Wilfrid Richmond.

The Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 online

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war he engaged in newspaper work in Wash-
ington, New York, and San Francisco. He was
the author of <Life of William H. Seward * ;
<Life of Gen. P. H. Sheridan*; <John Brown*;
etc.

Hip, that part of the trunk comprised be-
tween the abdominal wall and the lower limb*



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HIP JOINT — HIPPODROME



particularly the region over the hip-bone (the
crest of the ilium).

Hip Joint, the joint of the upper leg or
thigh (femur) where it joins the trunk. It is a
ball and socket joint, formed by the sinking of
the smooth globular cap into the deep hollow,
called acetabulum (vinegar bowl), of the os
innominatum. Its movements are controlled
by five ligaments : the capsular; the il io- femoral ;
the teres; the cotyloid; and the transverse.
These movements are more wonderful than
even those of the arm, being flexion, exten-
sion, abduction, adduction, and rotation inward
and outward. It is the most powerful joint in
the body and hardest to dislocate.

Hip Joint, Disease of, a disease of the ball
and socket of the hip. It often results from
scrofula; comes on in children or young per-
sons, from very slight causes; is often traced
to a long walk, a sprain in jumping, or a fall.
In the early stage of the disease the whole of
the structures of the joint are inflamed and after
proper treatment may be sometimes subdued
with no worse consequences than a more or less
rigid ioint Usually, however, abscesses form
around the joint, and often communicate with
its interior; and the acetabulum and the head
and neck of the thigh-bone become disintegrat-
ed, softened, and gritty. In a still more ad-
vanced stage, dislocation of the head of the
thigh-bone commonly occurs, either from the
capsular ligament becoming more or less de-
stroyed, and the head of the bone being drawn
out of its cavity by the action of the surround-
ing muscles, or from a fungous mass sprouting
up from the bottom of the cavity, and pushing
the head of the bone before it

As the disease advances, abscesses occur
around the joint. True shortening of the limb
now takes place, which at the same time be-
comes adducted and inverted. From this stage,
if the health is pretty good, and the lungs are
sound, the patient may be so fortunate as to
recover with an anchylosed (or immovable)
hip-joint; but the probability is that exhaustion
and hectic will come on, and that death will
supervene, from the wasting influence of the
purulent discharges occasioned by the diseased
bone.

Hipparchus, hT-paVkQs, Greek astronomer :
b. Nicaea in Bithynia. He lived about 160-125
b.c; resided for some time at Rhodes, but
afterward went to Alexandria, then the great
school of science. A commentary on Aratus
is the only work of his extant. He first ascer-
tained the true length of the year, discovered
the precession of the equinoxes, • determined
the revolutions and mean motions of the planets,
prepared a catalogue of the fixed stars, etc

Hipparion, hl-pa'ri-6n, a genus of fossil
three-toed Equidce. See Horse, Evolution of.

Hippel'ates, a genus of midges to whose
agency is ascribed the spread in many instances
of the southern ophthalmic disease of cattle
called pink-eye. See Flies; Pink-eye.

Hippocrates, hi-pok'ra-tez, Greek physi-
cian, the father of medicine: b. in the island of
Cos 460 b.c. ; d. Larissa, Thessaly, 357 b.c. Be-
sides practising and teaching his profession at
home he traveled on the mainland of Greece.
His writings, which were early celebrated, be-
came the nucleus of a collection of medical



treatises by a number of authors of different
places and periods, which were long attributed
to him, and still bear his name. The best edi-
tion is that of Littre (in 10 vols. Paris, 1839-
61). He has the great distinction of having
been the first to put aside the traditions of early
ignorance and superstition, and to base the
practice of medicine on the study of nature. He
maintained, against the universal religious view,
that diseases must be treated as subject to nat-
ural laws; and his observations on the natural
history of disease, as presented in the living
subject, show him to have been a master of
clinical research. His accounts of phenomena
show great power of graphic description. In
treating disease he gave chief attention to diet
and regimen, expecting nature to do the larger
part. His ideas of the very great influence of
climate both on the body and the mind, were a
profound anticipation of modern knowledge. He
reflected in medicine the enlightenment of the
great age in Greece of the philosophers and
dramatists.

Hippodrome (from the Greek, Hippos, a
horse, and Drontos, a race course), the name
given by the Greeks to places where races were
held. This included both chariot and single
horse racing, but the hippodrome later took the
form of a circus, other games, such as wrestling,
boxing, running, etc., being added, and for a
short time after the introduction of Roman cus-
toms and manners it became the scene of gla-
diatorial combats, but as sights of this nature
did not find favor in the sight of the Greeks,
these combats were eventually eliminated and
the main feature of the games, as in the begin-
ning, was the chariot race. To the brutal taste
of the Roman populace flowing blood acted as
an elixir, but to the more refined Eastern people
the amphitheatre was abhorrent Though nu-
merous amphitheatres were scattered through-
out western Europe very few were ever built
within the limits of the Eastern empire and then
only where the influence and manners of the
Romans were most powerful.

The first mention of a hippodrome is made
by Homer, but it is believed that the term then
applied to any course over which a race of any
kind was run and that it did not necessarily
have a fixed location. As the chariot-racing
became the national game, the proper courses for
the holding of such events became necessary,
as in these races, though much of the success
depended upon the courage and skill of the
driver, the loss of life was often great, through
collision, the overthrow of the chariot in turn-
ing caused by rough ground, the breaking of an
axle, or numerous other accidents. The hippo-
drome was built for the purpose of avoiding, as
much as possible, the possibility of such mis-
haps, by providing a wide and smooth track,
thus leaving plenty of space for< the contestants.
Of the ancient hippodromes (as distinguished
from circus, amphitheatre, etc.), probably the
most famous are those of Olympus and of Con-
stantinople, and while the Circus Maximus of
Rome may to a great extent have been more of
a circus than race course, it was planned after
the Greek race courses, was used by the Romans
for this purpose, and thus may properly be
classed with the other two.

The origin of the hippodrome at Olympus
tradition gives to Hercules, but the only de-



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HIPPODROME



scription of it obtainable is found in the passages
of Pausanias (v. 15 4> 4; vi. 20 <t> 7 foil.) though
from the explorations of the German archae-
ologists the ground plans of most of the struc-
tures described by Pausanias have been traced.
Of its length and breadth there is no precise*
information, the overflow of the Alphus River
having washed away the indications of its lim-
its, though probably the distance from the start-
ing place of the races to the goal, or from one
goal to the other, was 770 metres or 4 Olym-
pic stradia, and it was about one fourth as wide,
or the same as each side of the starting place.

In general form the hippodrome was -an ob-
long, one end of which was semicircular; on
three sides having seats for the populace and on
the fourth, where the races were started, seats
for the royalty and nobles. The right side,
formed by an artificial mound, was a little longer
than the left side, which was built on the nat-
ural slope of a hill, the base of the fourth side
being formed by the portico of Agnaptus, named
after its builder. The form of the starting place
was not unlike the prow of a ship, each side
being 400 feet long, and containing stalls for the
chariots and their horses. In the arena were
two goals around which the chariots passed sev-
eral times to complete the race; one of these
goals having a bronze statue of Hippodameia
upon it, the other an altar dedicated to a Tarax-
ippus, the Terror of the Horses." The princi-
pal difference between the Greek hippodrome
and the Roman circus was in the width of the
arena, in the latter only four chariots being able
to race at one time ; there was also some slight
difference in the arrangement of the carceres.

The erection of the hippodrome of Constan-
tinople was due to two Roman emperors, Sep-
timus Severus and Constantine the Great, who
each in turn captured Byzantium by storm.
About six years after its capture by him (197
a.d.) Severus commenced operations a little to
the west of Byzantium, but in that year was
called away by a rebellion in the West and never
returned to the city. For over a hundred years
it remained untouched, until 323, when Constan-
tine, having conquered the city, pushed the work
to completion after changing the details in the
original plans. On 11 May 330 it was inaugu-
tated.

The external appearance of the hippodrome
was imposing for its vastness, its height, and
even for its beauty. The walls were of brick,
laid in arches, and faced by a row of Corinthian
columns 260 in number and standing 11 feet
apart. There were four entrances from the city
each flanked with towers, but of the stairways
leading to these entrances no description has
come down to us.

Some idea of the immensity of this pro-
digious structure may be given by the fact that
its dimensions were 1400 feet in length by 400
feet in width, covering an area of 535,866 square
feet, or 12.3 acres. On the north was a struc-
ture containing the apparatus for the games, the
servants' and attendants' apartments, the chariots
and horses, the arsenal, etc., called by the Ro-
mans the carceres and by the Greeks ndyyapQ,
This apartment was separated from the arena
by pillars with latticed gates, 12 in number.
Next to these gates was the little church or
oratory, where the rival contestants prayed be-
ioie the games.

The ground story was 20 feet high. On it



rested "the palace of the Kathisma or Tribunal,
in the centre of which, supported upon 24 mar-
ble pillars' was the platform in Kathisma proper,
on the front of which was the emperor's throne.
On either side and a little below the emperor
were the seats for courtiers, ambassadors, etc
Far down the western side of the hippodrome
and nearly opposite the built column was the
gorgeous chamber of the empress, this supported
upon' four porphyry pillars and hence called the
tetrakion.

The eastern, western, and southern portions
were occupied by parallel rows of seats, appro-
priated to the spectators according to their rank.
Behind these rose tier upon tier of benches until
nearly half way to the top where was a broad
promenade bounding the entire extent of the
hippodrome except on the northern side. This
promenade was without roof or covering, and,
standing nearly 40 feet above the ground, pro-
tected by a solid marble railing reaching to the
breast, the spectator had a spacious avenue 2,766
feet long. It is estimated that the hippodrome
would seat 60,000 persons and have comfortable
standing room for 20,000 more, while with a lit-
tle crowding 100,000 might be accommodated.

The arena was 211 feet wide by 1,190 feet
long and was bounded by a narrow walk called
the Euripus, paved in tesselated stone. The semi-
circular southern portion of the arena, that in-
cluded in the curve of the Sphendone, was re-
served for the criminals and there too was the
place for executions. In the centre of the arena
and lying parallel to it was the Spina ; a stadium,
607 English feet in length, it marked and gov-
erned the beginning, duration, and end of each
course of a race. At each end of the Spina was
a high, narrow framework, surmounted by seven
poles, on one group being placed seven fish, on
the other seven eggs; one of each was taken
down upon the completion of each circuit during
the race until the race finished. Toward the
southern end of the Spina was the Phiale. a
broad basin of running water devoted to the
victims of accidents. The space between the
northern goal and the carceres was called the
Stama, where wrestlers and acrobats performed.

Many additions to the works of art already
gathered by Constantine were made during the
700 succeeding years, but in 1203 the hippo-
drome was sacked by the Franks and Venetians
and all were either carried off or destroyed.
The most famous of these was the < Four Golden
Steeds,* which was stolen by the Venetians and
which in turn was brought to Paris by Napo-
leon, and is now standing guard over the main
entrance of the cathedral of Saint Mark. Among
the others are the statues of Hercules, the She-
wolf and Hynma, the Virgin Goddess Diana,
the Brazen Ass, the Caledonian Boar. Helen
of Troy, the God of Wealth, and eight Sphinxes,
beside the statues of the earlv Roman emperors,
martyrs, teachers, philosophers, etc. In the
early days of the city games were of frequent
occurrence, but as time went by they became
less and less frequent owing probably to the
great cost (it is estimated that a single celebra-
tion cost 1,000.000 francs) and at last were cele-
brated only on 11 May and 25 December, the
birthdays of the city and Christ respectively.

It is not known precisely when this hippo-
drome was entirely destroyed, but as there is no
definite reference to any chariot race later than
the reign of Isaac Angelus, who was dethroned



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HIPPODROME



MECHANICAL FEATURES OF THE NEW YORK HIPPODROME

I. Stage, showing mechanism of movable portion and electric hoist for handling scenery. Tank beneath front

stage or apron.
2. The auditorium, the front stage or apron, and the proscenium arcfo-jtized by V



Unhf.Ubiary. UC Santa Ciuz2Q01



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HIPPOPOTAMUS



in 1 195, and as the place was sacked in 1203-4
it is probable that it did not survive the begin-
ning of the 13th century.

The Circus Maximus at Rome was for a long
time the only structure of its kind in the world,
taking its form from the Greek hippodrome and
furnishing the model for all later arci. In the
Vallis Murcia, between the Palatine and Avan-
tine hills, wooden seats were first constructed
by Tarquinius Priscus (Li v. I., 35) ; were fre-
quently burned and rebuilt until the time of
Julius Caesar, when the steps were constructed
of stone and greatly improved. At that time it
probably accommodated about 100,000 people.
After its destruction by fire in 31 b.c. Augustus
completely restored it, making several magnifi-
cent additions. The upper tier of seats on the
Aventine side was again destroyed by fire in 36
aj>., but Claudius not only restored these, but
greatly enlarged the entire circus. These addi-
tions were supplemented by others made during
the reigns of Trajan and Constantine until it
was estimated that the circus held 385,000 spec-
tators, while the < Notitia ) places the possible
number at 485,000.

The general plan of the Grcus Maximus
compared favorably with the Greek hippo-
dromes, the main difference being in the arena
around which Caesar had constructed a moat 10
feet wide and 10 feet deep to prevent beasts
from injuring the spectators, and in the width
of the arena as before stated. Before the reign
of Augustus the circus was used for gladiatorial
fights with wild beasts and other forms of butch-
ery, but after the erection of the amphitheatre
of Statilius Taurus the circus was no longer
used for such purposes. The popularity of this
as of the Greek hiopodrome also declined and
it gradually decayed, now only a few of the re-
mains standing.

The term hippodrome has also been applied
to race tracks in England and on the continent,
the most famous of these so called hippodromes
being those at Vincennes, Longchamps, Chan-
tilly in France, Newmarket and Epsom in
England, and Curragn in Ireland. The modern
hippodrome, or indoor circus, had its beginning
in Paris, where the first was constructed in
1845. It was built entirely of wood, the arena
was 108 metres long and 104 wide, and it had
a seating capacity of 15,000 persons. This was
destroyed in 1870 by fire. The word hippodrome
was first utilized in this country when Franconi
conducted a circus where now stands the Fifth
Avenue Hotel, at 23d Street and Fifth Avenue,
New York.

The first hippodrome of the accepted type to
be built in America was the New York Hippo-
drome, which occupies an entire block on Sixth
Avenue, between 43d and 44th streets. This
structure was begun on 1 July 1004 and finished
in five months, the opening performance occur-
ring 12 April 1905. The main facade has a
length of 200 feet, and the building extends 240
feet east on 43d and 44th streets. It is built of
brick, marble, and steel, and rises to a height
of 72 feet on Sixth Avenue and no feet in the
rear, the total cost being $1,750,000. It is the
largest playhouse in the world, having a seating
capacity of 5,200.

In the interior decorations the general scheme
of coloring is a Roman red as a background,
with all the structural features done in ivory,
gold, and silver. The carpeting? are of the same



color, and the wall hangings, draperies, and
upholstery are executed in a Roman red velvet
enriched with heavy gold and silver embroidery
and tassels.

The auditorium is about 160 feet long and
160 feet wide in the first story, and the balcony
and gallery occupy the building in front of the
stage above the first story. At the rear of the
balcony is the mezzanine floor, below the rear
seats of the balcony being the wide segmental
promenade with main entrances and flights of
shallow stairs at each end leading to the street.
Behind the promenade the space, 20 to 50 feet
wide and 200 feet long, is occupied by smoking
rooms, parlors, waiting rooms, and cloak rooms.
The promenade and lobbies are finished in mar-
ble and caen-stone, relieved by rich illumina-
tions of the ornamented parts in gold and silver.
A special feature of the auditorium is the ar-
rangement and construction of cages for ani-
mals of the feline kind. Their dens are ar-
ranged in a segmental curve in the promenade
floor, and have plate glass fronts with iron bars
behind.

The chief point of interest in the hippodrome
centres the stage and the entirely novel mechan-
ical arrangements for operating the movable
platforms, filling and emptying the tank, raising
and lowering the stage, and handling the 3cenery.
The depth of the stage from the extreme front
to the back wall is 1 10 feet, or 50 feet from the
back wall to the proscenium opening and 60 feet
from the arch to the front of the stage. This
latter part of. the stage' lying forward of the
proscenium* afch-rfe • 1«l«wn as the "apron.* It
is large enough to contain two regulation circus
rings, each 42 feet in diameter. Beneath the
c apron D is built a huge steel and concrete tank,
over 14 feet in depth, and large enough for the
whole "apron 1 * to sink within it When aquatic
performances or naval pageants are given the
tank is filled with water and the movable
ff apron B is submerged below the water to the
bottom of the tank.

Bibliography. — As before stated, the only de-
scription of the Olympia as it originally stood is
contained in < Pausanias ) (v. 15 ^ 4; v. 1200 7
foil.). From results of excavations the best
descriptions of the old hippodromes of the world
may be had in the following: Curtius, ( 01ym-
pia> (Berlin 1852) ; Grosvenor, < Hippodrome
of Constantinople > (London 1889) ; Lehndorf,
^ippodromos* (Berlin 1876) ; Pollack, <Hippo-
dromica* (Leipsic 1890). For descriptions of
chariot races consult: Homer's < Iliad,' and
Livy, and "Lew* Wallace, <Ben Hur> (New
York 1880). Of the New York Hippodrome
probably the best description is contained in the
< Scientific American* (Vol. XCII., No. 12; 25
March 1005). For a study of the architectural
features of the structures of those times consult
Sturgis, < European Architecture* (New York
1896).

Hippopofamus, the generic and popular
name of a great amphibious ungulate, allied to
the swine, of which two species are known.
One (H. amphibius) is common throughout the
greater part of Africa; the other (H. libcriensis)
is not only smaller, but has other important
differences, and is found only in the African
west coast rivers, and those flowing into Lake
Tchad. The former species has a thick and
square head, a very large muzzle, small eyes



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HIPPURIC ACID — HIRTH

and ears, thick and heavy body, short legs ter- disulphid, and cold chloroform, and is bat

minated by four toes, a short tail, two ventral slightly soluble in ether and in cold water. It

teats, skin about two inches thick on the back is very soluble, however, in boiling water, and

and sides, and without hair, except at the ex- in hot alcohol. With bases, hippuric acid forms

tremity of the tail. A curious feature of the salts that are remarkable for the beauty of their

skin is the reddish exudation which pours from crystalline forms. When boiled with dilate

its pores when the animal is excited or in pain, hydrochloric, sulphuric, nitric or oxalic acid, it

It is called ^bloody sweat,* but the blood has yields benzoic acid and glycocoll.
no part in it. The incisors and canines of the Hiram College, a coeducational institution,

lower jaw are of great strength and size, the f ounded ^ l8so i n Hiram, Ohio, under the

canines or tusks being long and curved forward. auS pices of the Christian. Church. It was first

These tusks sometimes reach the length of two ^j^ the Eclectic Institute, but was incor-

feet and more, and weigh upward of six pounds. por ated as a college in 1870. In 1910 there were

pe animal is killed by the natives partly as in attendance about 400 pupils in the depart-

food, but also on account of the teeth, their ments of oratory BXld music an d m the pre-

hardness being superior to that of ivory, and para tory department and college. There are

less liable to turn yellow. The hippopotamus about 6t2O0 vo i umes m the library,
has been found as much as 14 feet long, and ms-^-i.: - . u* *k c t,s'r»5 t«««« * *^™
nearly 5 feet high, but usually measures much 1 £* !T*?' r u f el L a, ,T n, -, a ^

less. It delights in water, living in lakes, rivers, ° n * e ls J an £ of ^ando, abou l l6 ° "Si 1 ™;

and estuaries, and feeding on water-plants or Ko ^ an <* a * tcr 0saka ** most "*P°rtant port

on the herbage growing near the water, where ^ ™? tn ** na sea - #

it can walk as well as swim. It often leaves Hirsch, hlrsh, Emil Gustav, Amencan

the water after nightfall, and goes, sometimes rabbi: b. Luxemburg, Germany, 22 May 1852.

long distances, to grassy pastures to feed ; reg- He studied at the University of Pennsylvania

ular paths are worn through the reeds, and here and at Berlin, was rabbi successively in Balti-

the Africans often arrange pits, deadfalls, or more, Md. (1877) and Louisville, Ky. (1878-

other traps for their capture. These animals 80), and in 1880 was chosen minister of the

are quick of sense, timid and anxious to escape Sinai congregation of Chicago, 111. In 1880-7

danger; but when brought to bay or enraged he was editor of the < Zeitgeist* of Milwaukee,

prove formidable antagonists and often destroy Wis., and later became editor of the Reform

canoes. They are excellent swimmers and divers, Advocate* of Chicago. He was appointed pro-

and can remain under water eight or ten min- fessor of rabbinical literature in Chicago Uni-

utes. The behemoth of Job is considered to be. versity in 1892. He appeared as an orator on

the hippopotamus. Several' Extinct species are various patriotic and other occasions, and wrote

found in Old World Tertiary formations, and several monographs on religious and Biblical

modern species formerly inhabited not only topics. He was also prominent in Republican

Madagascar, but southern Europe and India, State politics, and in 1896 was presidential

where they were contemporary with the men of elector-at-large for Illinois,
the Stone Age. Hirsch, Maurice, Bakon de (Bakon Mau-

Hippuric (hl-pu'rlk) Acid, an organic acid, was de Hirsch de Gereuth). Austrian Jewish

GH.NO,, existing in the urine of herbivo- capitalist and philanthropist: b. Munich 9 Dec-



Online LibraryWilfrid RichmondThe Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 → online text (page 154 of 185)