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The Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 online

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with a patent of nobility.

Herter, Albert, American artist: b. New
York 2 March 1871. He studied painting at
Paris in the studio of Jean Paul Laurens. He
has twice visited Japan and the years spent there
have strongly influenced the .character of his
work. He is member of the Society of Ameri-
can Artists, of the Water Color Club, and of
the Water Color Society.

Hertz, Heinrich, hin'riH herts, German
physicist: b. Hamburg 22 Feb. 1857; d. Bonn 1
Jan. 1804. He studied at the University of Ber-
lin, and in 1880 became assistant to Helmholtz
there. In 1883 he was lecturer on theoretical
physics at the University of Kiel; in 1885 was
professor of physics at a technical school in
Karlsruhe; and in 1889 succeeded Qausius as
professor of physics at the University of Bonn.
His most important work was his experiments
with electricity, by which he proved that elec-
tricity can be transmitted in electromagnetic,
waves with the same rapidity as light, these
waves showing the same phenomena of refrac-
tion, polarization, etc., as light waves. He thus
further developed and attested the truth of Far-
aday's electro-magnetic theory of light. It is by
means of the Hertzian waves also that wireless
telegraphy (q.v.) is made possible.

Heruli, her'u-Ii, a Teutonic tribe first
heard of in history about the middle of the 3d
century, who passed south from the coast of the
Baltic and swept with the Goths into the eastern
provinces of Rome and founded an empire on
the Danube. They appear as reinforcements of
Odoacer in his invasion of the western prov-
inces of Rome in 476. Their king Rudolph
formed an alliance with Theodoric the Great,
but they were afterward conquered by the
Longobardi. A part of them were driven to-
ward Scandinavia, a part lingered on the bor-
ders of the Roman empire. They did good
service to the Byzantine empire, but after en-
countering the Vandals in Africa, and the Os-
trogoths in Italy, they vanished from history.

Herd, Theodor, Jewish leader of political
Zionism: b. Budapest 2 May i860; d. 3 July
1904. He was educated in Vienna for the law,
but devoted himself almost exclusively to jour-
nalism and literature. He was at first Paris
correspondent and later literary editor of the
Neuc Freie Presse, and wrote comedies and
dramas. In 1896 he published his < Judenstaat, )
the English translation of which </A Jewish
State/) made him the political leader of the
Zionist movement ; and his efforts were at once
centred in this propaganda. <Die Welt* of
. ienna was established by him in 1897, and in
that year he planned and was elected president
of the first Zionist Congress held at Basel. At
every subsequent congress (the sixth having
been held in August 1903) he was unanimously
re-elected. In 1898 he inaugurated a series of
di^l^matic interviews with various sovereigns
and statesmen. At the Hague Peace Confer-
ence he was repeived by many of the delegates.
In the Zionist movement he was officially the
chairman of the Grosses Actions Comite, and
of the Vienna executive committee, and a mem-
ber of the council of administration. Among his
further works are: <Das Neue Ghetio* (1903),
ibected against the Jewish element that com-
bated his views; < Altneuland > (1903), a fic-
tional presentation of Zionistic ideas.

Herzegovina, hert-se-gd-ve'na, Austria-
Hungary, a province of the Balkan peninsula
nominally belonging to European Turkey, but
since 1878 administered along with Bosnia
(q.v.) by Austria. It is bounded on the north
by Croatia and Bosnia, on the east by Bosnia, on
t" southeast by Montenegro, and on the south
and west by Dalmatia; length, northwest to
southeast, 140 miles; breadth. 50 miles; area,
700 square miles. The surface is generally
mountainous, covered by ranges belonging to the
Dinaric Alps, sloping gradually to the Adriatic,
which receives all its drainage chiefly by the
iMarenta. It contains many fertile valleys, and
raises excellent tobacco. The exnorts consist
chiefly of hides, tallow, cattle, wool, wax, and
fruit. Mostar is the chief town. The province
was conquered by the Turks in 1465. An in-
surrection, caused by Turkish misgovernment
broke out in July 1875, and was the cause
subsequently of war between Russia and Tur-
key. In accordance with the Treaty of Berlin
(1878) the province was occupied by Austrian
troops, and is now ruled by an Austrian mili-
tary governor. Pop. about 250,000.

Hesiod, he'sl-6d, Greek poet: b. Ascra, a
village of Bceotia. at the foot of Mount Helicon,
whence it is called the Ascraan. But little is
known of Hesiod with certainty. Even the age
in which he lived cannot be precisely deter-
mined. A very common tradition relates that, in
a poetical contest with Homer at Chalcis, he
came off victorious. Herodotus calls him a con-
temporary of Homer, and says they lived 400
years before himself (about 900 B.C.). In his
( Works and Days* (172) Hesiod says that he
belonged to the period immediately following the
Trojan war: but there are many reasons for sup-
posing tint he lived at a later period. Of the nu-
merous works attributed to him three only
remain. These are the ( Theogony,> a collec-
tion of the oldest fables concerning the birth
and achievements of the gods, arranged so as
to form a connected whole. It is the most

Digitized by



important and difficult of all his works. With succeeded to the sovereignty of the whole cottn-

it was probably connected the lost c Catalogues try in 1509, and who was the earnest and

of Women* (or the Eoiai tnegalcri), to the zealous friend of the Reformation, divided his

fourth book of which the second fragment (the dominions among his four sons. The eldest,

< Shield of Heracles > ) must have belonged. This William IV., obtained one half, including the

is evidently composed of three distinct parts, capital, Cassel; Louis IV. one fourth, compris-

only one of which is occupied with the real ing Marburg; Philip II. one eighth, with Rhein-

description of the shield. The third fragment fels; and George I. also an eighth, with Darm-

is a didactic poem, ( Works and Days > (Erga, or stadt. But Philip dying in 1583, and Louis in

Erga kai Hctnerai). It treats of agriculture, 1604, without children, there remained only the

the choice of days, etc., with prudential pre- main branches of Hesse-Cassel and Hesse-

cepts concerning education, domestic economy, Darmstadt (qq.v.).

2ftS^^JS??n y ™\£™i™ rounded ^ Prussian territory, and five on the

cal Library contains a prose version. border$ / Baden and Wurtemberg. The other

Hespendes, hes-per I-dez (daughters of two portions, forming about nine tenths of the

Hesperis), the guardians of the gold apples w hole, are separated by a belt of land stretch-

which Ge (the Earth) had given to Hera on mg && to west, and including part of the

her marriage. They were the daughters of Prussian dominions. The more southerly of

Atlas and Hesperis, but their parentage is dif- these portions forms the two provinces of Rhein-

ferently represented by other writers. They hessen and Starkenburg. The northern portion,

were four in number and their names were Agle, forming the province of Oberhessen, is sur-

Arethusa, Erytheia, Hesperia, or Hesperarethu- r0 unded by the Prussian province of Hesse-

sa. They were assisted in the charge of their Nassau; area of whole grand duchy, 2,964

garden by the sleepless dragon, Ladon. It was square miles. Oberhessen is generally moun-

the twelfth labor of Heracles to bring the golden tainous; Starkenburg and Rheinhessen are also

apples of the Hesperides to Eurystheus. mountainous ; in the southwest the Donners-

Hesperomis, hSs-pS-ror'nls, a remarkable berg, a northern ramification of the Vosges, rap-
extinct form of bird, the remains of which are idly subsides to the extensive plains belonging
met with in the cretaceous deposits of Kansas, to the valleys of the Main and the Rhine. To.
As described by Prof. Marsh, it possessed small the latter river the whole surface of the grand
pointed reptilian teeth, which were implanted in duchy belongs, with exception of a small portion
a deep continuous groove, somewhat like those in the north, drained by the Eder and Fulda,
of Ichthyosaurus. Its brain was small and more affluents of the Weser. The climate is greatly
reptilian in type than that of any adult bird as diversified, varying with the altitude. The soil,
yet examined. It appears to have been a large particularly in the provinces of Starkenburg and
diving-bird, measuring over five feet from the r.heinhessen, is fertile, and grain of all kinds is
point of the bill to the end of the toes. Its raised in large quantities. Hemp, flex, potatoes,
wings were rudimentary, its legs powerful, and and rape-seed also are extensively grown, and
iU feet well adapted for rapid progression in »n particular districts tobacco and hops. The
water. The toil was broad, could move up and vine forms an Important object of culture, and
down, and was probably used as a rudder or f™}* * s abundant. Horses, cattle, sheep, and
swimming-paddle. The long slender jaws were swine are numerous. The minerals include iron,
united in front only by cartilage, as in serpents, c o*\, lignite, and salt; and there are good quar-
and had on each side a joint which admitted of nes oi sandstone, limestone, whetstones, basalt,
some motion, so that a the power of swallowing and roofing-slate. The most important manufac-
was doubtless equal to almost any emergency .» tunng industry is linen The principal towns
Consult: Lucas, < Animals of the Past> (1901). are Darmstadt, the capital; Mainz Giessen, Bin-

u~.~« M <. uz*'~z -r.o o«,^«« *u~ r^««t,o £ en > and Worms. The grand duchy is an hered-

Hesperus, hes pe-rus among the Greeks f ^ monarchy> The constitution dates from

the planet Venus, when it appeared as evening lg ^ bm was ^e^t modified in 1S56 and

f ta $ P + t rS K n, ^ ed / S ^ the <kvimty thatat weoMings lg Th legislative power is ves ted partly

leads the bride to the arms of her husband. He . ' c hambers-*n upper, composed chiefly

is called Phosphorus or Lucifer m a monung f y,-^ and citize ns, Vppointed for life by

star and is styled the son of Eos (Aurora) and the grand : duke; and a loweV; composed chiefly

aphalus. He was also known as son or brother q£ d | puties frorn thc towns ^ ^STand rural

of Atlas, and brother of the Hespend<e. districts. About two thirds ofthe inhabitants

Hesperus Peak, an elevation of the La are Protestants. Pop. about 1,200,000. The

Plata Mountains, in the southwestern part of grand-ducal line was founded in 1567 by George

Colorado. Gold and silver have been mined in j t S on of Philip the Generous. By the death of

the vicinity. This peak is one of a group of high the landgrave of Hesse-Homburg, in 1866,

peaks in the vicinity of the State ; the height is Louis III., grand-duke of Hessen Darmstadt,

about I3» J 35 feet. succeeded to his dominions. In the German

Hesse, hes, or Hessia (German, Hessen, war of that vear Hessen-Darmstadt joined Aus-

hes'sen), Germany, an ancient territory inhabited tria. Its army was nearly annihilated at Fried-

in the time of the Romans by the Catti or Chatti, berg, and it was deprived of the newly-acquired

an old Germanic tribe. Under the Frankish kings landgraviate and other districts. In 1870 the

Hesse was governed by counts, the principal grand duchy of Hesse entered the German

of whom were the Counts of Gudensberg of empire. Louis IV., who succeeded Louis III.,

the name of Giso. Philip I. the Generous, who died in 1892. He was the husband of Princess

Digitized by



Alice of Great Britain, and their son, Ernest
Louis, is now the reigning sovereign.

Hesse-Cassel, hes-kaVel, or Electoral
Hesse, Germany, a former electorate and
independent member of the Germanic Confed-
eracy, between Rhenish Prussia and Bavaria,
containing 4,430 square miles, with about 850,-
000 inhabitants, mostly Protestants. It was
founded by the eldest son of Philip the Generous,
the Landgrave William IV., surnamed the Wise
(1567-92). For a long period the history of
Hesse-Cassel was a narrative of conflicts be-
tween the people for political freedom and the
elector for absolute rule. The demands of the
people were on several occasions strengthened by
appeals to the elector from the Prussian govern-
ment On the outbreak of the German war
of 1866, the elector joined Austria, and his ter-
ritory was occupied by Prussian troops. On the
conclusion of the war Hesse-Cassel was an-
nexed to the Prussian territories, and now forms
part of Hesse-Nassau (q.v.).

Hesse-Nassau, hes'naVa, or Hessen-
Nassau, heY sen-na" s'sow, Germany, a province
of Prussia, which includes the former princi-
pality of Hesse-Cassel (except some small dis-
tricts), the greater part of the former duchy
of Nassau, that portion of the former land-
graviate of Hesse-Homburg which lies on the
right bank of the Rhine, the territory and town
of Frankfort, and some small districts ceded
by Hessen-Darmstadt and Bavaria. The prov-
ince is bounded by the Prussian provinces of
Westphalia, Hanover, Saxony, and the Rhine-
land, the principality of Waldeck, the grand
duchy of Saxe- Weimar, and the kingdom of
Bavaria; area, 6,018 English square miles, di-
vided into the two governments (Regierungs-
bezirke) of Cassel and Wiesbaden. The greater
part of this province has a rugged surface,
partly covered by branches of the Harz Moun-
tains. The principal rivers are the Werra, Lahn,
Ohm, Rhine, and Main. Arable land is lim-
ited, and cultivation is chiefly confined to the
narrow valleys and lower hill slopes, amount-
ing to about two fifths of the whole surface.
The principal crops are rye, barley, and oats.
Potatoes also are extensively grown. Fruit is
tolerably abundant, and a great part of the loft-
ier districts is covered with extensive forests,
which employ a considerable number of the in-
habitants, and furnish one of the most valuable
sources of revenue. There are various minerals,
and valuable mineral waters at Homburg, Wies-
baden, etc The manufactures consist chiefly of
woolens, cottons, and linens. The principal
towns are Cassel, the capital, Wiesbaden, and

Hessen-Darmstadt, liSs'sen-darm'stat. See
Hesse, Grand Duchy of.

Hessian Fly. See Wheat Insect Pests.

Hessians in the Revolution, The. In the

18th century Germany was divided into nearly
300 sovereignties, each maintaining a court and
a military force. The possible revenue was
often very limited, the burdens were almost in-
tolerable, and the princelings were often prof-
ligate and cruel ; they did not need their forces
for home defense, and were glad to make money
for themselves by letting out their regiments for
hire, though except in one case they remitted no

taxes on the people from the receipts. There
was also a lingering tradition that soldiering
was an honest trade like any other, and that
it was useful for helping sovereigns to keep or-
der; especially to put down insurrections, which
were wicked. This, however, did not apply to
rulers hiring out their troops and pocketing
the money; and not only the liberal school of
writers and public men, but enlightened despots
like Frederick the Great, denounced it. But
England had not sufficient army for the Ameri-
can War, and wished drilled troops rather than
raw recruits, and after vainly endeavoring to
hire 20,000 Russian soldiers, turned to the Ger-
man princes, with some of whom she had dynas-
tic relations, and all of whom were so eager to
sell their wares that two of them offered soldiers
for hire immediately after Bunker Hill, without
waiting to be asked. Only those which could
furnish considerable numbers were worth treat-
ing with, and all the German auxiliaries were
finally hired from six states; about half being
from two Hessian states, and by far the largest
(more than three times greater than any other)
from one. All were indiscriminately termed
^Hessians,* as all German immigrants were
formerly called * Palatines.* The first treaty
was made with the Duke of Brunswick, 9 Jan.
1776, for 4,30a troops; reinforcements or re-
placements were sent year by year, till the total
had amounted to 5,723, only 2,708 of whom ever
returned. The second was with the Landgrave
of Hesse-Cassel, 15 Jan. 1776, for 12,805; finally
increased to 16,992, of whom 10492 returned.
The contingents from the others, under various
treaties, amounted to — Hesse-Hanau, 2,038;
Anspach-Baireuth, 2^53; Waldeck; 1,225; An-
halt-Zerbst, 1,152. Total sent to America,
29,867, of whom 17,313 returned; the rest either
died or remained as citizens. There were about
20,000 in America at any one time after 1776.
These forces cost Great Britain in subsidies and
incidentals about £1,770,000; besides the lump
sum, it was obliged to replace the dead, and at
least in one case count three wounded men as
one dead one.

About 18,000 were shipped in 1776 ; the com-
mander-in-chief was Lieut-Gen. Philipp von
Heister, a veteran of the Seven Years' War.
The first division of some 8,000 landed at Staten
Island, 15 August; they included a body of
chasseurs and grenadiers under Lieut. E. W. F.
von Donop, an able and daring officer. They
took a leading part in the battles of Long
Island and White Plains, and all the operations
for capturing New York; and stormed Fort
Washington with a loss of 56 killed and 276
wounded. During this time the second division
of about 4,000, under Lieut-Gen. Wilhelm von
Knyphausen, joined them. Washington's sur-
prise at Trenton fell on Col. Rail's brigade of
Germans. Rail was a regular officer whose con-
tempt for the ragged Americans surpassed that
of the most arrogant Briton, and he refused
to take the most elementary precautions; he
was mortally wounded. Early in 1777 Heister
was superseded by Knyphausen; Howe finding
the former intractable, and the Landgrave of
Hesse laying the blame of Trenton upon him.
Meantime the Brunswickers and a Hanau regi-
ment under Baron von Riedesel had made a
clearance of Canada; and in 1777 they were

Digitized by



joined to the expedition of Burgoyne, in whom
Riedesel had no faith. It was from this division
that Baum's detachment was sent off to raid
Vermont, and to meet its fate at Bennington,
with Breymann's sent to support it; 365 of
Baum's 374 Germans did not return, and 231 of
Breymann's were killed, wounded, or captured.
Riedesel and his remaining men snared in Bur-
goyne's surrender. Around Philadelphia, at
Brandywine and Germantown, Knyphausen's
command was of the first importance; and at
Red Bank Donop tried to storm the American
fort and was mortally wounded, his command
losing 82 killed and 229 wounded, besides 60
prisoners. In the three years' occupation of
Rhode Island, from the fall of 1776 to that of
1770, about half of the British corps was Hes-
sians; and they liked, and were liked by the
inhabitants, — when they departed, all persons,
but especially women, were prohibited from
appearing at the Newport windows, in fear that
the soldiers might not wish to go. In the
South, at Savannah, Charleston,. Pensacola,
Baton Rouge, etc., they left many dead; and
shared in the bloody drawn battle of Guilford
Court House. Finally, at Yorktown, they bolt
the brunt of the actual fighting, losing 53 killed
and 131 wounded

The Germans did their duty bravely and
faithfully, witji loyalty to a service they had
been sold into to no profit of theirs. Very few
deserted, in spite of constant inducements held
out to them; a policy which Washington
strongly deprecated. Probably one reason was,
that they were at once recognizable from their
speech. Nor were they in the least inhumane
or rapacious: the charge that they were cruel
barbarians was a mere political weapon of the
time. In a strange country, they would have
run- the risk of being, murdered in reprisal had
they been such ; but in fact they appear to have
been well-meaning men. Of the 20^867 who
came over, only 17^313 returned to Germany.
Of the 12,554 remaining, 548 were killed; some
of the total 1,652 wounded died; some disap-
peared; but a great number are known to have
remained and settled in the country. Grants
were given them in Nova Scotia, but many scat-
tered as chance directed. See Lowell, <The Hes-
sians in the Revolution* (1884).

Hestia. See Vesta.

HesychiuA, hS-sIkl-us, the author of a
Greek lexicon, which has probably come to us in
an abridged form, ,and. which he partly collected
from former dictionaries, and partly enlarged
by many new words and examples from Homer,
tne dramatic and lyric poets, the orators, physi-
cians, and historians, was a native of Alexan-
dria, and according to the best authorities flour-
ished about the end of the 4th century after
Christ Of the circumstances of his life nothing
is known. His lexicon possesses great value,
especially of an antiquarian kind, and is the most
useful for the study of the Greek language of
all the ancient critical writings that are extant
The best editions of his lexicon are Alberti and
Ruhnken's (Leyden 1746-66, two vols, folio),
and that prepared by Schmidt (Jena, five vols.
1867-68; in a smaller form, two parts, 1864;
second edition, 1867).

Hetaera, he*-te'ra (Greek hetaira, a female
companion), the name given by the Greeks to
a mistress, as opposed to a lawful wife. But the
word had various shades of meaning, from a
mistress, who might be a wife in all but the
legal qualification of citizenship, down to a har-
lot The beauty and accomplishments of many
of the hetaera occasioned their society to be
sought by men of the highest eminence* even
Plato and Socrates. No shame was attached to
associating with them. Aspasia, the mistress of
Pericles, is the most renowned of these hetaera*.
(See Aspasia.) Hetaerae, less intellectually fa-
mous, were Lais, whom Aristippus the philoso-
pher loved, Ph.yne, and others. They also be-
came famous for their connection with the
works of art. Praxiteles made a marble and
gold statue of the latter, and she was also the
model for his statues of Aphrodite.

Heterogamy. See Metagenesis.

Heterogenous, het"e ro jen'e sis, or Hete-
rogamy. See Metagenesis.

Heteropoda, h2t-e-rop'6-da, a group of
small, pelagic, pectinibranch mollusks, which
dwell together in the open sea, have the foot
modified into a swimming organ, and are pro-
vided with a ventral sucker. The shells
are spiral or shaped like that of an argo-
naut and seem as if composed of thin
glass; indeed, the whole animal 19 beau*
tifully transparent. Heteropods occur in enor-
mous abundance at the surface of the sea in all
the warmer parts of the world, and their dead
shells sinking to the bottom form a large con-
stituent of the abyssal ooze. They are highly
organized, have well developed eyes and other
organs of sense, are bisexual, and produce eggs
in long cylindrical cords. The young in their
development pass through a trochosphere and
then a veliger stage. All are predatory, seizing
and feeding on the numerous minute forms of
life about them. They are most active in the
early evening, darting about with twisting mo-
tions like worms, usually on their backs. They
use the ventral sucking-disk for attaching them-
selves to any object they may encounter. Three
families, containing many species, are known,
and their closest affinities are with the pteropods.
Consult Kingsley, ( Standard Natural History/
Vol. I. (1885).

Heterop'tera. See Hemiptera.

Het'man (Russian, Ataman), chief of the
Cossacks, formerly elected by that people. He
had the power of life and death, and was heaM
of the army in time of war. Mazeppa in 1708
revolted against Russia, taking the side of
Charles XII. of Sweden, and Peter the Great
abolished in consequence the power and author-
ity of the hitman. Catharine II. suppressed the
office and title in the province of Ukraine; k
still exists among the Cossacks of the ,Don.
In Poland the commander-in-chief of the army
was styled hetman, and was appointed by the
sovereign. The last elective hetman of the Cos-
sacks in Russia was Platorf 1812-14. On his
death the grand duke, heir to the throne, was
made hetman.

Hetty Sorrel, in George Eliot's 'Adam
Bede ) (1859), a dairymaid whose unfortunate
career, condemnation to death, and final re*
prieve form an important part of the story.

Digitized by



Htvelius, Johannes, yo-han'nes ha-fa'le-

Online LibraryWilfrid RichmondThe Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 → online text (page 147 of 185)