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The Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 online

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oos, or he-yeli-us, known also as Johannes
Hevel, Polish astronomer: b. Dantzic 28 Jan.
161 1 ; d. there 28 Jan. 1687. After visiting the
principal countries of Europe he settled in his
native city, and from 1639 till his death applied
himself almost exclusively to the study of as-
tronomy. His ^elenographia,* or description
of the* moon, published in 1647, was the first of
numerous astronomical works of great value
and authority on his favorite science. Halley,
who visited Hevelius at Dantzic at the request
of the Royal Society of London, of which Heve-
lius had been elected a member in 1664, re-
ported favorably of the correctness of his ob-
servations. In 1661 he observed a transit of
Mercury, a triumph confined to Gassendi alone
of all preceding astronomers. Hevelius ranks
next to Flamsteed among the men of his day as
a diligent and accurate observer of the heavens.

Hewes, hiiz, Joseph, American patriot; a
signer of the Declaration of Independence: b.
Kingston, N. J., 1730; d. Philadelphia, 10 Nov.
1779. He was educated at Princeton College,
and about 1760 he removed to Edenton, North
Carolina. He soon became a member of the
colonial legislature, and was a delegate to the
General Congress at Philadelphia 1774-7 and
again in 1779. After taking his seat he was
appointed on a committee to a state the rights
of the colonies in general, the several instances
in which those rights are violated or infringed,
and the means most proper to be pursued for
obtaining a restoration of them, 9 and aided in
the preparation of its report

Hewett, hu'et, Waterman Thomas, Ameri-
can Germanic scholar: b. Miami, Mo., 10 Jan.
1846. He was graduated from Amherst College
in 1869 and has been professor of German lan-
guage and literature at Cornell University from
1870. He has been general editor of Mac-
millan's c German Classics } since 1895, and beside
frequent contributions to periodicals has pub-
lished among other works < The Friesian Lan-
guage and Literature > (1879) ; <History of Cor-
nell University > (1804).

Hewit, hult, Nathaniel Augustus, Ameri-
can Roman Catholic clergyman: b. Fairfield,
Conn., 27 Nov. 1820; d. New York 3 July 1897.
He was graduated from Amherst College in
1839 and was for several years in the Episcopal
ministry. He became a Roman Catholic in 1846
and joined the Order of Redemptorists. He
was later one of the founders of the Congrega-
tion of Saint Paul (Paulists) taking the re-
ligious name of <( Augustine Francis,* and sub-
sequently becoming professor and superior in
the Paulist Seminary, New York. He wrote
<Life of Princess Borghese* (1856) ; Problems
of the Age> (1868); <Light in Darkness>
(1871); etc.

Hewitt, hfilt, Abram Stevens, American
manufacturer and politician: b. Haverstraw,
Rockland County, N. Y., 31 July 1822; d. New
York 18 Jan. 1903. He was graduated from
Columbia in 1842 at the head of his class, and
in 1843 he was made acting professor of mathe-
matics there; he also began the study of law,
and was admitted to the bar in 1845. He did
not practise, however, but shortly after went
into the iron and steel business with his father-
in-law, Edward Cooper. By careful and skilful

management he built up the financial success of
his firm (Cooper & Hewitt) ; which was the
first to manufacture iron girders and supports
for fire-proof buildings and bridges, and also
furnished the government with large quantity
of material during the Civil War. In dealing
with his employees, he was particularly success-
ful, never having any serious trouble; it was
his policy to keep the works running and the
men employed, at least part of the time during
dull seasons, tnough the business was sometimes
carried on at a loss. At the time of his death he
was recognized as one of the foremost iron
masters m the country, his firm controlling the
Trenton Iron Co. and the New Jersey Iron
and Steel Co. He organized the Cooper Union
Institute (q.v.), and as the secretary of the
board of trustees largely shaped and controlled
its policy for a number of years. He also gave
largely to the institution. He was first active
in politics at the time of the reorganization of
Tammany Hall after the overthrow of the
Tweed Ring. He served in Congress 1874-8,
and again 1880-6 and was always especially
prominent in all matters pertaining to finance,
advocating a low tariff and the gold standard
In 1876 he was chairman of the Democratic
National Committee, and immediately after the
election issued a proclamation to his party stat-
ing that Tilden had been elected; later he sup-
ported the policy of Tilden which resulted in
the appointment of the Electoral Commission
(q.v.). In 1886 he was nominated for mayor
of New York by Tammany and other Demo-
cratic organizations and after a hard campaign
won the election over Henry George and Theo-
dore Roosevelt. As mayor he gave the city a
most efficient administration, but his independent
policy often antagonized the Tammany leaders,
especially his strict enforcement of the excise
law. He was not renominated by his party,
and was defeated as a candidate on an independ-
ent ticket in 1888. While mayor he urged in
one of his annual messages the need of improve-
ment of the city's rapid transit, and advocated
municipal ownership; though his suggestions
were not heeded at the time, he continued his
interest in the subject, and it was largely due
to his efforts that recent improvements in that
direction were undertaken; in recognition of
his services the Chamber of Commerce pre-
sented him with a gold medal in 1901. In Feb-
ruary 1903 a number of prominent citizens of
New York set on foot a movement to raise a
memorial fund of $500,000 to be presented to
Cooper Union as the « Abram S. Hewitt En-
dowment of the Cooper Union *

Hewitt, John Napoleon Brinton, American
ethnologist and linguist: b. on the Tuscarora
reserve, Niagara County, N. Y., 16 Dec. 1859.
For several years 'he assisted Mrs. Erminnie
Smith (q.v.) in the linguistic researches she
was making for the Bureau of Ethnology on the
Tuscarora reserve, and he is now employed in
linguistic work at the Smithsonian Institution.

Hewitt, Peter Cooper, American capitalist
and inventor: b. New York 1861. He is the
son of Abram S. Hewitt (q.v.), was educated
at Stevens Institute, Hoboken, and Columbia
College. He entered business with his father
and invented improvements in the processes of
the Peter Cooper glue factory, which the Hewitt
firm controls. Turning his attention to electricity

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he invented the Cooper Hewitt lamp and static
converter. The lamp in its present form con-
sists of a glass tube of any desired shape with
a bulb at one end which contains a small quan-
tity of mercury. All air is exhausted from the
tube, which thereupon fills with vapor from
the mercury in the bulb. Electrodes are pro-
vided at each end of the lamp, the negative
electrode in the bulb of mercury and the posi-
tive electrode at the opposite end. On passing
a direct current through the lamp the vapor
which fills the tube is rendered incandescent
and gives off a steady, blue-white light. Owing
to the great resistance at the negative electrode
to the initial flow of current, it is necessary to
use a high voltage to start the lamp. This is
commonly done by passing a spark from a
*choking ft coil through the negative electrode,
which when once penetrated offers but slight
resistance to the flow of current. If for any
reason the current is interrupted, the high re-
sistance is immediately resumed and must be
broken down again before permitting further
flow of current

The light given off by this lamp is entirely
lacking in red rays, and consequently does not
reveal the real color of the objects it falls upon.
It is, however, of great value as a photographic
illuminator being rich in actinic rays, wnich
most affect the photographic plate. Mr. Hewitt
is investigating with a view to discover means
to turn some of the rays of the incandescent
vapor into red rays. This discovery will be a
means of great economy, because the Cooper
Hewitt lamp is probably the cheapest artificial
light in the world. The mercury vapor lamp
consumes one half watt per candle-power, as
against 3# watts in the incandescent lamp.

Hewlett, hu'let, Maurice Henry, English
author: b. London 22 Jan. 1861. He was the
son of Henry Gay Hewlett, a writer of some
little note, and was educated at the London
International College, Isleworth. He was ad-
mitted to the bar in 1891, and in 1896-1900 was
keeper of the land revenue records and enrol-
ments. His reputation was made as an inter-
preter of the more recondite phases of the life
and thought of the Middle Ages, especially in
Italy. His style is a skilful medium for his
purpose, but frequently so archaized as to be
somewhat difficult. His books are: ( Earthwork
out of Tuscany > (1895), a collection of Italian
studies; <The Masque of Dead Florentines*
(1895) ; ( Songs and Meditations* (1897) ; ( Pan
and the Young Shepherd* (180&) ; <The Forest
Lovers* (1898) his first popular success; 'Little
Novels of Italy* (1899) ; < Richard Yea-and-
Nay J (1900); ( New Canterbury Tales* (1901);
*Fond Adventures* (1904).

Hexameter (from the Greek #, six, and
lUrpop y a measure), a verse of six feet. It
is the heroic or epic measure of the Greeks and
Romans, the finest examples of which are the
two poems ascribed to Homer, the Iliad and
the Odyssey, and the ^Eneid of Virgil. The
sixth foot is always a spondee (two long sylla-
bles) or a trochee (a long and a short). The
five first may be all dactyls (one long syllable
and two short), or all spondees, or a mixture
of both. The scheme of this verse then is —

Vol. 10 — 36

with all the varieties which the mingling of the
two kinds of feet, as mentioned, affords; as,

Forte sub argute consederat ilice Daphnis;

of t — *— ^-', , > -^ w 'i Sm ^^9 * """l

Qui Bavium non odit amet tua cannina, Maevi;
and so on. The variety of which the hexameter
is susceptible, its great simplicity, its harmony,
and its numerous pauses, constitute the charm
of this verse, and adapt it to the most various
subjects. A spondee is rarely used in the fifth
foot, and then in Latin the word with which
the verse ends is generally composed of four
syllables, and the fourth foot at least must be
a dactyl; as,

Cara deum aoboles, magnum Jovis incremental*.

The prevalence of the dactyl or spondee in
the hexameter depends much upon the genius
of the language; thus the dactyl is more fre-
quent in Greek than in Latin, and in German
than in Greek. It is evident that the hexameter
cannot be formed in such languages as Italian,
French, Spanish and English, whose prosody is
regulated by the accent and not by the quantity
of the words.

The French and Italian writers, however,
early attempted the hexameter, as well as Sidney
and Southey in English; but without success.
More recent English poets have also tried it,
as Clough and Kingsley. Longfellow has made
use of the hexameter in his ( Evangeline.* But
in no modern European language have hexa-
meters become naturalized, except in German,
to which this measure seems as well adapted as
to the Greek. Fischart attempted the German
hexameter in the 16th century. In the middle of
the 18th century it was used by Klopstock, Ui,
and Kleist. Goethe's hexameters are very often
as poor as their sense is beautiful. John Henry
Voss improved the German hexameter by the
excellent translation of Homer and his valuable
< Zeitmessung der deutschen Sprache > (Koniga-
berg 1802).

Hexapoda, hek-sap'o-da, a group name for
the six-footed arthropods, or true insects
(Insecta), excluding spiders, myriapods and
other forms often included in the term ^insects.*
Hexateuch. See Pentateuch.

Hexoic Acid, an organic acid having the
formula CsHi,0,, or C*H«.COOH, and occurring
m fats, in cheese, among the products of the
butyric fermentation of sugar, and in the fruit
of Heracleum sphondylium and in the flowers
of Satyrium hircinum. It is best prepared by
the fractional distillation of crude fermentation
butyric acid. It is an oily substance, very clear
and mobile, solidifying at about 29 F, and
boiling at 400 F. It has a specific gravity of
0.95, and is oxidized by nitric acid to acetic and
succinic acids. It is also known as *caproic
acid,* and its salts are sometimes called cap-
roates, and sometimes hexoates.

Heyse, Paul, powl hfze, German poet and
novelist: b. Berlin 15 March 1830. He studied
classics in his native city, in 1852 traveled in
Switzerland and Italy, and two years later he
settled in Munich on the invitation of King
Maximilian II. of Bavaria, who granted him a
pension. He has lived mainly in Munich ever
since, devoted almost exclusively to literature.
His first work was ( Jungbrunnen, Marched

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cines fahrenden Schulers* (Tales of a Traveling
Scholar) (1850) ; and to the same year belongs
his tragedy ( Francesca da Rimini.* ( Die
Briider* (1852) and ^rica* (1852), were nar-
rative poems, and formed part of the volume
entitled < Hermen ) (1854), later <Novellen in
Versen,* which did much to establish his repu-
tation. Heyse's genius has found \u most per-
fect expression in his tales or novelettes (Novel-
len), and in this department of literature he
holds almost a unique place among German
writers. His work is almost throughout highly
finished and artistic, and shows a rich imagina-
tion and great fertility in invention. His tales
have been published in more than 20 collections,
and a selection appeared in 1890 under the title
<Auswahl furs Haus.* His early successes in
narrative verse were followed by such works as :
<Die Braut von Cyperin> (1856); <Thekla>
(1858); <Rafael> (1863); <Syrttha> (1867);
*Der Salamander > (1879); < EHe Madonna im
Oiwald> (1879); < Liebeszauber> (1889). His
best plays are those of his third period, and
some of them, especially < Hans Lange* and
• 'Kolberg, 1 have been acted with great success.
<Mary of Magdala > was well received in Amer-
ica. Among them are: <Die Hochzeit auf dem
Aventin* (1886) ; ( Gott schutze mich vor
meinen Freunden> (1888) ; ( Hans Lange*
(1866); <Kolberg> (1868); <Die Weisheit
Salomos> (1887); <Weltuntergang> (1889);
<Die schlimmen Bruder> (1891); <Wahrheit?>
(1892); and VTungfer Justine* (1803). His
larger novels, ( Kinder der Welt > (1873) ; .<Ira
Paradiese> (1875) ; Berlin) (1802) ; and < Uber
alien Gipfeln> (1895), have met with great
success. Among other works are: <Skizzen-
buch> (1877); < Verse aus Italien> (1880);
'Spruchbuchlein* (1885); <Gedichte> (Poems,
$th ed. 1895; and <Neue Gedichte und Jugend-
fieder> (1897).

Heyward, ha'ward, Thomas, Jr., American
patriot: b. St. Luke's Parish, S. C, 1746; d.
there 6 March 1809. He was of much promi-
nence in North Carolina during the Revolution,
was a delegate to the Continental Congress
1775-8 and one cf the signers of the Declara-
tion of Independence. In later years he was a
judge in his native State.

Heywood, John, English dramatist of the
first half of the 16th century. He was a paid
musician at the court of Henry VII I., with
whom he became a favorite on account of his
skill in music. Heywood's dramatic works may
be classed as interludes, standing between the
miracle-plays and the drama proper. The ear-
liest of them, ( A Merry Play between the Par-
doner and the Frere, the Curate and Neybour
Pratte, ) was written before 1521. Another fa-
mous piece is <The Four P's, an interlude in
which figure a Palmer, a Pardoner, a Potycary,
and a Pedlar. > His allegory of the c Spider and
the Fly> (1556) fully reveals Heywood's re-
ligious proclivities. By spiders, the Protestants
are meant; by flies, the Catholics.

Heywood, Thomas, English dramatist: b.
Lincolnshire. He was educated at Cambridge
and appears to have been writing plays as early
as 1590. Of all the old dramatists he was the
most prolific. We learn from the preface to
< The English Traveller > that down to 1633 he
had «had either an entire hand, or at the least a

main finger* in the composition of 220 plays;
and he continued for some years after that date
to write for the stage.

Twenty- four of Heywcod's plays have been
preserved. The best is ( A Woman kilde with
fcindnesse* (1607). His work is usually dis-
tinguished by naturalness and simplicity ; but he
wrote at the beginning of his career one ab-
surdly grandiose play, <The Foure Prentises of
London* (1615), which was parodied in Beau-
mont, and Fletcher's < Knight of the Burning
Pestle. > <The Rape of Lucreece> (1608) is
chiefly noticeable for its songs; ( Love's Mais-
tresse ) (1636), dealing with the story of Cupid
and Psyche, is fanciful and ingenious; and
there is much tenderness in C A Challenge for
Beautie* (1636). c The Captives, or the Lost
Recovered,* an interesting play, acted in 1624,
was first published in 1885.

Hezekiah, hez-e-ki'a (Hiskiyah, generally
Hiskiyahu, strength of Jehovah), the 12th
king of Judah. At 25 he succeeded Ahaz about
726 K.C.. about 698 b.c He had no sonner
mounted the throne than he initiated a system
of reform, on the injunctions of Isaiah, and
broke up the idolatrous customs into which the
people had fallen during the life of his father.
He also endeavored to repair the injury done
by national defeats and losses. He purged,
repaired, and reopened the temple with magnifi-
cent sacrifices and a splendid ceremonial. So
extreme was his indignation against idolatry
that he destroyed the brazen. serpent which was
said to be the one used by Moses in his miracu-
lous healing of the Israelites. With patriotic
zeal he assumed the aggressive against the Phil-
istines; and not only rewon the cities lost bv
his father, but dispossessed them of most of
their own. In the 14th year of Hezekiah's reign
he had a dangerous illness, which threatened
serious complications, and the kingdom was in
a difficult crisis, for the king had no heir,
Manasseh not being born till long afterward.
The greater part of the Scripture records bear-
ing on the reign of Hezekiah is occupied by
the two invasions of Sennacherib. Several of
the Psalms are supposed to allude to the dis-
comfiture of Sennacherib, for example, xlvi.-
xlviii., lxxvi. Hezekiah did not long survive
this deliverance, dying after a reign of nearly
29 years. Among the many highly useful works
executed by him, the aqueducts of Jerusalem
are of especial importance.

Hiawatha, hl-a-wa'ta or -tha, the hero of
an American Indian legend known by this name
among the Iroquois and among the other tribes.
He is mentioned in various works on the aborig-
ines, and in 1855 was immortalized in the poem,
( Hiawatha, } by Longfellow.

Hiawatha, Kan., city, county-seat of
Brown County ; on the Saint Joseph & G. I. and
the Missouri P. R.R.'s; about 70 miles north-
west of Kansas City and 55 miles north of
Topeka. It is situated in a rich agricultural
region. Its chief manufactures are flour, foun-
dry products and agricultural implements. Its
trade is principally in wheat, corn, fruit, live-
stock, flour, and lumber. It has the Morrill
Public Library and an academy. The city owns
and operates the waterworks and an electric-
light plant. Another electric-light plant is

Digitized by



owned by a private corporation. Pop. (1940)

HibT>ard, George Abiah, American writer
of short stories: b, Buffalo, N. Y., 1858. He
has written ( Iduna, and Other Stories } ; c Now-
adays > ; ( The Governor* ; etc. His work is
marked by finished style and much insight into

HibT)en, John Grier, American logician : b.
Peoria, 111., 19 April 1861. He was graduated
from Princeton 1887 and is now professor of
logic there. He is author of ( Inductive Logic*
(1896); <The Problems of Philosophy* (1898).

Hibernation, the winter sleep of warm-
blooded animals. Under this term is also in-
cluded the torpidity of frogs, toads, reptiles,
certain fishes, insects, the horseshoe crab and
snails, which is mainly due to prolonged cold.
Among the mammals which hibernate are the
bear, dormouse, badger, bat and hamster; a
number are incomplete hibernators, as the prairie
dog, while sauirrels fall into a winter sleep dur-
ing the coldest weather, but may be seen in
warm spells in winter. The males of the black
and white bear are more or less active during
the winter months, while the females are hiber-
nating. The same species, like the skunk, may
in the southern portion of its range not hiber-
nate at all. Neither do the hibernators all retire
tj their holes or dens or under fallen trees at
the same date, but the time varies with the tem-
perature, and different degrees of torpidity are
exhibited. It also appears that continuous hiber-
nators do not lay in a supply of food, as do in-
termittent ones like squirrels ; yet the Arctic fox
is said to store up a supply of dead lemmings,
ermines,, geese, etc. 1

Hibernation is like sleep, and has been com-
pared with trance. During this period the ani-
mal functions are nearly suspended, the excre-
tions are greatly diminshed and in the bears the
rectum is closed by a resinous plug, called by the
Swedes *tappen, w and by American hunters
•seal.* The animal heat is lowered to that or
nearly that of the air, the action of the heart be-
ing slight; there is an increased muscular irri-
tability, and the animal loses from 30 to 40
per cent of weight.

Snakes, lizards, the toad, frogs, salamanders,
and certain fishes hibernate, burying themselves
in the earth below the reach of frost, the aquatic
forms digging into the mud at the bottom of
streams. The few fishes which are known to
lie dormant and take no food sink into the mud
of streams or of the sea. The horseshoe crab
burrows in the mud beyond the reach of oyster
dredges in November, remaining in deep water
until the middle of spring. Most insects hiber-
nate in the larva or pupa state, a few as moths
or butterflies. Caterpillars hide under moss, the
bark of tree9, etc., but they freeze solid and may
be broken into two pieces like an icicle. They
gradually thaw out in spring; when the changes
are sudden, great numbers die. Spiders and
snails hibernate under stones, moss, etc., while
slugs bury themselves in the mud, and those
mussels and other mollusks living in streams
and lakes descend into the mud.

Estivation. — In the tropics there is a corre-
sponding period of torpor during the hot, dry
season, when food is scarce, and vegetation is
taking a res^. Alligators, snakes, certain mam-

mals,; as the taurec, insects and land snails be-
come dormant, the latter closing the mouth of
their shells with a membrane-like substance
(epiphragm), leaving a small opening in it for
the admission of air in breathing, vet after a pro-
longed shower they become active. Thus it is
seen that heat, dryness and the lack of food
operate in causing estivation, while cold and
famine appear to be the cause of hibernation;
though all species are by no means affected
alike. Among the lowest organisms the dor-
mant vitality of resting spores, seeds of plants,
winter eggs of sponges, of polyzoa, the dor-
mancy of certain adult forms, are connected
with a lowered temperature, and a resting pe-
riod is necessary both in plants and animals.
The simultaneous shedding of the leaves of de-
ciduous trees is certainly connected with if not
caused by coid, and it is undoubtedly true that
changes of temperature as well as lack of food,
and the need of rest, cause hibernation and
Summer dormancy.

Hibernia, the ancient name applied to Ire*

plants. The scarlet hibiscus (H. coccineus) and
the rose-mallow (H. moscheutos) are among
the most striking and beautiful of North
American wild flowers, glowing among the
reeds of marshes in late summer in flame-color
and pink. The characteristic mucilaginous and
fibrous properties of the Malvaceae are very
strongly developed in this tribe. The fruit of
H, esculentus, called gumbo, okra, etc., is in
general use for food in the East and West In-
dies and the United States. It is an annual
plant, with a soft herbaceous stem, three to five
feet high, crenate leaves, axillary sulphur-col-
ored flowers, and pyramidal, somewhat podlike
capsules. The fruit is used in an unripe state,

Online LibraryWilfrid RichmondThe Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 → online text (page 148 of 185)