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The Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 online

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ture. In composition the mimes are in chol iam-
bic verse # or iambic trimeter and are written in
the Ionic dialect. The latest edition containing
additions by O. Crusius was published in 1898,
entitled ( Untersuchungen zu den Mimiamben
des Herondas.' See MIme.

Herons, wading birds of the order Herodii,
forming, with egrets and bitterns, the family
Ardeide. The family is characterized by a thin,
compressed body; a long, thin neck; a straight,
narrow, pointed beak; fully feathered head;
longish, slender legs; three toes in front, the
two outer united by a membrane, the middle
claw pectinate; large, blunt wings; extensive
development of powder-down tracts; and often
by elongated feathers of the top of the head and
other parts. Upward of 70 species of herons
and their immediate allies are known, of which
14 inhabit North America. The bitterns (q.v.),
with 10 tail-quills, form the sub-family Botaur-
ina, the herons and egrets (q.v.), with 12 tail
quills, the Ardcina. Egrets are simply white
herons. The great blue heron {Ardea hero-
dias) to which A. cinerea of Europe is closely
related, inhabits all parts of North America and
northern South America. It is a large bird
with a length of about four and a spread of
nearly six feet, and of beautiful slate-blue color,
with the long flowing plumes black. It is to be
found by the side of streams, lakes and the sea-
shore, usually alone. Fish form the bulk of its
food, but it also devours frogs, small reptiles,
insects, and almost any kind of animal which it
can capture. It roams in search of food mostly
in the morning and evening. The heronry, or
breeding-place, is usually found among high
trees, and the same breeding-place is used by
successive generations if they are unmolested;
frequently several species of herons consort
together at a favorite breeding-place. The large

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nest is made of twigs and sticks, and is lined
witfc rushes, grass, and various similar mate-
rials. The eggs, usually three or four in a nest,
are of a fairly uniform greenish blue color.
Many nests are usually found in one heronry,
and sometimes the nests are built on the ground
or on a cliff. The. cry is a sort of a crank,
cranky uttered in a hoarse voice. In the
North the blue heron is migratory, elsewhere it
is resident The little blue heron (A. carulea)
is found in the eastern United States from the
Middle States southward and in the West Indies
and Central America. It is scarcely more than
one half the size of A. herodias and exists in
two color phases, the one dark slate-blue with
purplish reflections on the head and neck, the
other white with traces of blue, especially con-
stant on the unfeathered parts. This species
formerly bred with other southern species in
great heronries, most of which have been deci-
mated by plume-hunters.

The little green heron or fly-up-the-creek
(Butorides virescens) ranges throughout tem-
perate North America and somewhat beyond
southward, breeding nearly everywhere. North-
ward it is migratory and is the familiar heron
about the streams and ponds of the Middle and
New England States, where it usually nests in
pairs or small communities and mostly in thick
bushes or cedar trees; in other localities it
sometimes breeds with larger species in heron-
ries. The pale greenish elliptical eggs are from
three to six in number. Its foods consist chiefly
of small frogs, minnows and snakes, for which
it searches by day as well as by night along the
shallows of streams, where its harsh cry of
alarm is often the first intimation of its pres-
ence. The name refers to the beautiful deep
bronze green color of the upper parts.

The night-herons (Nycttcorax n&vius, and
N. violaceus), which are closely related to the
N. grisea of Europe, are easily distinguished
from other herons by the thick, stout beak. The
former, known as the black-crowned night-
heron or squawk, is common throughout the
United States and Canada in summer, and in
the winter migrates far into South America,
while the latter, or yellow-crowned species, is
much less frequent and chiefly confined to the
sea-coast of the warm parts of America. The
squawk is about two feet long, the young brown-
ish, the adults deep green and blue-gray above
with two or three very long filamentous white
occipital plumes. The night-herons are more
active after dark than any other species, and are
seldom seen abroad, except in the dusk or on
cloudy days.

Many species of herons reside in the warm
parts of Africa and Asia, among them being the
largest of all, the A. goliath.

Consult Baird, Brewer and Ridgway,
< Water-birds of North America > (1884);
Reichenow, journal of Ornithology } (1877) ;
Job, < Among the Waterfowl > (1002). See Bit-
tern ; Egret.

Heroopolis, an ancient Egyptian city found
by excavation in the eastern Delta region.
Maps made prior to 1880 generally located
the city near the present city of Suez, but
the excavations of Naville in 1883 under the
auspices of the. Egypt Exploration Fund tend to
show that the city was farther north. Heroopo-
lis is given in the Septuagint version of the

Old Testament as the meeting place of Joseph
and Jacob. The Coptic translation is Pethom,
very similar to the Hebrew Pithom, or ff House
of Turn,* and for some time it has been known
from Egyptian geographical lists that Pithom
was situated in the land of Theku-t. This name
has been identified with Succoth, the second
resting place of the Children of Israel in their
flight from Egypt. The Naville excavations
brought to light the old site of Pithom and Suc-
coth, the excavations being made at Tell el-
Mashhutah, twelve miles west of Ismailah. A
mile-stone which was recovered then showed
the distance between Heroopolis and Clysma to
have been nine miles. This would confirm the
view taken by Strabo that the city was at the
head of the Red Sea navigation and was sit-
uated on what he called a Heroopolitan Gulf,*
but if his view be correct, then it can only be
inferred that the Red Sea extended at that an-
cient date further north than it now does and
that the place where the Israelites crossed was
not where it is generally supposed to be, but
considerably further north.

Herostratus. See Erostratus.
Hero's Fountain, a pneumatic apparatus,
through which a jet of water is supported by
condensed air. A simple mode
of constructing it by means of
glass tubes and a glass-blow-
jl er's lamp is shown in the an-
nexed figure. The column of
water in the tube a compresses
the air in b; this presses on
the surface of the water in c,
and causes it to gush out at d.
Herpes, an acute, non-
contagious, inflammatory dis-
ease of the skin, characterized
by an eruption of one or more
clusters of vesicles upon a
reddened base. Several forms
of the disease are recognized
by dermatologists, of which the
commonest are facial herpes,
and herpes zoster. Facial
herpes constitutes the common
Hero's Fountain, fever blister, or cold sore, and is
usually seen about the mouth,
though it also occurs on other parts of the face.
There is often some slight constitutional dis-
turbance preceding the eruption, which first
makes its advent known by a sensation of burn-
ing or itching in the part, followed by reddish
discoloration of the skin and after a few hours
by a number of pin-head to pea-sized blisters
filled with clear or turbid fluid. After a few
days these dry up and form a yellowish crust,
which then falls off, leaving a red spot that soon
disappears. The usual duration of the disease
is about a week and it shows a strong tendency
to recur. Herpes often accompanies febrile
conditions such as pneumonia and malaria, and
a similar lesion is not rare about the genitals.
Herpes occurs mostly in those whose skin is
irritable or delicate, and is usually the result
of some derangement of the mucous membrane
of the respiratory, digestive or genito- urinary
tract. It sometimes is the unfailing harbinger
of the menstrual period. Cold, mental depres-
sion, and injury or irritation of the skin are
other causes. The disease belongs to the class of
the neuroses, and in some instances its presence

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can be explained only on the basis of nerve
disturbance. In most cases no treatment is re-
quired, as the lesions promptly heal of their own
accord, but soothing ointments or lotions tend
to relieve the irritation. Herpes zoster, or
shingles, is a special form remarkable for the
fact that the eruption follows the course of
certain nerves, and is usually disposed around
one side of the body like a half belt. In rare
cases it encircles the body. Its onset is pre-
ceded by stinging neuralgic pains, and by languor,
lassitude, loss of appetite, shiverings, headache,
nausea, quickened pulse, etc, after which the
eruption appears in irregular patches. The
vesicles become enlarged to the size of small
peas in twenty-four to thirty-six hours, and
fresh clusters occur for three or four days, com-
pleting the belt-like appearance. As the erup-
tion recedes, by the fifth or sixth day, the
vesicles become white and opaque, and the red
margins grow livid or purple. Sometimes the
vesicles burst, and several of the patches run
together, forming irritable sores, discharging a
thin serous fluid, which concretes and forms a
crust that falls off as the parts beneath heal.
The disease occasionally follows injuries to the
nerves^ and it is common in damp, cold weather
of spring or autumn, when it sometimes occurs
in epidemics. It is sometimes produced by sud-
den exposure to cold after violent exercise, and
sometimes follows acute affections of the res-
piratory organs. The treatment consists in at-
tention to any systematic derangement present
and in the local use of soothing applications, and
protective dressings to prevent rupture of the
vesicles. The duration of shingles is usually
from ten days to three weeks. Most cases run
a favorable course and second attacks are rare.

Herpe8tis, a genus of dicotyledonous gam-
opctalous plants, of the natural order Scro-
phularinece, of the tribe Gratiolea, native to the
tropical sections of both hemispheres. It may
be distinguished by its calyx, as the upper seg-
ment is large and ovate, and covers the rest, the
other lobes narrow or linear, its cylindrical
corolla, four stamens, and two or four-valved
capsule. The genus comprises about fifty spe-
cies of small, creeping herbs, having opposite, or
toothed leaves, and generally flowering solitary
or in axillary clusters of yellow, blue or white
flowers. H. Monniera is the common water
hyssop, and the natives of India find the juice
of this plant, when mixed with petroleum, of
great benefit to parts of the body affected with
rheumatism. H. colubrina, a native to Peru,
is used, under the name of yerba de colubra,
as a remedy for the bites of poisonous animals.

Herpetology, her-pMol'o-ji, the study of
reptiles. In its earlier days it included under
the term "reptile* not only those now properly
so named, but the amphibia (q.v.) and some
other ^creeping things* not in either group.
Cuvier's classification, the first approach to a
scientific one, put both the true reptiles and the
amphibians as co-related groups under Reptilia;
but their formal distinction was soon perceived.
Huxley showed that in their descent, embryology
and structural relations, the amphibians were
more closely related to fishes than to the reptiles
(lizards, serpents and turtles). He therefore
united the two in a superior group Ichthyopsida,
while he joined the birds to the reptiles in a

group of similar rank called SaHropsida, Thus
the limits of herpetology have been restricted to
truly scientific limits, — the chordate class Rep-
tilia, a definite group distinguished by the fol-
lowing characters :

Reptiles are cold-blooded, the temperature
of the body not greatly exceeding that of the
surrounding medium; the heart is three-cham-
bered, except in crocodilians, where four cham-
bers first occur; mostly venous blood goes from
the heart to the anterior viscera, * and mixed
blood to the posterior region, only the head and
anterior regions receiving purely arterial blood;
the body is covered with scales, with which sub-
jacent bony plates or scutes are sometimes
associated; the vertebrae are absolutely gastro-
centrous (biconcave) ; the skull articulates by a
single condyle with the backbone, and the lower
jaw works against the quadrate bone; the great
majority are oviparous, while in some the eggs
are hatched within the mother.

This characterization unites into the one
class, many orders of wholly extinct types, one
order represented by a single living example
(the tuatara ^lizard*), and the existing tortoises
and turtles, lizards, snakes, and crocodiles; and
none other is a reptile, properly speaking. The
group occupies a central position in the verte-
brate series. Above it on the scale of organiza-
tion are the birds and mammals; beneath it the
amphibians and fishes. Similarly reptiles stand
in a middle position in geological history, as
the Mesozoic, or Secondary Period, was that in
which the group flourished, and of which the
existing forms are, on the whole, the diminished
and degraded remnants. In respect to their
phylogeny: <( On the one hand, there is not the
slightest doubt,^ declares Gadow, *that they are
evolved from some branch of the Stegocephali
(q.v.), whilst on the other hand the reptiles,
probably through some branch of the Theromor-
pha, have given rise to the mammals ; some other
reptilian branch, at present unknown, blossomed
out into birds*

Classification. — The most recent classification
of the reptiles, perfected since about 1875 by the
enormous amount of information collected in all
parts of the world, and especially in the western
United States, in regard to fossil forms (see
Paleontology), is that formulated by H.
Gadow (* Amphibia and Reptiles, > 1901). ex-
pressing substantially the consensus of all spe-
cialists, and is as follows:


Subclass i. Proreptilia. — Permian reptiles
in which the components of the vertebra remain
separate; well developed limbs and girdles fitted
for a terrestrial life. The fragmentary remains
of these animals are hard to separate definitely
from the Stegocephali.

Subclass 11. Prosauria. — Chiefly extinct
reptiles with deeply amphicoelous vertebrae whose
parts are still untused; movable chevron bones
occur in the tail and frequently, with intercentra,
in the trunk.

Order 1. — Microsauri. — Small Carbonifer-
ous and Permian reptiles with dermal armor on
the dorsal and ventral side of the trunk and
tail; and ribs with head and tubercle. The ar-
mor of the skull, and the flat ischia and pubes
of the pelvis resemble the condition in Stego-

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Order 2. — Prosauri. — Permian to recent
terrestrial, unarmored, generalized reptiles, of
which' one species (Sphenodon, or Hatteria,
Punctatum) still persists in New Zealand (see
Tuatara). This animal is distinguished from
the lizards with which it was formerly placed
by many skeletal characters, such as the fixed
quadrate bone and the broad bony roof of the

Subclass ni. Theromorpha. — Fossil rep-
tiles with fixed quadrate bone, only one temporal
arch, and having pubes and ischia united ven-
tralby in one broad symphysis. This group has
an especial interest because it is probably the one
from which mammals sprang, and flourished be-
tween the Permian and Triassic ages. See

Subclass iv. Chelonia. — Reptiles with an
upper and lower bony shield, four feet, and
toothless jaws — the turtles. There are two or-
ders, Athecce and Thecophora. See Chelonia.

Subclass v. Dinosauria. — Mesozoic reptiles,
having a long tail, powerful hind legs, fixed
quadrate bones, and bifurcated ribs. It is divis-
ible into several orders. See Dinosauria.

Subclass vi. Crocodilia. — Four-footed, long-
tailed reptiles, with fixed quadrate bone, teeth
in alveolae and confined to jaws; ischia not
united by a symphysis. The group had its or-
igin in the Dinosauria, from which it is difficult
sharply to separate it, arose in the Mesozoic era,
and the early forms were marine. The strict
Crocodilia first appeared in the lower Tura, and
have evolved along two parallel lines 01 advance,
one of which ends in the recent long, sharp-
snouted gavials, and the other in the broad,
short-snouted crocodiles and alligators (qq.v.).
The skin is covered with horny scales or scutes
which, in some fossil species formed an osseous
armor. The front nasal openings lie on the
dorsum of the snout near its apex, and their
hinder ends are carried by the broad and deep
palate far back into the throat. By this means
the alligator can lie submerged with its mouth
open so as to bring the nostrils to the surface
and thus breath without carrying water into the
windpipe. The lungs are large and of compli-
cated structure. The heart has practically four
chambers as in mammals. There are three or-
ders : Pseudosuchia, early generalized forms,
expiring in the Jurassic age ; Parasuchia, extinct
forms of the Jurassic and Triassic periods (See
Crocodile, Fossil; Belodon) ; Eusuchia, mod-
ern crocodilians. See Crocodile.

Subclass vii. Plesiosauria. — Mesozoic rep-
tiles, with pentadactyle appendages adapted to
life in water; fixed quadrate bones, numerous
alveolar teeth, and ribs without tubercles. They
apparently filled the place of the dolphins of
to-day, except that the neck is in most species
extremely long. See Plesiosauria.

Subclass viii. Ichthyosauria. — Mesozoic,
marine, whale-like, viviparous reptiles, with ap-
pendages transformed into paddles. The teeth
are conical, lie in a groove and are very numer-
ous. See Ichthyosauria.

Subclass ix. Pterosauria. — Mesozoic aerial
reptiles with fixed quadrate and anterior ap-
pendages forming wings — the pterodactyls. See

Subclass x. Pythonomorpha. — Elongate ma-
rine cretaceous reptiles with movable quadrate
bones; appendages shaped like paddles, teeth

fused with jaws. Two orders, Dolichosauri and
Mosasauri See Mosasauis.

Subclass xi. Sauri*.— -Reptiles with rnova-
blt quadrate bones and transverse cloacal open-
ing; the most recent of the reptiles, probably
originating in the Prosauria. It contains two
orders: Lacertilia (geckos, lizards, and chame-
leons) ; and Ophidia (snakes).

Bibliography. — Huxley, * Anatomy of Verte-
brated Animals* (1879); Hoffmann in Bronn's
< Klassen und Ordnungen des Thierreichs >
(Leipsic, in progress) ; Dumeril and Bibron,
( Erpetologie Generate* (9 vols. Paris, 1834-54) ;
British Museum Catalogues by Boulenger, etc.;
Holbrook, < North American Herpetology >
(1836-42) ; Zittel-Eastman, <Text-book of Pale-
ontology > (1902); Gadow, ( Amphibia and Rep-
tiles* uooi).

Herrera. Francesco <
ar-ra'ra, called El Viejo (
painter: b. Seville 1576; <
broke with the Italian ti
painting and became the fo
national school. He also w
it was this probably which gave rise to the
charge that he was connected with counterfeiters.
He had a disposition so very detestable that his
pupils, of whom Velasquez was one, all left him.
The Louvre contains some of his works, among
others c The Israelites Gathering the Quail in
the Wilderness. > But the best are at Seville,
including the < Last Judgment, > in the Church
of San Bernardo; < Saint Peter,* in the Cathe-
dral; and ( Moses Smiting Water from the
Rock,* one of four large canvases in the archi-
episcopal palace. His frescoes at both Madrid
and Seville have quite disappeared.

Herrera, Francesco de, called El Mozo
(the Younger), Spanish painter: b. Seville
1622; d. Madrid 1685. He studied art under
his father, Francesco, called El Viejo (q.v.)
(to whom he was very far inferior as a painter),
and remained some years at Rome. He was a
founder of the Seville Academy (1600), and
became its vice-director. Subsequently he was
appointed court-painter to Philip IV. In the
Seville Museum is his < Four Doctors of the
Church Adoring the Host*; in the Prado
Museum, ( Saint Hermenegild.* During his resi-
dence in Italy he painted fish with such success
that he was known there as ( Lo Spagnuolo dei

Herrera, Jos6 Joaquin do, h5-sa' ho-a-kSn,
Mexican military .officer: b. Jalapa 1792; d.
Tacubaya 10 Feb. 1854. He joined the Mex-
ican army in 1809, and in 1821 was promoted
brigadier-general. He aided in overthrowing
Iturbide, when the latter became emperor, and
was successively minister of war and president
of the supreme court. President for a brief
period in 1845, he again held office in 1848-51.
During the war with the United States, he was
aide to General Santa Anna.

Herreshoff, her'res-hof, John B., American
shipbuilder: b. Bristol, R. I., 1841. Under his
management the Herreshoff Manufacturing
Company succeeded Edward Burgess in de-
signing and building the fastest yachts in the
world. Although he has been blind since the
age of 15, he has always been active in business.

Herreshoff, Nathaniel Greene, American
shipbuilder: b. Bristol, R. I., 1848. He was

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educated at the Massachasetts Institute of Tech-
nology, and was graduated Sc. M., at Brown
University. He is superintendent of the Her-
reshoff Manufacturing Company, and has de-
signed many torpedo-boats and yachts, notably
those sloops which have engaged in the inter-
national races of recent years.

Her'rick, Christine Terhune, American
writer on domestic economy: b, Newark, N. J.,
1859. She has published: 'Housekeeping Made
Easy* (1888); ( The Little Dinner*; 'Liberal
Living Upon Narrow Means 1 ; 'First Aid to
the Young Housekeeper (1900) ; 'The Expert
Maid-Servant } (1902) ; 'Consolidated Library
of Modern Cooking and Household Recipes*
(1905) J etc.

Herrick, Clarence Luther, American col-
lege president: b. Minneapolis, Minn., 21 June
1858; d. 1903. He was graduated from the
University of Minnesota in 1880, and after
holding professorships at Denison University,
Ohio, and the University of Chicago, became
president of the University of New Mexico at

Herrick, Myron T., American capitalist
and politician: b. Huntington, Lorain County,
Ohio, 1854. He studied at Oberlin College and
Ohio Wesleyan University, went to Cleveland in
1875, and taking up the study of law was ad-
mitted to the bar in 1878. He soon gave up the
profession of law, however, and organized the
Euclid Avenue National Bank, from this time
onward being prominent in financial circles. At
first secretary of the Society for Savings Bank
in Cleveland, he became its president in 1894,
and has been connected with various railroad
and other large financial enterprises. He has
taken a keen interest in national and local
politics from a Republican standpoint, in 1903
was elected governor of Ohio, but in 1905 was
defeated by John M. Pattison.

Herrick, Robert, English poet: b. London,
Aug. 1591 ; d. Dean Prior, Devonshire, October
1674. His father, Nicholas Herrick, was a
goldsmith; through inheritance and training the
son was enabled to transfer to the making of
verse the exquisiteness of his father's craft.
Shortly after Robert's birth the elder Herrick
made his will, and two days later he died, under
circumstances that suggested suicide. To his
wife and his seven children he left a small prop-

After a few years, perhaps at Westminster
School, and a brief apprenticeship to his guard-
ian uncle, William Herrick, also a goldsmith,
the poet entered Cambridge University, at first
enrolling himself in Saint John's College. Two
years later he removed to Trinity Hall, intend-
ing to study law. During his residence he
seems, from letters to his guardian, to have fre-
quently needed money, and he left the univer-
sity in debt. He took his degree of B.A. in
161 7, and of M.A. in 1620.

Few facts remain of his next years. He
went to London and associated with the poets
of the time, admirers of Ben Jonson, and he
himself wrote verse. The words of two New
Year anthems set to music by Henry Lawes
were his; through the friendly influence of
prominent men at court, he may nave been
known to the King and Queen. Bv 1627, when
he was chaplain of the Duke of Buckingham's
expedition to the Isle of Rhe\ he must have

taken orders. • Two years later, shortly after
his mother's death, he became vicar of Dean

Online LibraryWilfrid RichmondThe Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 → online text (page 145 of 185)