Wilfrid Richmond.

The Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 online

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ton, 111. (1890-4). In 1894 he was appointed
pastor of the Central Church, Chicago, an in-
dependent congregation, and in 1899 of Ply-
mouth Church of Brooklyn. He became known
also as a lecturer, and has published: ( The
Investment of Influence ) ; ( A Man's Value to
Society } ; ( How the Inner Light Failed y ; fore-
tokens of Immortality } ; < Great Books as Life
Teachers * ; ( The Influence of Christ in Modern
Life' ; ( The Quest of John Chapman ) (1904) ;
and many other books.

HiuVboro, 111., city, county-seat of Mont-
gomery County ; on the Cleveland, C, C. & St. L.
railroad ; about 45 miles south by west of Spring-
field ? and 52 miles northwest of East Saint
Louis. Its chief manufactures are flour, furni-
ture, woolen goods, carriages and wagons, and
dairy products. There is a coal-mine nearby. It
is the commercial centre of an agricultural sec-
tion of the State. Pop. (1910) 3424.

Hillsboro, Ohio, village, county-seat of
Highland County; on the Norfolk & W. and
the Baltimore & O. S. R.R.'s; about 60 miles
southwest of Columbus and 50 miles east by
north of Cincinnati. It is in an agricultural
and stock-raising region. The chief manufac-
tures are furniture, foundry products, flour, lum-
ber, dairy products, and cigars. It is the trade
centre for a large part of Highland County. It
has a public library containing about 8,000 vol-
umes, and a number of fine public and private
buildings. The city owns and operates the
waterworks. Pop. (1910) 4,296.

Hillsboro, Texas, city, county-seat of Hill
County; on the Missouri, K. & T. and the St.
Louis S. R.R.'s; about 52 miles southwest of
Dallas and 38 miles north of Waco. It is sit-
uated in an agricultural and stock-raising region.
Its chief manufactures are cottonseed-oil, cotton
goods, hosiery, flour, candy, men's clothing,
agricultural implements, and lumber. The trade

is largely in live stock, cotton, hides, grain, hay,
and lumber. It has cotton-gins, cotton-com-
presses, planing-mills, and hay presses. The
city owns and operates the waterworks. Pop.
(1910) 6,115.

Hills'dale, Mich., city, county-seat of
Hillsdale County; on the Lake Shore & M. S.
railroad; about 88 miles southwest of Detroit
and 60 miles west of Toledo, Ohio. The first
permanent settlement was made about the year
1840. It is situated in a rich agricultural region
in which are raised large quantities of fruit.
The chief manufactures are flour, fur garments,
screens for doors and windows, wagon-wheels,
tables, furnaces, furniture and canned fruits.
The trade, in addition to the manufactures, is
chiefly in grain, fruits, vegetables, and live-
stock. Baw Beese Park, outside the city limits,
is owned by the city. Hillsdale is the seat of
Hillsdale College (q.v.). The electric-light
plant and the waterworks are owned and op-
erated by the city. Pop. (1910) 5,001.

Hillsdale College, a coeducational institu-
tion founded in 1855 under the auspices of the
Free Baptist Church, in Hillsdale, Mich. Since
its establishment it has graduated about 1,200
students. The number of professors and in-
structors in 1910 was 24, the number of students
418. Special attention is given to the classical
and scientific work, but the modern languages
are not neglected.

Hilo, he'ld, Hawaii, town on the Hilo Bay,
on the eastern coast of the island; about 38
miles from Mauna Loa, 36 miles from Mauna
Kea (the highest peak of the group), and 28
miles from Kilauea. Hilo is the second town in
size in the Hawaiian Islands. It has the best
harbor belonging to the group. The lighthouse
in the harbor can be seen many miles. Large
lava-fields are near ; on the northwest side of
the town and in the vicinity are extensive for-
ests. The craters of Loa and Kilauea, the largest
in the world, are visited annually by many tour-
ists who land at Hilo. The inhabitants of the
town include many races; but people from the
United States who have engaged in business
in Hilo are quite prominent Hilo has good
schools to which attendance is compulsory. The
population of the town, which is co-extensive
with the district of the same name is (1910)

Hilongos, he-long'ds, Philippines, pueblo
of Leyte, on the southwest coast at the mouth
of the Salog River, 62 miles southwest of Tac-
loban. It has a good harbor. Pop. 13,813.

Hilprecht, Herman Volrath, her'man fal'-
rat hll'preHt, American Assyriologist: b.
Hohenerxleben, Germany, 28 July 1859. He
was graduated at Leipsic in 1883 and was cura-
tor of the Semitic section of the museum of the
University of Pennsylvania, to which he pre-
sented the greater part of the 27,000 original
cuneiform inscriptions which ^ it contains. He
was made professor of Assyrian and Compara-
tive Semitic philology in the same institution
1886. In 1888-89 he was Assyriologist and sci-
entific director of the University of Pennsyl-
vania's expedition to Nippur, Babylonia, and
editor-in-chief of its publications. Among his
works may be mentioned: ( 01d Babylonian In-
scriptions, chiefly from Nippur' ; <History of
the Babylonian Expedition of the University of

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Pennsylvania to Nippur > ; < Recent Researches
in Bible Lands ) ; Explorations in Bible Lands
during the 19th Century ) (1903).

Hilton Head, an island, at the mouth of
the Broad River, off the southeast coast of
South Carolina; a part of Beaufort County.
Fort Walker, a Confederate fortification, was
erected here during the Civil War. On 5 Nov.
1861, the fort was attacked by a Union fleet,
under Commodore Dupont; Commodore Tat-
nall, with a Confederate flotilla, or "mosquito
fleet," assisted Fort Walker, but it was captured
by Dupont. The reports gave Union loss 8
killed and 23 wounded; Confederates, 10 killed
and 10 wounded.

Himalaya, him-a'la-ya or him-a-la'ya (from
the Sanskrit signifying the abode of snow), a
mountain system of Asia containing the highest
peaks in the world, the principal mass of which
is near the southern edge of the central section
of the continent, between Ion. 65 and uo° E.,
and lat. 28 and 37 N. The system extends
approximately from northwest to southeast for
about 2,000 miles, while its breadth varies from
100 to between 500 and 600 miles. The elevated
plateau of Tibet, between the Himalaya proper
and its extension, the Kuen-Lun range, is the
widest part of the system. While the term
Himalaya is usually confined to the range form-
ing the northern barrier of India, the Hindu-
Kush, on the northwest, and the Karakoram
with the Kuen-Lun to the north are not distinct
chains as frequently represented, but are all por-
tions of the same connected mountain mass,
having very little to distinguish them from the
rest of the elevated system to which they be-
long. The Himalaya is connected on the east
with the mountains of China and the Indo-Chi-
nese peninsula, and on the west with the moun-
tains of Baluchistan and Afghanistan. The
Pamir Plateau described as a tt huge boss or
knot* north of the Hindu-Kush connects the
Himalayas with" the Thian-Shan, another moun-
tain system which extends northeastward for
about 1,200 miles. From the Ganges- watered
plain of northern India which has an elevation
of about 1,000 feet above the sea, the Himalayas
ascend by successive slopes. The transition
from this plain to the ascent of the range is
marked in the northwest by a belt of dry, por-
ous ground, broken up into numerous ravines.
East of this is the ^Terai,* a belt of sloping
marshland covered with forest and jungle, very
malarious and crowded with wild animals. Be-
yond this lies the "Bhabar,* a belt of gravelly
and sandy nature covered with forests of valu-
able timber trees. The "duns,* "maris,** or
"dwars," longitudinal valleys partly cultivated
and partly yielding forest growth, occupy the
space between the Bhabar and the slopes of the
Himalayas. The principal passes are the highest
in the world and include the Ibi-Gamin pass in
Garwhal 20457 feet, the Mustagh 19,019 feet,
the Parangla 18,500 feet, the Kronbrung 18,313
feet, and the Dura Ghat 17,750 feet. The great-
est elevations of the Himalayan system are Mt.
Godwin-Austen 28,250 feet in the Karakoram
range, and in the Himalayas proper the Gauri-
sankar or Mount Everest 29,002 feet, the high-
est peak in the world, Kunchinjinga 28,176 feet,
and Dhawalagiri 26,826 feet. On the north the
limit of the snow line is 17400 feet, on the
south 16,200 feet. From the southern slope of

the central portion of the great chain flow tht
various streams which unite in the Ganges;
from the southern slope of the northwestern
portion spring the rivers of the Punjab or a Five
Waters, 9 which unite to swell the Indus which
rises on the northern slope and flows southwest-
ward to the Arabian Sea; also on the northern
slope not far from the source of the Indus
springs the Brahmaputra which flows east,
southwest, and south to the Bay of Bengal;
and also from the plateau of Tibet north of the
main Himalayan range flow the Salwin, Me-
kong and other rivers of the Indo-Chinese pen-
insula, the Yangtse, Hwang-ho, and other
rivers of the Chinese Empire. The whole sys-
tem is of granitic formation associated with
gneiss and mica-slate, followed in descending
by metamorphic and secondary rocks, until the
alluvial deposits are reached. Minerals abound;
copper and lead have been mined from ancient
times, iron more recently, coal is found at the
foot of the mountains, gold in the beds of the
mountain torrents, zinc, sulphur, plumbago and
salt are also obtained, and there are numerous
mineral springs. The vegetation is luxuriant;
rhododendrons are in rich profusion, and there
are forests of pine, spruce, silver-fir and deodar
cedar at varying altitudes. Consult Schlagint-
weit, Scientific Mission to India and High
Asia ) ; Waddell, ( Among the Himalayas.*

Hinckley, Thomas, American colonial
governor: b. England, about 1618; d. Barn-
stable, Mass., 25 April 1706. In 1635 he emi-
grated to America, and settled at Scituate, but
four years later removed to Barnstable. He
was deputy governor of Plymouth Colony in
1680 and afterward governor.

Hincks, Sir Francis, Canadian statesman:
b. Cork, Ireland, 14 Dec. 1807; d. Montreal, 18
Aug. 1885. He went to Canada in 1831, set up
in business at Toronto, and there became editor
of the ( Examiner.* In ^841 he entered the first
United Parliament as a prominent Liberal. He
undertook the editorship of the < Pilot > of
Montreal in 1844. From 185 1 to 1854 he was
Canadian premier, and as such developed the
railway facilities and mining resources of the
country, and negotiated a treaty of commerce
with the United States. In 1855-62 he was
governor of Barbadoes, in 1862-9 of British
Guiana, later minister of finance, and from
1873 editor of the Montreal journal of Com-
merce. y Among his publications are: c Canada:
Its Financial Position and Resources > (1849);
<The Political History of Canada between 1840
and 1855* (1877); <The Boundaries Formerly
in Dispute between Canada and the United
States> (1885).

Hind, hind, John Russell, English astrono-
mer: b. Nottingham 12 May 1823; d. Twicken-
ham 23 Dec. 1895. I" ^4° ne obtained a sit-
uation in the Royal Observatory at Greenwich.
He was a member of the commission appointed
to determine the exact longitude of Valencia
(1844), and on his return was appointed the ob-
server in Bishop's Observatory, Regent's Park.
There he calculated the orbits of n.jre than
70 planets and comets, noted several new
variable stars and nebulae, and discovered
10 minor planets. In 185 1 he obtained from
the Academy of Sciences at Paris the La-
lande medal, and was elected a correspond in*
member; and in 1852 received the Astronomical

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Society of London's gold medal, and a pension
of $1,000 a year from the British government.
In 1857-91 he was director of the Nautical Al-
manac,* and in 1880 president of the Royal
Astronomical Society. He wrote: c The Solar
System* (1846) ; Astronomical Vocabulary }
(1852); <The Comets> (1852); <Elements of
Algebra* (1885) ; 'Introduction to Astronomy*
(1871), and other works.

Hindman, hind'man, Thomas Carmichael,
American soldier : b. Tennessee 1818 ; d. Ar-
kansas 1868. He studied law, entered practice
in Mississippi, fought in the Mexican War as
a lieutenant of Mississippi volunteers, and in
1858-61 was a Democratic representative in
Congress. Not long after the outbreak of the
Civil War, he was commissioned brigadier-gen-
eral, was defeated at Newtonia and Prairie
Grove, was promoted major-general at Shiloh,
and later served in Arkansas.

Hindoos, in American history, a nickname
given in New York State in 1854 to the Ameri-
can (q.v.) or Know-Nothing Party, from a
charge that its candidate for governor, Daniel
Ullmann, was born in Calcutta. He was in fact
a Delaware man and a graduate of Yale.

Hinduism, in its widest sense, the religion
and religious philosophy of the inhabitants of
Hindustan, which is professed by nearly half
of mankind. Hinduism, historically considered,
presents three periods of development. The
first is the Vedic age. The Vedas (q.v.) are
hymns of worship, and the study of them reveals
very clearly the nature worship of primitive
Hindustan. In these hymns the elements of
nature are addressed as divine beings. Agni,
fire, lightning; Surya, the sun; Indra, the cloud-
less firmament; Maruts, the winds; Ushas, the
dawn, are the principal deities of this poetic
pantheon. They are addressed in high and
sometimes beautiful language, as the senders
of temporal blessings. Offerings of delicious
viands are made to them ; but they are not to be
propitiated by bloody sacrifices of beasts, much
less by human sacrifices. Libations are poured
to them of soma, an exhilarating drink, made
from the fermented juice of the soma (q.v.) or
milk-plant. Throughout the Vedic hymns runs
the under-notion of a supreme being, the cre-
ator and ruler of all. This is less discernible
in the Brahmana or the Veda than in the Upan-
ishads (q.v.). The Brahmana is a later class
of Vedic hymn in which the henotheism sug-
gested in the Upanishads has given place to a
highly artificial classification of the divine pow-
ers, with a careful estimate of the rank of each.
In the Upanishads, Agni, Indra, and Surya be-
come symbols whose united significance may
help the mind to understand the existence of
one supreme and absolute being, and in this
class of Vedic hymn we see the principles of the
most enlightened form of native religion in
India. The one world soul, in all its mani-
festations, is reflected in the soul of man, whose
destiny is to be reunited with it. The moral
responsibility of man, and the judgment of the
supreme being against wrong-doing, are plainly
taught in these hymns; but there is no trace
in them of the later doctrine of moral purifica-
tion through reiterated metempsychosis.

The second period in the development of
Hinduism may be called the epic period. It re-

ceives full illustration in the great epic poems,
the Ramayana, and the Mahabharata. Side by
side with the pictorial teaching of these poems,
in which an attempt is made to present the
working of the divine economy in relation to
specific human lives, there rises a philosophical
system, rudimentary indeed, but laying founda-
tions for the later Sankhya, Nyaya, and Vedanta
systems. In the Mahabharata, with all its epi-
sodes and fantastic incidents, is vividly put
forth the doctrine that the union of the human
soul with the great, divine soul of the world
is aided and expedited by penances of various
sorts, such as are detailed with systematic pro-
lixity in the Yoga. In the epic period the doc-
trine of metempsychosis is clearly enunciated.
The soul, after the death of its temporary
possessor, must be born again in some material
semblance, in order that it may complete the
work left unfinished in some previous state of
existence, and must repeat the same experi-
ence until its task be accomplished and per-
fection be attained. A decided change is ap-
parent in the popular Hinduism of the third
or Puranic period (see Puranas; Tantras).
In the Puranas there is almost a Gotterdam-
merung discernible; no longer do peace and
concord prevail in the pantheon where Brahma,
Vishnu and Siva still reign supreme, but all is
discord, confusion, and destruction. The leg-
ends of the epic poems are amplified with child-
ish variations. The simple ideas of the Vedic
hymns have vanished. The unbridled imagina-
tion of imitators and commentators has over-
stepped the limits of reverence, dignity, and
even poetic beauty in the Puranas, which do not
show any advance even in philosophical ear-
nestness, acuteness, or profundity. Worship
has become an empty ceremonial. The Vedanta
philosophy is now the intellectual creed of the
thoughtful and learned (see Vedanta), and
this philosophy is a sort of Deistic agnosticism,
only slightly more definite than that of Herbert
Spencer, as propounded in his ( First Princi-
ples.* For it is the main tenet of the Vedanta
that there is one supreme divinity, but, however
imagination and speculation may seek to invest
this first principle with all the perfections which
the human mind is capable of conceiving, the
essence of the one divine being lies far beyond
the grasp of human thought.

The philosophical creed and henotheism of
the educated Brahmin is a sort of esoteric Hin-
duism which has not supplanted among the
general people the influence of a wild poly-
theism. While it is said that the inferior gods
of India make up a pantheon of 330,000,000
divinities, the most important among them are
but few in number. These are styled a Guardi-
ans of the World,** and comprise the elemental
gods worshipped in the Vedic hymns. Next in
rank to Vishnu, Siva, and Brahma, the supreme
triad, are Indra, Agni, Yama (the god of hell),
Surya, Varana (the god of water), Purana
(the god of wind), Kuvesa (the god of wealth),
Soma or Chandra (the moon god), etc. Among
sacred animals are bulls; snakes, whose union
with the demigods produced monkeys, and some
birds, such as the ganada. Among trees, the
banyan is held to be divine.

The sects of Hinduism are numerous, and
their existence illustrates a principle which is

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found to have prevailed in the mythological
religion of Greece. Each of these sects wor-
ships a particular divinity, and teaches that this
divinity possesses all the attributes of a supreme
being. Thus polytheism does not mean in India,
generally, the worship of many gods by each
devotee, but very often merely the worship of
one god under many names. For example, the
Saivas worship Siva; the Sauras, Surya the
son; the Ganapatyas, Ganesa, the god of wis-
dom, and so on to an almost indefinite length.
They ask from each of these gods the same

S'fts, and the exercise of the same powers,
ther sects are Buddhists, Jainas (q.v.), and
Sikhs (q.v.). These last profess a pure theism,
yet blended with all the absurdities of Hindu
mythology and the monstrous fables of Islam;
nevertheless they despise Hindus and Mussul-
mans alike and do not recognize the distinctions
of caste. They reject all the Hindu sacred
books and look upon warfare as a religious
deity. This sect was founded at the beginning
of the 16th century a.d. by Nanak Shah.

The philosophy of Hinduism is almost alto-
gether occupied with those questions for which
a religious solution is generally sought, namely,
the origin and destiny of man, and his relation
to the supreme being or the absolute. There
are six schools of this philosophy, namely, the
Nyaya, Vaiseshika, Sankhya, Yoga, Mimansa,
and Vedanta. They all agree in essential
points. Their object is to prescribe rules by
which man may be delivered from the bondage
of ignorance, and be absorbed into the deity.
Their doctrine of the soul as something eternal
and inextinguishable, distinct from mind,
senses, and body, yet sharing in the merit or
guilt of good or bad deeds, the latter of which
are caused by ignorance of what is best and
highest, is identical. They all teach the doctrine
of metempsychosis and accept the authority of
the Vedas. There is complete agreement among
them as to how ignorance is to be gradually
illuminated and right apprehension acquired; to
this end the Scriptures must be studied and
clearness of intellect and heart secured by sac-
rifices, alms giving, pilgrimages, the repetition
of sacred words. The Sankhya are atheistic
in their belief, but all the other schools teach
the existence of one supreme being.

Consult: Wurm, ( Geschichte der Indischen
Religion > (1874) ; Vergaigne, <La Religion
Vedique d'apres les Hymnes du Rig- Veda y
{1878-83) ; Barth, <Les Religious de lTnde>
(1879) ; Muir, Original Sanskrit Texts > ;
Colebrook, ( Essays on the Religion and Philos-
ophy of the Hindus* (1858): Mullens, Re-
ligious Aspects of Hindu Philosophy ) (i860).

Hindustan, hln-doo-stan', Hindostan, hin-
do-stan', or Indostan, signifying a the land of
the (river) Indus, 9 a word of Persian deriva-
tion, formerly applied to India (q.v.).

Hingham, hing'am, Mass., town in Ply-
mouth County; on Massachusetts Bay, and on
the New York, N. H. & H. railroad; about 15
miles southeast of Boston. In the town are the
villages of South Hingham, West Hingham, and
Hingham Centre. The first permanent settle-
ment was made in 1633, and it was then called
Barecove. In 1635 it was incorporated under
its present name. Its chief manufactures are
awnings, cordage, wooden-ware, tovs, boot-
heels, furniture, leatherette and upholstery. It

has a meeting-house which was built in 1681.
It contains a public library and is the seat of
Derby Academy. Some of the noted people
who have lived in Hingham are John A. An-
drew, John D. Long, Benjamin Lincoln, and
James Hall, the famous geologist who for a num-
ber of years was State geologist of New York.
Joshua Hobart, the Puritan ancestor of the
Hobarts of New York State, lived in Hingham.
Pop. (1910) 4,965. Consult: < History ot the
Town of Hingham.'

Hink'son, Katherine Tynan, Irish novelist
and poet: b. Dublin, Ireland, 3 Feb. 1861. She
was educated in a convent at Drogheda and
since her marriage to H. A. Hinkson in 1893,
has lived in Ealing, a suburb of London. She
is a voluminous writer of prose and verse, and
her books are well known in the United States.
Among them may be named: < Shamrocks, >
verse (1887); <The Way of a Maid> (1895);
<Oh! What a Plague is Love> (1896); <Three
Fair Maids* (1900); <That Sweet Enemy*

Hinman, Russell, American editor of text-
books : b. Cincinnati 23 Jan. 1853. He was edu-
cated at Antioch College, Ohio, went into busi-
ness as a civil engineer ; and later became editor
of geographical text-books for Messrs. Van
Antwerp, Bragg & Co. of Cincinnati. Since
1890 he has been in charge of the editorial of-
fice of the American Book Co. He has written
( Eclectic Elementary Geography* ; < Eclectic
Complete Geography* ; ( Eclectic Physical Geog-

Hinoyossa, he-noi-ds'sa, Alexander d\

Dutch colonial governor in America: b. and d.
Holland. He came to America in 1650 as lieu-
tenant in a small military force sent to accom-
pany 150 immigrants. In 1659 he became direc-
tor of Nieuer Amstel, a Dutch colony on the
eastern bank of the Delaware River. Although,
owing to disagreements and illness, this colony
was not at first a success, it was greatly devel-
oped by Hinoyossa's wise rule. Hinoyossa was
for a time involved in a conflict of authority
with Director Petrus Stuyvesant of New Am-
sterdam, who had general superintendence of
the commissioners constituting the government
of Nieuer Amstel. In 1663 he obtained autnor-
ity over all the settlements on the Delaware.
The Swedish colonists submitted, and Stuy-
vesant relinquished his control. Upon the con-
quest of New Netherland by England, Hinoy-
ossa returned (1674) to the continent where
he fought in the Dutch army against the
French invasion by Louis XIV.

Hin'ton, Richard Josiah, American author:
b. London, England, 25 Nov. 1830; d. 20 Dec.
1901. He settled in the United States in 1851;
studied topographical engineering at the Colum-
bia School of Mines; and removing to Kansas
in 1856 became a supporter of the cause of John
Brown. He served in the National army in
1861-s ; and was the first white man appointed
to raise and lead colored troops. After the

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