only two cases are known, that is, a sea-perch
(Sertanus scriba) and the hagfish (Myxine).

Abnormal Hermaphroditism. — What in man
is called hermaphroditism is a misnomer, as it
arises from malformation of the external re-
productive organs. In insects occurs lateral
hermaphroditism in which one half of the moth
or butterfly, for example, is male and the other
female. In some of these cases dissection has
shown that only male or female sexual glands
alone occur in an undeveloped condition. This
is called gynandromorphism. Abnormal her-
maphroditism sometimes occurs in fishes and
featrachians where an ovary is found on one side
and a testis on the other. It is curious that in a
threadworm (Angiostomutn) and in certain
isopod Crustacea (Cymothoida) the reproductive
glands are first male, the same gland afterward
producing eggs.

Hermes, Georg, ga-org' her'mes, German
theologian : b. Dreyerwalde, Westphalia, 22 April
1775; d. Bonn 26 May 1831. He studied the-
ology at the University of Miinster* became a
teacher in the gymnasium of that city, and in
1807 professor of dogmatic theology in the uni-
versity. When the Prussian government estab-
lished the University of Bonn, Hermes was ap-
pointed to the chair of Catholic theology (1819).
Here he began to distinguish himself by his at-
tempts to found a speculative, philosophic, and
dogmatic school in the church itself, delivering a
series of lectures which caused great sensation
by aiming at an alliance between Protestants and
Catholics. This attempt to base the positive the-
ology of the church (a doctrine known as
Hermesianism) drew around him' great num-
bers of followers. Many of these in time filled
chairs of theology and set forth their views in
conjunction with their master in a magazine,
the ( Zeitschrift fur Philosophic und katholische
Theologie, 1 published at Cologne from 1832.
The method which Hermes advocated insisted
that the truth of revelation and of the Catholic
Church should first be tested by reason, and that
revelation should then be followed. He did not
go so far as to declare that all the dogmas in
themselves could be proved a priori, but en-
deavored to found the right of the church to
teach them on the ground of reason. Hermes-
ianism was in fact an ingenious effort to base
the doctrines of the church on Kant's system of
philosophy. It aroused powerful opposition, be-
ing condemned as heretical by a papal letter of
26 Sept. 1835. Hermes' scholars stoutly de-
fended their orthodoxy, many of them repeatedly
appealing to the pope, but without success.

Hermes, he/mez (called by the Romans
Mercurius, and identified with their own god of
that name), in Greek mythology the son
of Zeus and Maia. According to legend his
birthplace was in the mountains of Cyllene,
Arcadia. Four hours after his birth he invented

the lyre, which he made by killing a tortoise,
and stringing the shell with three or seven
strings. He then sang to it the loves of Zeus
and his rtiother Maia. Having concealed the
lyre in his cradle, he was seized with hunger,
went in the dark evening to Pferia, and stole 50
oxen from the sacred herd of Apollo which he
drove backward and forward to confound then-
tracks; then walking backward himself, he
drove them backward also; and after having
killed two of them near the river Alpheus
roasted and sacrificed a part to the gods. He
concealed the remainder in a cavern. He also
carefully destroyed all traces of them. The
next morning Apollo missed his oxen, and went
in search of them, but he could discover no
traces of them until an old man of Pylos told
him that he had seen a boy driving a herd of
oxen in a very strange manner. Apollo now dis-
covered that Hermes was the thief. He hastened
to Maia. and accused the infant, who pretended
to be asleep, and, not terrified by the threat of the
god that he would hurl him into Tartarus,
steadily maintained his innocence. Apollo, not
deceived by the crafty child, carried his com-
plaint to Zeus. Hermes lied even to him. But
Zeus perceived him to be the offender; but was
not angry with him, and smiling at his cunning;
ordered him to show the place where the oxen
were concealed. To secure him Apollo bound
his hands, but his chains fell off, and the cattle
appeared bound together by twos. Hermes then
began to play upon his newly-invented lyre, at
which Apollo begged the instrument of the in-
ventor, learned of him how to play on it, and
gave him a whip to drive the herd, thenceforth
belonging tr both in common.

The* then concluded a contract with each
other : Hermes promised never to steal Apollo's
lyre or bow; the latter gave him the caduceus.
The ancients represent Hermes as the herald and
messenger of the gods. He conducts the souls
of the departed to the lower world, and is there*
fore the herald of Pluto, and the executor of his
commands. His magic wand had the power to
close the eyes of mortals, to cause dreams, and
wake the slumbering. The qualities requisite
for a herald he possessed in the highest per-
fection, and bestowed them on others — grace,
dignity, and insinuating manners. He was also
the symbol of prudence, cunning, and fraud, and
even of perjury, and was the god of theft and
robbery. In the wars of the giants he wore the
helmet of Pluto, which rendered him invisible,
and slew Hippolytus. When Typhon com-
pelled the gods to fly before him and conceal
themselves in Egypt, he metamorphosed himself
into an ibis. He is also mentioned by Homer
ajs the patron of eloquence, and still more par-
ticularly by Hesiod. Of his inventions Homer
makes no mention. Later writers ascribe to him
the invention of dice, music, geometry, the in-
terpretation of dreams, measures and weights,
the arts of the palaestra, letters, etc. He was
also regarded as the patron of public treaties,
as the guardian of roads, and as the protector of
travelers. He was represented in art as a boy
in the prime of youth, sometimes with the
caduceus, and sometimes with a winged cap.
standing, sitting, or walking. The artists of
later times placed him among the youthful and
beardless gods. The most prominent traits of
his character are vigor and dexterity. In th*

Digitized by



representation of Hermes of a later date the re-
lations of corporeal beauty and mental dexterity

Online LibraryWilfrid RichmondThe Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 → online text (page 143 of 185)