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The Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 online

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and is generally much esteemed, but is disliked
by some on account of its viscidity. It enters
as an important ingredient into the pepper-pot
pf the West Indies, or is used in soups. It also
produces a coarse fibre. The bark of H. tili-
accus, a tree 20 feet high, with a very thick
bole, abounds in mucilage. This tree is one of
the most abundant trees of the South Sea Is-
slands; and the wood, being light, tough, and
durable, is much used for many purposes. From
its fibre the Tahitians manufacture matting.
Many other species yield fibres, some coarse,
some fine and beautiful, which are used in dif-

Digitized by



ferent countries ; but the most important in this
respect is H. cannabinus, the Deccan hemp of
western India (see Hemp). H. sabdarina is
very generally cultivated in warm countries, on
account of its calyx, which, as the fruit ripens,
becomes fleshy, and acquires a very pleasant
acidity. It is much used for making tarts and
jelly, and a decoction of it, sweetened and fer-«
mented, affords a refreshing beverage, well
known in the West Indies as sorrel cool drink,
the plant being called red sorrel ; and in Madras
it is used for similar purposes, and is named
rozelle or rouselle. Musk-seed (H. abel-
moschus) is cultivated for its seeds, which
have a fragrance between that of musk and
that of amber. They are much used by per-
fumers, and are called graines d'ambrette. In
Egypt and Arabia they are mixed with coffee,
and stimulant and stomachic qualities are as-
cribed to them. The petals of H . rosa-sintnsis
possess astringent properties, and they are also
used by the Chinese to stain their eyebrows and
their shoes black.

effectually than some active emotion of the
mind suddenly excited Hiccup is a common
attendant of dyspepsia, and is often obseryed in
abdominal diseases when terminating fatally,
and is especially a symptom in some forms of
hernia. Many remedies have been suggested
for it, such as holding the breath as long as
possible, tying a belt tightly round the waist}
and the frequent swallowing of small rounded
pieces of ice.

HLhT>orn, Philip, American naval officei
b. Charlestown, Mass., 1839; d. 1 May 191a
In 1869 he entered the United States navy;
in 1875 was made constructor, and in 1881 a
member of the naval advisory board. From
1893 until his retirement 4 March 1901, he was
chfcf constructor, and as such was identified
with the reorganization and enlargement of the
new United States navy. He attained rear-
admiral's rank, and published a valuable report
on foreign dockyards.

Hich'ens, Robert Smythe, English journal-
ist and novelist: b. Speldhurst, Kent, 14 Nov.
1864. He was educated at Clifton College and
the Royal College of Music, and after a short
career as a musician turned to journalism. In
1893 he visited Egypt for his health, and there
conceived the idea which materialized in the
imaginative Man* (1895) 'The Green Car-
nation* (1894), however, epigrammatic and
keenly satirical in tone, first brought him into
public notice. Later works of his are: K After
To-Morrow* (1895); ( New Love> (1805),;
<The Folly of Eustace - and Other Stories >
(1896 - ) ; ^he Lottdoners > (1897) ; ^yeways*

^1897) ; ( The Prophet of Berkeley Square*
(1901) ; etc.

Hick'ey, Emily; English poet: b. Macint
Castle, County Wexford, Ireland, about 184s
She was co-founder in 1881 of the Browning
Society with F. J. Furnivall (q.v.) and has lec-
tured on English literature. She has published
among other volumes <A Sculptor and Other
Poems> (1881); < Verse Tales, Lyrics, and
Translations^ (1889) ; ( Our Lady of May and
Other Poems ) (1902). Her verse has been
.highly praised by critics.

Hickey Plot (1776), a conspiracy of the
British officials and Loyalists of New York to
end the Revolutionary war by the murder or
capture of its leaders and the seizure or de-
struction of its supplies. The heads and prob-
able devisers of it were Governor Tryon, who
had fled frorn the city but remained on a man-
pf-war in the harbor, and sent supplies of money
for bribery, etc.; and Mayor Mathews. The
scheme was to kill or seize the patriot generals,
and at all events to deliver Washington alive to
Sir William Howe, blow up the magazine and
secure the passes to the city. Several hundred
New York Loyalists were involved. Two of
Washington's guard were bought, but a third
pretended to accede and revealed the plot
Mathews, a gunsmith named Forbes, and a
dozen others were arrested and sent to Con-
necticut, Mathews carrying the mayoralty flag
with him. Thomas Hickey, one of the treach-
erous guards, was hanged in New York 27 June
1776,, the first military execution in the Ameri-
can army.

Hick'man, Ky., town, county-seat of Ful-
ton County ; on the Mississippi River, and on
the Nashville, C & St. L. railroad; about 35
miles below Cairo, 111. It has steamboat connec-
tions with the river ports. It is the seat of Hick-
man College. Its chief industrial establishments
are a flour-mill, wagon-factory, two spoke-fac-
tories, saw- and planing-mills. Its trade, in ad-
dition to its own manufactured articles, is prin-
cipally in grain and tobacco. Pop. (19*0) 2,736.

Hick'ok, Laurens Perseus, American meta-
physician: b. Danbury, Conn., 29 Dec 1798; d.
Amherst, Mass., 6 May 1888. He was grad-
uated at Union College in 1820, was licensed
as a preacher in 1822, and was pastor succes-
sively at Newton and Litchfield, Conn., till in
1836 he was elected professor of theology in
the Western Reserve College, Ohio, where he
remained eight years. He was professor in the
Auburn Theological Seminary 1844-52, and then
became professor of mental and moral science,
and vice-president in Union College. In 1866
he was formally made president of that insti-
tution of which, however, he had been in sole
charge for eight years previous. His publica-
tions include among other works * Rational Psy-
cholo$y> (1848); <Moral Science ) 0853);
< Empirical Psychology, or the Human Mind as
Given m Consciousness ) (1854) ; < Rational
Cosmology,* (New York 1858), in which he
attempts to demonstrate a priori the laws of
the universe; * Creator and Creation 1 (1872);
< Humanity Immortal 1 (1872); < Logic of Rea-
son* (1875).

Hick'ory (formerly Hickory Tavern),
N. G, town in Catawba County; on the South-
ern railway ; near the headwaters of the Catawba

Digitized by



River ; about 43 miles northwest of Char-
lotte and 50 miles west of Salisbury. The chief
manufactures are flour, foundry products,
wagons, lumber, leather, boots and shoes. It
has several private educational institutions:
Claremont Female College, opened in 1880;
Saint Paul's Lutheran Seminary; Lenoir Col-
lege, opened in 1891, under the auspices of the
Lutheran Church. Pop. (igoo) 2,535.

Hickory, a group of trees of the walnut,
forming the genus Hicoria, and exclusively
North American. They are large strong trees,
60 to 80 feet high, with close shaggy bark and
lariere pinnately divided leaves, pistillate flowers
on a terminal peduncle and staminate flowers in
long, drooping aments. The fruit is <a r thick-
shelled nut in a tough green husk. There are
about 10 species, all natives of the eastern Unit-
ed States and Canada except a Mexican species.
The best known of these are the following:
Shag-bark, shell-bark or white .
ovata), leaflets 5 to 7, whose bark 1

great plates curving outward at b< I

whose nuts are sweeter and better I

any other species; the northerly «b ■

or king-nut (H. locinioso), leaflet' 1

narrower *shags,* darker wood an _ 1

husks often three inches long; white-heart, or
fragrant hickory, or mocker-nut (H. alba),
noted for the hardness and tpughness of its
wood; the pignut or broom hickory (H. glabra),
leaflets 3 to 7, which represents a group of
moisture-loving species whose nuts are thin-
Jiuskcd, elongated and bitter and estringent to
the taste. Associated with these is the pecan
(H. pecan), of the Southern States, whose, ob-
long, thin-shelled nut is one of the most deli-
cious of all nutsj and is now being cultivated
• in a few places in order to supply the increasing
demand. The water hickory (n. aquatica) is
sometimes called the bitter pecan. • • •

Uses of Hickory-wood. — As timber this
wood is of great value for articles requiring
^reat strength with lightness and elasticity; but
it is liable to quick decay when exposed to. the
atmosphere, and for this reason is little used in
building, and should be painted. It was the
most serviceable of all woods to the aboriginal
made fro
world. I
cradles, s
is largely
for thills,
the lights
bility of
species d
pecan is 1
soft and
others is
weighs al

1890 170
pries; an
number c
pears to

important economic species, and during recent
years has been the cause of considerable injury
in hickory forests in the State of New York.
Consult Packard, < Insects Injurious to Forest
and Shade Trees, > published in 1888 as the
fifth report of the United States Entomological

Hickory Shad. See Gizzard Shad.

Hicks, Elias, American preacher of the
Society of Friends: b. Hempstead, L. L, 19
March 1748; d. Jericho, L. I., 27 Feb. 1830.
While a youth he manifested a talent for public
speaking, and at 27 was a well known preacher.
For many years he labored zealously in advanc-
ing the generally accepted doctrines of the
Friends; but having as he believed discovered
errors in these tenets, put forth views of his
own which he defended with energy and abil-
ity. To advance these views he traveled exten-
sively' in the United States and in the British
provinces, attracting large. congregations by his
oratory. The result was a schism m the body of
Friends; those adhering to the old doctrines
being specially termed orthodox, while the fol-
lowers Of Hicks were called after him Hicks-
ites. (See Friends^)- He wis an active aboli-
tionist and with others Was instrumental in
inducing the State of New York to pass an act
which, on 4 July 1827, liberated all slaves within
its borders. • He was the author of < Sermons >
(1828); Observations on Slavery^ (1811);
<The Letters of Elks Hicks> (1834) ; etc. See
( Ehas Hicks, Journal &t hw Life and Labors >

Hicks, Thomas, American painter: b.
iKewton, Pa ; , 18 Oct. 1823 ; d. 1890. He studied
at the Philadelphia! Academy, at the National
Aeademyy New York, and afterward in Paris
under Couture. Settling in New York he be-
xoune one of the favorite portrait painters of his
niayv His pictures' > in the rooms of the New
York Historical Society ■ form an interesting
gallery of historic figures, executed with more
ithah ordinary artistic skill.- •

Hick*, Thomas Holliday, American politi-
cian: b. Dorchester County, Md., r 2 Sept. 1798;
^Washington, D. C.,13 Feb. 1865. After suc-
cessively occupying the positions of sheriff,
member >of the State legislature, member of the
State electoral college; and member of the Gov-
ernor's council, he was im 1858 elected governor
Off the State. When war was threatened between
North and South,' although sympathizing: with
the South and condemning the North's attitude
on the slavery question, he sided with the party
of neutrality in Maryland and opposed the se-
cession o£ that State. When these were rumors
of' a plot formed by 6,000 men of his State to
l>revent Lincoln^ inauguration and seize the
city of Washington he suspended the writ of
habeas corpus, and planned the arrest of sus-
pected persons. He was the only prominent
State official who .stood by t the Federal govern-
ment, and at the expiration of his term as gov-
ernor the new Legislature passed resolutions
thanking him for having saved the State from
joining the Confederates. In 1862 he was ap-
pointed to the senate of the United States and
served in it till his death.
- Hicks-Bcach, Sir Michael Edward, Eng-
lish politician : b. London 1837. He was edu-
cated at Eton and Oxford, entered parliament

Digitized by



in 1864, and was made chief secretary for Ire-
land in 1874* and secretary of state for . the
colonies ■ in 1898. In 1885 ne was appointed
chancellor of the exchequer and leader of the
Conservative party in the House of Commons.
He was president of the board of trade from
1888 to 1892. On the fall of the Gladstone min-
istry in 1895 he again became chancellor df the
exchequer. In October, 1902, he caused a sen-
sation bv charging the Balfour government with
wasteful expenditure of war appropriations, and
in 1903 ably defended the British policy of free

Hick'son, Sydney John, English zoologist:
b. London 25 June 1859. He was educated at
Cambridge and has been professor of zoology at
Owens College, Manchester, England, from
1894. He has published <A Naturalist in North
Celebes* ; <The Fauna of the Deep Seas* ; <The
Story of Life in the Seas 1 (1898).

Hidalgo y Costilla, Miguel, me-gel' e-dal'-
go e kos*teTya, Mexican revolutionist, first
leader in the Mexican war of independence: b.
State of Guanajuato 8 May 1753; shot in Chi*
huahua, Mexico, 37 July 181 1* He was a priest,
and in earlier life was simply a man of great
acquirements,' anxious to promote industry in
Mexico, and noted for conscientious fulfilment
of his ecclesiastical functions. He is said to
have introduced the silkworm into Mexico, and
did much to promote the culture of the vine.
This conflicted with the policy of the Spanish
government, which was to discourage all manu-
factures or agriculture which tould ^ntetfere
with the revenue, and the vines Hidalgo had
planted were destroyed. This drowt him to re-
bellion. Possessing much influence among the
Indians, he formed the plan of a general in-
surrection, which was to take place r Nov* 1810;
but the plot having been disclosed by one of
the conspirators, some of his party were ar-
rested, and he was obliged to precipitate his
movements. On 1 o September having been j oined
by three officers of the garrison of Guana) tato,
he raised the standard of revolt. His elo-
quence had a remarkable effect on the multi-
tude who heard him, and when after his oration
he unfurled a rude copy, of the picture oi Our
Lady of Guadalupe, the patroness bf Mexico, the
war assumed the character' of a crusade. On
29 September with an army oi Jb,ooomen, mostly
Indians, he captured Guanajuato. He took Val-
ladolid and several small places, and soon after
was proclaimed generalissimo of the Mexican
army, and advanced against Mexico ; but find-
ing himself almost without ammunition, was ob-
liged to retreat During this war the govern*
ment party declared that the ordinary rules of
warfare need not be observed as regarded the
insurgents, while the latter retaliated with the
most horrible atrocities. On 6ne occasion Hidal-
go is said to have massacred 700 prisoners be-
cause they were Europeans. After several de-
feats the insurgents were left at Saltillo under
charge of Rayon, while Hidalgo and others
went to the United States to obtain arms and
military aid. On their way they were captured
by a former friend, and finally shot in Chihua-
hua. He was after his death' regarded as a
saint by the people, and within a few years
the place of his execution was shown to travel-
ers as a holy spot. The town of Goliad, Texas,

was named in Lis honor, the H, as silent m
pronunciation, being omitted and the other let-
ters rearranged. At the founding of the town
the name of Hidalgo was still proscribed by the
Spanish rulers and the transposition of the let-
ters of his name was made in order to avert the
attention of the authorities.

Hid'dcnite, a yellowish-green or emerald-
green, transparent variety of spodumene,- dis-
covered by W. E. Hidden, in 1880, in Alexander
County, N„ C. The emerald-green varieties
have been used as gems. They resemble the
emerald, but show a greater wealth- of color on
account of their pleochroism.

Hides and Leather. There are few arts,
among the many that are used for the benefit
of mankind to-day, that are of such ancient
origin as that of tanning. It is only necessary
to study the carvings upon the monuments that
the modern archaeologist has unearthed to ascer-
tain the fact that the old Egyptians were not
only acquainted with several processes of tan-
ning and working in leather, but that its prep-
aration was one of the most important branches
of Egyptian industry. So far as our knowledge
of their methods of work extends, we know
that these ancient workmen prepared their tan
in earthen vessels and that they were able to
preserve skin either With or without the hair
attached. Among the Hebrews, who undoubt-
edly derived their knowledge of the art of pre-
paring leather from the Egyptians, the trade of
the tarmer was despised, largely because of the
bad odor connected with it, and those who fol-
lowed this source of livelihood were obliged to
locate their working places outside the limits
of the city. Often they were situated by the
side of streams, or on the shore of the sea,
as was the case in Joppa, where the buildingr
said to have been the house of Simon the Tan-
ner was located on the shore south of the
city. ,

According to the most authentic records the
first tannery to be operated in this country was
established in Virginia, about the year 1630. A
year or two later another tannery was estab-
lished in New England, in the village of Swamp-
scott, or Lynn, Mass., by Francis Ingalls, a
colonist Who had learned This trade in Lincoln-
shire, England. As it was impossible not to
recognize the importance of the industry it was
greatly encouraged by the colonial authorities,
in evidence of which fact there are many laws
on ihe old statute books regulating, not only
the manufacture of leather, but the saving of
skins needed by the tanners, under serious pen-
alties for noncompliance. For example, a law
was passed in Massachusetts^ in 1646, prohibit-
ing the exportation of raw hides, or unwrought
leather, under heavy penalties which not only
affected the shipper, but reacted upon the master
of the vessel that attempted to sail with such
freighti for these were the days when the small
tanners who had shops scattered throughout the
country were entirely dependent upon the sur-
rounding neighborhood for, their hides, but so
effective were the restrictions placed upon im-
portations of skins by the authorities, that
leather was relatively more plentiful in the
American colonies than it was in England.

One of the most prominent leather manufac-
turers of the old days was Colonel William Ed-

Digitized by



wards, who sent the first tanned leather to the
Boston market in 1794, Beginning his business
in Hampshire about 1790, when he was less than
20 years of age, he immediately inaugurated a
series of improvements in the mechanical branch
of the art, which, as they were afterward
adopted and extended by others, were the means
of infusing a much-needed spirit of enterprise
into the business. In fact, it was the new
ideas in mechanism and in the arrangement of
the tannery which he evolved that paved the
way for the most -important improvements which
have since been made in the manufacture of
leather. The first company in the business to
be incorporated also owed its existence to
Colonel Edwards' enterprise, for it was his ex-,
tensive tanneries at Northampton, Cummington,
and Chester that were purchased by the men
who incorporated the Hampshire Leather Manu-
facturing Company of Massachusetts, with a
capital of $100,000 in 1809. These works then
had a capacity of 16,000 full-grown hides per

By 18 10, the tanning industry had extended
so w dely that there were tanneries in opera-
tion in almost every portion of the country.
Bark was so plentiful that it was much cheaper
than in England, and, as -he result, it was not
long before the exportation of American leather
had attained an aggregate of 350,000 pounds per
annum, while the importations were confined to
morocco, and some peculiar kinds of English
leather which could not then be produced in this
country. At this time (1810) the value of all
the manufactures of hides and skins was stated
by the census office tQ be $17,935,447, but, owing
to the fact that the census at that time was so
crudely conducted that it was very incomplete,
it is safe to say that $20,000,000 would be much
closer to the correct figure* From that date,
however, the business increased, slowly at times,
perhaps, but steadily, until, in 1840, it was re-
ported that there were about 8,000 tanneries in
the country, with a capital of $16,000,000, and
employment for fully 26,000 hands. By 1850,
the capital had increased to more than $20,006,*-
000, while the value of the annual product
had reached the quite respectable figure of
$38,000,000. In i860, this product, including
the making of morocco and patent leather, had
almost doubled, being in excess of $72,000,000,
while, in 1870, the 7,569 establishments in the
country were employing no^ less than 35,243 per-
sons, at an aggregate wage of $I4»S05»77S, to
produce an annual output that was valued at
$ I 57»237,597. At this time the capital invested
in this business was reported as being more
than $61,000,000.

As the establishments engaged in the mak-
ing of leather were enumerated ver, differently
by the census of 1890 and 1880, it is quite impos-
sible to obtain a reliable basis of comparison
from the published statistics. In preparing the
census of 1880, the government's enumerators
not only counted all the smaller businesses, but
they must have reckoned twice all that were
engaged in both tanning and currying, with the
result that they were able to make an aggregate
of 5,628 establishments. As the later census
enumerators hav! confined their attention 'solely
to the large establishments the discrepancy is
too great to be readjusted by estimate. Thus,
for example, the 1890 census reports 1,787 estab-

lishments, while the 1905 census has but 1,049.
The other census figures follow :



No. of employee!

Wages paid

Cost of material


Value of product .


£73,383. ox 1


116.503, 828

156,384. "7










*0I, 179.073


Among the first patents taken out for the
application of any special process in the making
of leather was in 1823, when an inventor pat-
ented a method of forcing the tanning liquor
through the skin by hydrostatic pressure. In
183 1, William Drake devised a modification of
this method. According to his process two
skins were sewed together and the lkmid, which
was placed in the receptacle thus formed, was
permitted to remain until the tanning had been
completed. Some years prior to that time a
patent tiad been issued for a method which pro-
vided for the suspension of the hides in a closed


purposk for whic»

Processes and apparatus for
leaching and making ex-
tracts from tan-bark.....


Processes employing appa-
ratus for tanning leather.

Leather-splitting' machine.

Unhairing machine

For rolling leather

Scouring and setting machine

Tanners 1 vats and handling
appliances ►

Machines for boarding am
graining leather

Compounds for depilating
hides and skins.. *

For fleshing machines.....

Compounds for bating hides
and skins # .

Whitening, buffing, and shav-
ing leather

Compounds and materials for
tanning and tawing leather
and preparing raw hides...

? recesses for tanning leather
or currying leather

Machines for stoning, polish
ing, finishing, glassing,
glazing. Hinting, creasing,
and dicing leather

Compounds for coloring and
polishing leather

Methods For manufacturing
enameled, japanned, and
patent leather

For stuffing leather

For pebbling leather

For employing mineral sub-
stancts for tawing bides and

For stretching leather

Bark-rosslng machines....

For preserving hides,

.Machines for shaving or mak-
ing leather of uniform
thickness, r

Apparatus for blacking
leather *


Striking-out machines

Date of First


Aug. to, 1791
July ro, 1704

uly 9, 1808

Online LibraryWilfrid RichmondThe Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 → online text (page 149 of 185)