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The Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 online

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^ulyo, 1808
, t»ly xa, x8is
Oct, 19, i8x:
Nov. ax, X83


March 95, 2835

June 50, 1836
June 17, 1837

Feb. 3, T838

, May 10, 1838

July xa, 1838
Aug. x, 1838
Aug. x, 1838

March 15, 1845

Jan. o, 1855
Feb. fo 1855
May 6, 1856

Fell?, 1859

Jan. 9, 1863

Sept. xi, 1866

Sept. 04, xto>

Sept. 20, 1870

Aug. 28, 1877

March 27, 1883

of Pat-
ents to




■ ,n












vessel, in which their conversion into leather
would be much accelerated by the removal of

Digitized by



all the air by an air-pump. To enumerate all,
or even the most important of these inventions
within any brief space would be impossible, but
the preceding table gives the date when the
first patent was issued for each of the details
which enter into the manufacture of leather, as
well as an estimate of the number of patents
that have been issued in each division of the en-
dustry up to the present time.

Hides, as the term is generally accepted to-
day, may be conveniently divided into three
classes: (i) Hides proper, which consist of the
skins of the larger and more common animals,
such as oxen, cows, and horses ; (2) kips, which
comprise the skins of small, or yearling cattle,
which are too large to be classified as calfskins,
and (3) skins, including those of calves, sheep,
goats, deer, pigs, seal, and the various kinds of
fur-bearing animals, many of which, including
most of the latter, retain their hair after tan-
ning. The heavy hides are converted into sole,
belt, and harness leather; the calfskins are
chiefly used for material for the manufacture
of the uppers for leather shoes and boots, and
are also in much demand by bookbinders; the
sheepskins are used for a large variety of pur-
poses, including linings for shoes, aprons, cush-
ions, and covers, gloves, women's shoes, bellows,
whips, etc.; the goatskins are used almost ex-
clusively in the making of gloves and ladies'
shoes — the morocco leather so extensively man-
ufactured until recent years having now given
place to the cheaper and more durable «glazed
kid w ; the hogskins are utilized in the making
of saddle-leather, traveling bags, etc., while
dogskins, because of their thin and tough char-
acteristics, are particularly useful in the manu-
facture of gloves. The durability of the por-
poise-skin has recommended its use in the mak-
ing of shoe-strings, while the buffalo, alligator,
kangaroo, deer, elephant, hippopotamus, rhinoc-
eros, walrus, and shark, are among the many
other creatures whose skins are utilized in vari-
ous fields of manufacture after they have left
the hands of the tanner.

There is probably no vegetable growth con-
taining tannin that has not been tried by those
who are interested in discovering the best and
most economical methods of tanning leather,
but, while nearly all of them have met with
some favor, oak-bark is now held to be the
best agent obtainable for this purpose. Among
the other tannages that have been utilized with
success, however, one may mention hemlock-
bark, union, Dongola, alum, chrome, combina-
tion, electric, suniac, and gambier.

Practically the only change that has taken
place in the tannage process of sole-leather is
represented by a slight diminution in the time
required for the work, but as experiments are
constantly being made along these lines it is be-
lieved that the day will come when such leather
will be turned out in as many days— perhaps
hours — as it now takes weeks. The change
that has already been made along these lines in
the preparation of the lighter skins has been
almost as radical. The introduction of Dongola
kid, in 1880, completely revolutionized the man-
ufacture of kid or morocco. It was the dis-
covery of James Kent, of Gloversville, N. Y.
The system of tanning, or tawing by the use of
chromium compounds, was discovered as early
as 1856 by a German chemist, but each of the

many experiments which followed this discov-
ery had failed because there was no known
method by which the tannage could be made
permanent. At last it was found that hyposul-
phite of sodium contained the long-sought rem-
edy, and by this process the tannage was made
lasting. It was due to this discovery, and to
its successful application, that some of the
largest and best equipped leather manufactories
in the world have since been established in the
United States.

Hierarchy, hfe-rar-ki (From Gr. hieros,
sacred, and arche. government), sacred govern-
ment or ft the administration of sacred things,*
first used by the pseudo-Dionysius in the 5th
century in his work on the Celestial and Eccle-
siastical Hierarchies. It is now generally used
to sismify the body of officials in the Church
organically graduated in their ranks and orders
from the supreme head to those in the most
subordinate position. In the Roman Catholic
Church a threefold distinction is recognized:
(1) A hierarchy of divine right, which em-
braces, under the primacy of the popes, bishops,
priests, and deacons. This hierarchy is held by
Church to be of divine institution. (2) A hier-
archy by ecclesiastical right, consisting of the
Roman pontiff and the three original divine or-
ders and of the five minor orders (two in the
East), subdeacons, acolytes, exorcists, lectors,
and porters (ostiarii). (3) A hierarchy of ju-
risdiction, which includes all the judicial and
administrative authorities, ordinary and dele-
gated, charged with the maintenance of the
faith among Christians, its union, its disci-
pline, and its general care and supervision. All
its powers proceed from the pope as primate,
either expressly or by implication. In this cat-
egory are ranked cardinals, patriarchs, exarchs,
metropolitans, and archbishops, and as deriving
their powers from these, archpriests, archdea-
cons, rural-deans, vicars-general, etc The An-
glican Church also recognizes a hierarchical rank
in its body, comprising bishops, priests, and
deacons. The other Protestant bodies practi-
cally reject hierarchical government.

Hiero, I., hi'er€, king of Syracuse in
Sicily: d. Catania. 467 b.c. He was brother
and successor of Gelon. Hiero's reign, though
less glorious than the preceding, was marked
by a peculiar splendor on account of his gen-
erous encouragement of learning. Though some
blemishes tarnish the first years of Hierc s reign,
he compensated for his first faults by the noble
actions which signalized the remainder of his
life. A long sickness was the main cause of
this alteration. Since he could no longer oc-
cupy himself with the cares of royalty, he col-
lected around him a society of learned men,
and thus becoming acquainted with the pleasures
of learning, he never afterward ceased to value
it. His court became the rendezvous of the
most distinguished men of his time. The names
of Simonides and Pindar appear among those
of his most constant companions, and when
^schylus left Greece, he betook himself to
Hiero, to close his days in his kingdom. He
was several times victor in the Grecian games.

Hiero II., king of Syracuse: b. before 306
b.c. ; d. 216 B.C. He was the son of Hierocles, a
noble Syracusan, who claimed a descent from
the family of Gelon. During Hiero's reign be-
gan the first Punic war, and he was able, by his

Digitized by



adroitness, to preserve the friendship of both
Romans and Carthaginians. The glory of Hiero
and the prosperity of Syracuse culminated in
the period which intervened between the first
Punic war and the second; for in that season
of peace Hiero enacted wise laws, and was
devoted to the happiness of his subjects. His
encouragement of agricultural pursuits enriched
him and doubled the revenues of the state. He
left the crown to his grandson Hieronymus.
Hierjonymua. See Jerome, Saint.

Hieroglyphics, hi"e~rd-gfiflks (from Gr.
bier os t sacred, and glypho, engrave), the in-
scriptions sculptured on buildings in Egypt, with
the implication that the writing was
confined to sacred subjects, and leg'
ible only .by the priests, The term
has also been applied to picture*
writing in general, such as that of
the Mexicans and the still ruder
pictures of the North American In-
dians. Two different modes of
hieroglyphic writing were used by
the ancient Egyptians,, the hieratic,
and the demotic Pure hieratic
writing is the earliest, and consists

of figures of material objects from

Cartouche of every sphere of nature and art, with
Cleopatra, i.e. certain mathematical and arbitrary
Klcopatra. symbols. Next was developed the
middle hieratic or priestly writing, the form in
which most Egyptian literature is written, and
in which the symbols almost cease to be recog-
nizable as figures, of objects. Hieratic writings
of the third miUennium B.c, are extant. In
the demotic, or enchorial writing, derived di-
rectly from the hieratic; the symbols are still
more obscured. The demotic was first used in
the gth century l.o, and was chiefly employed
in social and commercial intercourse, Down to
the end of the 18th century scholars failed
in find a due to the hieroglyphic writings. In
1799, however, M. Bouchard, a French captain
of engineers, discovered at Rosetta the cele-
brated stone whicbr a^orded JBnropean scholars
a key to the language and writing of the ancient
Egyptians. It contained a trilingual inscription
in hieratics, demotic characters, and Greek, which
turned out to t>« a decree of the priests in honor
of Ptolemy V., issued in 195 b.c. The last para-
graph of the Greek inscription stated that two
translations, one in the sacred and the other
in the popular Egyptian language, would be
found adjacent to it. In deciphering these in-
scriptions the discovery of an alphabet was the
first task. The demotic part of the inscription
was first examined by
De Sacy and Akerblad,
and the signification of
a number of the sym-
bols ascertained. The
hieratic part was next
carefully examined and
compared with the de-
motic and Greek. At last after much study
Champollion and Dr. Thomas Young, independ-
ently of each other, discovered the method of
reading the characters (1822), and thus provided
a clue to the decipherment of the ancient
Egyptian writing.

Hieroglyphic characters are either ideo-
graphic, that is, using well-known . objects as

Cartouche of Ptolemy,
ie. Ptolcmaiof.

symbols of conceptions, or phonetic, that is,
representing words by symbols standing for theii
sounds. The phonetic signs are again divided
into alphabetical signs and syllabic signs. Many
of the ideographic characters are simple enough ;
thus the figure of a man, a woman, a calf,
indicate simply those objects. Others, however,
are less simple, and convey their meaning fig-
uratively or symbolically. Water was expressed
by three zigzag lines, one above the other, to
represent waves or ripples of running water,
milk by a milk- jar, oil by an oil-jar, fishing
by a pelican seizing a fish, that is, fishing ; seeing
and sight by an eye ; and so on. The nature of
the phonetic hieroglyphs, which represent simply
sounds, will be understood from an explanation
of the accompanying cuts.

(1) The first hieroglyph in the name of
Kleopatra is a knee, which is kne or kle in Cop-
tic, and represents the K of Kleopatra. (2)
The second hieroglyph in Kleopatra is a lion
couchant, which is laboi in Coptic, and labu
in the old Egyptian, and represents the L of
both names. In Kleopatra. it occupies the sec-
ond place, and in Ptolemaios the fourth. (3)
The third hieroglyph in Kleopatra is a reed,
which is aki in Coptic and oak in the old
Egyptian, and represents the E of Kleopatra.
The reed is doubled in Ptolemaios and occupies
the sixth and seventh places, where it repre-
sents the diphthong ai of Ptolemaios. (4) The
fourth hieroglyph in Kleopatra is a noose, which
represents the O of both names and occurs iu
the third place of Ptolemaios. (5) The fifth
hieroglyph in Kleopatra is a mat, which repre-
sents the P of both names, and is the initial of
Ptolemaios. (6) The sixth hieroglyph in Kleo-
patra is an eagle, which is akhoom in Coptic,
and represents the A, which is found twice in
the name of Kleopatra. (7) The seventh
hieroglyph in Kleopatra is a hand, which is
toot in Coptic, and represents the T of Kleo-
patra, but does not occur in Ptolemaios, where
it might be expected to occupy the second place.
The second place of Ptolemaios is occupied by a
semicircle, which is found at the end of feminine
proper names, and is the Coptic feminine
article T. The researches of Champollion sat-
isfied him of the existence of homophones, or
characters having the same phonetic value and
which might be interchanged in writing proper
names. (8) The eighth hieroglyph in Kleo-
patra is a mouth, which is to in Coptic, and
represents the R of Kleopatra. (9) The ninth
hieroglyph in Kleopatra is the eagle, which is
explained in No. 6 above. (10) The semicircle
is the T of Ptolemaios, which with (11) the
egg found at the end of proper names of women,
is a feminine affix. In the name of Ptolemaios*
there is still the M and the S to account for.
The fifth hieroglyph in the cartouche of Ptole-
maios is a geometrical figure, consisting of three
sides of (probably?) a parallelogram, but now
called a hole, because the Coptic tnu has that
signification, and represents the M. The
hook represents the S of the word Ptolemaios.
Vowels were only regarded by the Egyptians
as they were needed to avoid ambiguous writ-
ing. There are groups of hieroglyphs of which
one element is an ideographic sign, to which a
phonetic complement is added to indicate the
pronunciation of the ideographic sign. The

Digitized by



words of a text could be written in hieroglyphs
in three ways— (i) by phonetic hieroglyphs;
(2) by ideographic hieroglyphs; and (3) by
a combination of both. According to Ebers,
in the perfected system of hieroglyphics the
symbols for sounds and syllabi, are to be re-
garded as the foundation of the writing, while
symbols for ideas are interspersed with them,
partly to render the meaning more intelligible,
and partly for ornamental purposes. Consult:
Brugfch, ( Egyptologie> (1891) ; Erman, <Life
in Ancient Egypt> (1894) ; and Egyptian Gram-
mar > (1894).

Hierosolyma. See Jerusalem.

Hijj'gins, Anthony, American politician: b.
Red Lion Hundred, Del., 1 Oct. 1840: d. New
York, 26 June 1912. He was educated at Yale,
studied at Harvard Law School and was ad-
mitted to the Delaware bar in 1864. From 1869
to 1876 he was United States attorney for
Delaware, and becoming interested in politics
was chairman of the Republican State Conven-
tion in 1868. In 1881 he secured the vote of the
Republican members, of the Delaware legislature
for the National Senate and in 1884 was de-
feated as a Republican candidate for Congress.
He was United States Senator 1880-95.

Hig'ginson, Ella Rhoads, American novel-
ist and poet : b. Council Grove, Kan., 1862. She
was married to R. C. Higginson and has passed
her life mainly in the vicinity of Puget Sound,
Wash. She has contributed much to periodicals;
and her work, which has a distinctly original
flavor, has attracted much attention from its
vigorous presentation of life on the upper Pa-
cific slope. Her most noteworthy book is
< Mariella, or Out West,* an extremely strong
novel (1902) ; and other works of hers are c The
Flower that Grew in the Sand> (1896) ; <From
the Land of the Snow Pearis> (1897) ; <A
Forest Orchid } (1897) ; and several collections
of poems.

Higginson, Francis, English clergyman in
colonial America: b. 1587; d. Salem, Mass., 6
Aug. 1630. He was educated at Cambridge,
England, and subsequently became rector of a
parish in Leicester, but becoming gradually a
Nonconformist, was deprived of his benefice, and
was employed among his former parishioners as
a lecturer. While apprehending a summons, to
appear before the high commission court, he
received an invitation from the Massachusetts
Company to proceed to their colony, which he
accepted. He embarked in May 1629, and it is
related by Cotton Mather that as the ship was
passing Land's End ? he called the passengers
about him and exclaimed: *We will not say, as
the Separatists were wont to say at their leav-
ing of England, i Farewell, Babylon; farewell,
Rome! 5 but we will say. Farewell, dear Eng-
land! farewell, the church of God in England,
and all the Christian friends there. We do not
go to New England as Separatists, though we
cannot but separate from the corruptions of it.
But we go to practise the positive part of church
reformation, and propagate the gospel in Amer-
ica. * He arrived at Salem 29 June, and on 20 July
was chosen teacher of the congregation estab-
lished there. Subsequently Higginson drew up a a
confession of faith and church covenant according
to Scripture,* which on 6 August was assented
to by 30 persons, who associated themselves as

a church. He wrote <New England's Planta-
tions, or a Short and True Description of the
Commodities and Discommodities of the Coun-
try* (1630), and an account of his voyage,
printed in Young's < Chronicles of the First
Planters> (1846). Consult: T. W. Higginson,
<Life of Francis Higginson > (1891).

Higginson, Francis John, American rear-
admiral : b. Boston 19 July 1843. He was grad-
uated from the United States Naval Academy
in 1861 and served in the United States navy
during the Civil War becoming lieutenant-com-
mander in 1866. He was commander of the
Massachusetts during the Spanish-American
War 1898, was promoted commodore that same
year, and rear-admiral in March 1899.

Higginson, Henry Lee, American banker:
b. New York 18 Nov. 18^4. He was educated
at Harvard, studied music abroad and served
in the Federal army during the Civil War and
was brevetted lieutenant-colonel. He has been
long connected with the Boston banking firm of
Lee-Higginson & Co., andhas contributed large
amounts toward the organization and support of
the Boston Symphony Orchestra.

Higginson, Mary Thacher, American au-
thor, wife of T. W. Higginson (q.v.) : h.
Machias, Maine, 27 Nov. 1843. She has written
( Seashore and Prairie* (1876) ; c Room for One
More' (1879) ; and ( Such as They Are> (1893),
poems written in collaboration with her hus-

Higginson, Sarah Jane Hatfield, American
writer: b. Philadelphia 15 Jan. 1840. With her
first husband, a Dutch jurist; she lived for sev-
eral years in the Dutch East Indies, and after
his death returned to the United. States, where
she was married to Stephen Higginson, a for-
mer American consul in the Dutch East Indies.
She has written : < A Princess of Java : a Tak
of the Far East> (1887) ; 'Java, the Pearl of
the East, 5 a book of travel (1800); <The Be-
douin Girl*

Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, American
author: b. Cambridge, Mass., 22 Dec. 1823; d.
there 10 May 191 1. He was descended from
Rev. Francis Higginson (q.v.) ; was graduated
from Harvard in 1841, and from Harvard Di-
vinity School in 1847. He became pastor of a
Unitarian church in Newburyport, Mass., in
1847, but resigned in 1850, his anti-slavery views
being unacceptable to his congregation. In the
year last named' ne was the unsuccessful *Free
Soil* candidate for Congress, and he was pastor
of a Free (unsectarian) church at Worcester,
Mass., 1852-8. In the interim he had been
prominent in anti-slavery agitation, and for his
share in the attempted rescue of the fugitive
slave Anthony Burns (q.v.), was indicted for
murder in 1854 with Wendell Phillips, Theodore
Parker and others, but owing to a flaw in the
indictment the defendants were discharged. He
also aided in the Kansas Free State efforts, and
during the Civil War Was captain of the 51st
Massachusetts regiment of volunteers, becoming
colonel in November 1862, of the 1st South
Carolina volunteers, me earliest regiment of
freed slaves in the Federal service. He resigned
from the army in October 1864, by reason of
disability, arid thereafter gave his attention to
literature, residing at Cambridge, Mass., 9ince

Digitized by



1876. He was almost a lifelong and consistent
advocate of woman' suffrage and of the higher
education of woman, and was a member of the
Massachusetts legislature 1880-1, serving 011 the
State board of education also, 1881-3. He was
a polished, graceful speaker, and frequently ap-
peared on the lecture platform. He was the
Lowell lecturer on American Literature in Bos<-
ton in 1902. As an after-dinner or occasional
speaker he was especially happy, his felicitous
sentences being almost always illuminated by
the play of a very delicate humor. He was
president of the Round Table, a social Bos-
ton club, and vice-president of the Bos-
ton Authors Club, as well as a member of
many other organizations, social and liter-
ary. He was for a generation a con*
stant contributor to periodicals of the highest
class and figured in literature as essayist,
novelist, poet, and historian. His principal work
in fiction is < Malbone > (1869), in which his first
wife is outlined as Aunt Jane. As an essayist
he is perhaps seen at his best, the essay form
seeming peculiarly adapted to his genius.
Among collections of essays by him may be
cited: 'Outdoor Papers* (1863) ; < Atlantic
Essays > (1871) ; < Women and Men* (1887);
<the New World and the New Book> (1801);
and c Concerning All of Us* (1892). His

< Young Folks' History of the United States*
(1875) has been widely popular, and other his-
tories by him are ( Larger History of the United
Stated (1885) ; ( English History for Ameri-
cans } (1893) ; ( Massachusetts in the Army and
Navy, I86I-5* (1895-6). His veree is included
in, <The Afternoon Landscape* (i88p) ; 'Such
as They Are* (1893). Yet otner important
works by him are <The Monarch of Dreams,*
a strikingly original sketch ( 1886) ; < Army Life
in a Black Regiment* (1869) ; < Cheerful Yes-
terdays* (1898); <01d Cambridge* (1899);

< Contemporaries* (1899) ; and lives of Margaret
Fuller (1884); Francis Higgmson (1891);
Henry W. Longfellow (1003) ; John Greenlcaf
Whittier (1903) ; < History of the United States*
(1905). He translated die complete works .of
Epictetus (1865, revised edition 1891). With
Samuel Longfellow (q.v.) he completed a well-
known anthology of seaside verse, < Thalatta* 1
(1853), and with Mrs. E. H. Bigelow ( American
Sonnets* (1890). Several. of his works have
been translated into French, German, Italian,
and even modern Greek. He was the friend of
very many of the older New England writers
and was especially helpful to many of the
younger ones, not a few of whom owe him
much in the way of kindly criticism or- sug-
gestion, the fruit of ripe scholarship.

High Church, a term applied to a faction,
in the Church of England. It was applied first
to the younger clergy during the latter part of
the reign of Elizabeth who asserted that Cal-
vinism was inconsistent With the ancient doc-
trine and constitution of the primitive church*
and who claimed a divine right for episcopacy.
Bishop Andrews was the chief writer of this
faction, and Laud became its most active leader.
The term now generally refers to those who
exalt the authority and jurisdiction of the
church, and attach great value to ecclesiastical
dignities and ordinances, being more or less

identified with the ritualistic party. See RrN

High Bridge, Engagement at See Farm-


High-Frequency Oscillating Current

This term is especially applicable to electrical
currents, the high frequency interruptions of
which are obtained by means of condenser dis-
charges in contradistinction to those produced
by a disrupted static current, without the inter-
position of a metallic condenser in series with
one or both terminals. The latter differs in
several characteristics and is essentially a high
potential current, 10,000 to 50,000 volts, with a
minimum amperage, usually about .0005.

To generate a high-frequency current it is

r ! *o charge two Leyden jar condensers with

potential current, the source of which
t a static machine or induction coil, shunt-

i \ two wires with a spark-gap for the

I \ of disrupting the current. The exter-

1 latures of the condensers are short-cir-

Online LibraryWilfrid RichmondThe Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 → online text (page 150 of 185)