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The Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 online

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rous animals, and, in small quantities, in that of l8 3i » d. Ogyalla, Hungary, 21 Apnl 1896.

human beings. It is increased by a vegetable His fortune was computed to be $200,000,000, and

diet, and by the disease called diabetes, and may Jus yearly income at about $20,000,000. His

be caused to appear in the human urine in con- benefactions equaled nearly $100,000,000, the

siderable quantities by the administration of most of this sum being directed toward the im-

benzoic acid with the food. It is most con- provement of the condition 1 of the Jews in all

veniently prepared by boiling horse urine with P arts o? the world. The De Hirsch trust for

milk of lime, filtering, neutralizing with hydro- the United States is a fund of $2,500,000 for

chloric acid, and evaporating to about one eighth the Americanizing and education of Rumanian

of its volume. The concentrated urine is then and Russian Jews. Other large gifts were those

acidified with hydrochloric acid and allowed of $5,000,000 for the endowment of schools m

to stand, when impure hippuric acid comes down Galicia, and of $50,000,000 to the Jewish coloni-

as a yellowish-brown precipitate. To purify the za * lon . association for the establishment ot

crude product, it is heated to 212° F. with not colonies in Argentina. In 1888 he offered to

quite enough water to entirely dissolve it, and the Russian government $10,000,000 for schools,

chlorine gas is passed through the solution until with the condition that in the distribution ot

the unpleasant smell has entirely disappeared the amount no discrimination as to race or re-

The solution is then filtered while hot, and the }i&on be made. This offer was not accepted,

crystals which separate upon cooling are isolated Baron de Hirsch made extensive sums througn

and subjected again to the same treatment, the the construction of railways in Turkey,
chlorine being passed through the solution, in Hirth, hert, Friedrich, German-American

this second treatment, until the solution is bright educator : b. Grafentonna, Saxe-Coburg, Ger-

yellow. When thus prepared, hippuric acid many, 1845. He studied at Leipsic, Berlin, and

crystallizes from water in the form of large Greifswald, entered the Chinese customs service

prismatic plates, belonging to the trimetric sys- in 1870 ; retired in 1897, and in 1002 was called

tern. Its crystals are colorless or white, free to the newly created professorship of Chinese m

from odor, and have a slightly bitter taste. Hip- Columbia University. In the summer of J9 03

puric acid has a specific gravity of about 1.308, he was in St. Petersburg, cataloguing a collec-

and melts at 369 F. ; it begins to boil at tion of manuscripts taken at Peking. He made

about 465 F., giving off benzoic acid and a valuable collection of Chinese porcelains, now

benzonitrile. It is insoluble in benzene, carbon in the museum at Gotha, and one of printed

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books and MSS., now in the Berlin Royal
library. Among his publications are: < China
and the Roman Orient > (1885); Ancient Por-
celain (1888) ; <Chinesische Studien> (Vol. I.,
1800) ; and <Ueber fremde Einfliisse in der
Chinesischen Kunst' (1896).

His'cock, Frank^ American legislator: b.
Pompey, Onondaga County, N. Y., 6 Sept. 1834.
In 1855 he was admitted to the bar, in 1860-3
was district attorney of Onondaga County, and
in 1867 a member of the State constitutional
convention of New York. He was a Republi-
can representative in Congress in 1879-87, and
obtained recognition as a party leader and
speaker. In 1887 he was United States senator
from New York and then returned to pro-
fessional practice.

Hispania, his-pa'nl-a. See Spain.

Histol'ogy, the science of animal and vege-
table tissues. It investigates by means of the
microscope the various tissues of man, animals
and plants in their anatomical relations and
compositions. Topographical histology con-
siders the more minute structures of the organs
and systems of the body ; normal histology deals
with the healthy tissues; and pathological his-
tology investigates the changes they undergo in
disease. Marie Francois Xavier Bichat (1771-
1802) is generally credited with the foundation
of the science of histology. Unfortunately the
imperfect condition of the microscope in his
time prevented Bichat and his contemporaries
from carrying their investigations to the point
which Schleiden, Schwann, Johann Miiller,
Virchow, Von Recklinghausen, Cohnheim, etc,
have reached. It has been found that all struc-
tures however complex are made up of cells,
and that the parts of a body may be resolved
into a small number of elementary tissues now
grouped as: (1) epithelium, which lines almost
all the cavities of the body and is directly or
indirectly in communication with the atmo-
sphere; (2) the nervous tissues, which as nerve
cells originate and as nervous fibres transmit
all nervous impulses; (3) muscle, which pro-
duces motion whether voluntary or involuntary;
(4) glandular tissue which consists of cells
standing in close relation with the blood-vessels
which take from the blood certain substances
and secrete them; (5) connective substances
which support and hold together the more deli-
cate and important structures, especially form-
ing the cartilages and bones. See Cell; Anat-
omy, Comparative; Anatomy of Plants.

Many tissues have the power of repairing
injuries that happen to them. This power is
called regeneration, and is found especially
in the lower animals, in polyps, worms, and in
many amphibious creatures and reptiles. In
other cases the lesion is supplied by a new
growth of connective substance. In diseases
the tissues undergo many changes and many of
these diseases in the organism are shown also
by the changing of color. The science of such
changes is generally called pathological histology.
It is a comparatively young science and has been
cultivated by Virchow, who was the founder
of cellular pathology.

Vegetable histology is that department of
botany which deals with microscopic phytotomy
or the anatomy of plants, especially investigating
the plant cells and plant tissues. It is properly

subordinate to morphology and is a distinctively
descriptive science. It deals with the question
in what relation the cells or forms of tissue
stand to the vital activity of plants, what func-
tions they perform, and in what respect they are
constituted for the fulfilling of those functions.
(Compare Cytology.) Owing to the excessive
minuteness of the cells which form the tissues
of all plants the investigation relies almost en-
tirely on the microscope, and naturally has made
its advance in proportion as the microscope has
been made more perfect Microscopes that are
now used magnify at least 1,000 diameters, and
the materials used have to be carefully pre-
pared and mounted. Many of them have to be
colored with hematoxylin, fuchsin, saffranin,
and other alcoholic or aqueous dyes. Consult
Delafield and Prudden, ^Handbook of Patho-
logical Anatomy and Histology } (1901).

Historical Societies in the United States.

John Pintard, of New York, deserves the credit
of being the first who endeavored to organize
historical societies in the United States. He
was born 18 May 1759, received his education
at Princeton College, and became actively iden-
tified with several military expeditions in the
War of the Revolution, being also deputy com-
missary for American prisoners. He was espe-
cially zealous in the study of American history,
and appreciated the need of preserving the liter-
ature, muster-rolls, private and public docu-
ments, relics, and other material of the colonial
period, at that time uncollected. In 1789 he
visited the Rev. Jeremy Belknap, in Boston, who
writes: a When Mr. -Pintard was here he
strongly urged forming a society of antiquari-
ans.* In August 1790 Mr. Belknap, following
this suggestion of Mr. Pintard, drew up an out-
line for such a society, in which was the follow-
ing clause, a Letters shall be written to gentlemen
in each of the United States requesting them to
form similar societies and a correspondence shall
be kept up between them for the purpose of
communicating discoveries and improvements to
each other, » and quaintly concludes, "When ye
societie's funds can afford it salaries shall be
granted to the secretaries and other officers *
In February 1791 Mr. Belknap writes: *We
have now formed our society and it is dubbed,
not the Antiquarian, but the Historical Society.
It consists at present of only 8, and is limited
to 25. We intend to be an active, not a passive,
literary body; not to be waiting like a bed of
oysters for the tide (of communication) to flow
in upon us, but to seek and find, to preserve and
communicate literary intelligence, especially in
the historical way.® In 1794 the membership »
was increased to 60, and by act of legislature
in 1857, the limit of resident members was placed
at 100. Associated with Jeremy Belknap in the
new society were Rev. John Eliot, Rev. James
Freeman, James Sullivan (later governor of
Massachusetts), Rev. Peter Thatcher, William
Tudor, the noted lawyer, Thomas Wallcut, the
antiquary, James Winthrop, for years librarian
of Harvard, Dr. William Baylies, a physician of
Dighton, and George R Minot, the author. The
position held to-day by the Massachusetts His-
torical Society is so well recognized at home and
abroad that it would be futile to attempt to de-
scribe either its valuable contributions or its
stimulating example to similar societies, during
its unqualified success of over 100 years. Its

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officers in 1903, were: President, Charles Fran-
cis Adams; vice-presidents, Samuel Abbott
Green, M.D., Thomas Jefferson Coolidge; re-
cording secretary, Edward James Young; cor-
responding secretary, Henry Williamson
Haynes; treasurer, Charles Card Smith; libra-
rian, Samuel Abbott Green, M.D. ; cabinet-
keeper, Henry Fitch Jenks.

To John Pintard is due the credit for the first
meeting, 20 Nov. 1804, of the New York His-
torical Society. Those present included John
'Pintard, Judge Egbert Benson, DeWitt Clinton,
Rev. Wm. Linn, Rev. Samuel Miller, Dr. David
Hosack, Rev. John M. Mason, Rev. John N.
Abeel, Samuel Bayard. Peter G. Stuyvesant and
Anthony Bleecker. These patriotic founders or-
ganized ^for the purpose of discovering, procur-
ing, and preserving whatever may relate to the
natural, civil, literary, and ecclesiastical history
of the United States in general, and of this
State in particular. *> The valuable library of
John Pintard was acquired in 1807, thus form-
ing the nucleus of the 100,000 volumes owned by
the society in 1903. The first gift from outside
sources, recorded in the minutes of the Society,
came in 1810, when 10 volumes of the publica-
tions of the Massachusetts Historical Society
were presented. The society is now erecting a
new home on Central Park West, 76th and 77th
streets, where its thousand members may more
adequately enjoy its collections; including the
galleries of American portraits and old masters;
the famous Egyptian collection of Dr. Henry
'Abbott, the Nineveh sculptures presented' by
James Lenox, the original Audubon water
colors, together with countless original papers,
engravings, prints, broadsides and relics of the
Colonial and Revolutionary periods. Meetings
are held the first Tuesday of each month, Octo-
ber to June inclusive, at which papers, dealing
with American history, are read The society
established a fund for printing its proceedings
and collections; 28 volumes have been issued
since 1868, as follows:

Vol. I.— 'The Continuation of Chalmer's Political
Annals of the American Colonies' (1685—96); * The
Colden Letters on Smith's History of New York'
(1759-60): 'Documents Relating to the Administration
of Jacob Leisler ' (1689— 1769).

Vol. II.— * The Clarendon Papers, Relating to New
York and New England' (1662—7); 'The Destruction
of Schenectady' (1600); 'Montague's Arguments on
Acts of New York Assembly' (1701); * Colden's Let-
ter on Smith's History of New York' (1759); 'Plow-
den's New Albion' (1632—50); 'Gardiner's History of
East Hampton, New York* (1798); 'Collection of Evi-
dence ana Vindication of the Rights of New York to
the New Hampshire Grants.'

Vol. III. — ' Territorial Rights of New York Against
the Government of New Hampshire,' a brief by James
Duane; ' Old New York and Trinity Church '
(1730-90); sermon by the Rev. Francis Makemie

I7 Vol'. IV., Vol. V., Vol. VI., Vol. VII.— 'The Papers
of Major-General Charles Lee' (1754— 1811).

Vol. VIII. — 'Letters of General Pattison, Com-
mandant of New York City' (1779-80); 'Letters to
General Lewis Morris (1775-82).

Vol. IX., Vol. X.— 'Official Letter-Books of Lieu-
tenant-Governor Cadwalader Colden' (1760-75).

Vol. XI. — 'Papers of Charles Thomson. Secretary
of the Continental Congress' (1765-1816); Letters of
Colonel Armand ' (1777—91); 'Letters to Robert Mor-
ris' (1775-S2).

Vol. XII.— 'Trial of General Schuyler' (1778);
'Trial of General Robert Howe' (1781); 'Journal of
Commissary Rainsford, Enlistment 01 Hessian Troops'

Vol. XIII.— 'Trial of General St. Clair ' (1778);
'Journal of Occurrences at Quebec' (1775-76); 'Case
of William Atwood, Chief Justice of New York'
(1703); ' Vosey's Sermon in Trinity Church, at the

Funeral of Lord Lovelace* (1709); 'Letter of .

Michaelius, First Minister in New Netherland ' (i6a8)j
* Records of the Court of Lieutenancy, New York
Militia' (1686-96).

Vol. XIV. — 'Journals of the Engineer Officers,
Colonel James and Captain John Montressor, of Ser-
vices in America' (1757—78).

Vol. XV. — 'Journal of Lieutenant Von Krafft, of
the Hessian Army' (1776-84); 'Letter-Book of Cap-
tain Alexander McDonald, of the Royal Highland Emi-
grants ' (1775-79).

Vol. XVI., VoL XVIL— ' Papers of Lieutenant-
Colonel Stephen Kemble, Adjutant-General of the Brit-
ish Army in America, Journals and Correspondence
(1775-89); 'General Orders of the British Army in
America' (1775—8); 'Journals, Documents, and Cor-
respondence of the Expedition to Nicaragua' (1 780-1).

Vol. XVIII.— 'The Burgher Right and Roll of
Burghers of New Amsterdam' (1648—61); 'Roll of
Freedom of New York City' (1675-1866); 'Register
of Indentures of Apprentices of New York City'
( 1 694-1 708).

Vol. XIX. to XXIII.— 'The Deane Papers. Corre-
spondence, Official and Private, of Silas Deane'

Vol. XXIV.— ' Muster Rolls of New York Pn>
vincial Troops' (1755-64).

Vol. XX V.— * Abstracts of Wills on File in the
Surrogate's Office, City of New York' (1665— 1707).

Vol. XXVI. — Same (1708—29), with Appendix.

Vol. XXVII.— Same (1730-44).

Vol. XXVIIL— Same (1744-).

The officers of the New York Society for 1903
are: President, Samuel Verplanck Hoffman;
first vice-president, Frederic Wendell Jackson;
second vice-president, Francis Robert Schell;
foreign corresponding secretary, Archer Milton
Huntington; domestic corresponding secretary,
George Richard Schieffelin; recording secretary,
Sydney Howard Carney, Jr., M.D.; treasurer,
Charles Augustus Sherman; librarian. Robert
Hendre Kelby.

Following in the steps of these two oldest
societies hundreds of a similar character exist
to-day. Indeed, hardly a city or county in each
State of the Union but has had its own local
historical society. A casual glance at a few
local societies in Massachusetts and New York
will give an idea of the spirit which prevails for
the preservation of the historic past :

The American Antiquarian Society, Worcester,
Mass., was incorporated 24 October 1812; this inland
city being selected as less exposed to possible invasion
from the sea, with the consequent loss of historical

The Essex Historical Society, Salem, Mass.. was
originally started by Dr. Edward A. Holyoke, of Salem,
and incorporated in 1821. Some 15 years later the Es-
sex County Natural History Society was incorporated,
and in 1848 both of these societies united, forming the
Essex Institute. Of other societies in Massachusetts
a few will suffice. The New England Historic Gene-
alogical Society, Boston; The Quoboag Historical So-
ciety. Brookficld; Historical Society, Nantucket: Old
Residents' Association, Lowell; Old Colony Historical
Society, Taunton; Pocumtuck Valley Memo'rial Asso-
ciation, Deerfield; The Pilgrim Society, Plymouth; The
Rumford Historical Society, Wobum. Rehoboth, Wa-
tertown, Westborough, Weymouth, and Winchester have
each local societies.

In New York State mention may be made of the
Long Island Historical Society, Brooklyn; Suffolk
County Historical Society, Sag Harbor; Oneida Histori-
cal Society, Utica; Onondaga Historical Association, Syr-
acuse; Rochester Historical Society; Buffalo Historical
Society: Westchester Historical Society, and Tarry-
town Historical Society. In many States the various
religious denominations have historical societies sna"
there was organized recently the American Jewish His-
torical Society, New York.

The various organizations in the several States
have assumed so much usefulness that there now
exists an (( American Historical Association,*
organized at Saratoga, N. Y., 10 Sept. 1884, in-
corporated by Act of Congress, approved 4 Jan.
1889, and reports annually to Congress through
the Smithsonian Institution. The more recent

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patriotic societies, such as the Sons of the Revo-
lution, Society of Colonial Wars, Mayflower
Society, Daughters of the Revolution, Colonial
Dames, and Huguenot Society, are largely in-
debted to the historical societies for their exist-
ence. Indeed, the Sons of the Revolution was
formed in the hall of the New York Historical

The following list of historical societies is
arranged in alphabetical order of States, with
the information furnished, in so far as replies
have been received, from the secretaries of
States, or officers of historical societies:

Alabama. — The Alabama Historical Society, organ-
ized 8 July 1850 at Tuscaloosa, Chancellor Alexander
Bowie being: first president. Incorporated by Act of
the General Assembly 5 Feb. 1852. During Civil War
all work was suspended, many documents being lost.
1874 revived by Dr. Joshua H. Foster, its first secre-
tary. 10 Dec. 2898; The Alabama History Commission
was created at Montgomery, Hon. Thomas M. Owen
being secretary and treasurer.

Alaska. — Society of Alaska, Natural History and
Ethnology, incorporated 11 April 1888 at Sitka. Alaska
Historical Library and Museum incorporated 6 June
1900, at Sitka.

Arizona. — The Arizona Pioneer Historical Society,
located at Tucson, was established some years ago.

Arkansas. — There are two historical societies in the
State, both styled " Arkansas Historical Society/' one
at Little Rock, Fay Hempstead, secretary; the other
at the University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, J. H. Rey-
nolds, secretary.

California. — The California Historical Society, or-
ganized in 1886, San Francisco.

Colorado. — The State Historical and Natural His-
tory Society, Denver; incorporated 11 July 1879.
Charles R. Dudley, secretary.

Connecticut. — The Connecticut Historical Society,
Hartford, organized 1825; revived by the general as-
sembly 1839; Albert C. Bates, secretary; New Haven
Colony Historical Society, New Haven, 186a; New
London County Historical Society, New London, 1870;
Fairfield County Historical Society, Bridgeport, 1881;
and the Middlesex County Historical Society, Middle-
town, 1902.

Delaware.— The Historical Society of Delaware,
Wilmington, incorporated 1868; Hon. Chas. B. Lore,
president; Wra. Hall Porter, recording secretary.

District of Columbia. — The Columbia Historical So-
ciety, organized 9 March 1894; Mrs. Mary Stevens
Beall, recording secretary; and also the American His-
torical Society.

Georgia, — The Georgia Historical Society, Savan-
nah; Hon. William Harden, secretary.

Idaho. — The Historical Society of the State of
Idaho, Boise City; Hon. Wra. A. Goulden, secretary.

Illinois. — The Illinois State Historical Society, or-
ganized 30 June 1899. Local organizations in the State
cooperate with the Society. The last legislature made
the society a part of the Illinois State Historical Li-
brary, which library has heretofore issued publications
of the society. Mrs. Jessie Palmer Webb, librarian of
State Historical Library, and secretary and treasurer
State Historical Society.

Indiana. — The Indiana Historical Society, organized

Iowa. — The State Historical Society of Iowa, Iowa
City; organized 1857; present articles of incorporation
date April 1892; F. E. Horack, secretary. The histori-
cal department of the State Library, Des Moines, should
not be confused with this society.

Kansas. — The Kansas State Historical Society, To-
peka; organized 14 Dec. 1875; Geo. W. Martin, secre-
tary; " this library contains 24,424 books; 7 2 >7%9
pamphlets; 25,926 volumes of newspapers; 25,977 man-
uscripts; 6,696 relics; 5,751 pictures; and 5*129 atlases
and maps.

Kentucky. — The Kentucky Historical Society; or-
ganized 1839—40. The legislature donated rooms to the
society 1879-80. In August 1002 it became a depart-
ment of the State. Gov. J. C. W. Beckham, president;
General Fayette Hewitt, first vice-president; W. W.
Langmoor, second vice-president; Mrs. Jennie C. Mor-
ton, secretary and treasurer.

Louisiana. — The Louisiana Historical Society; or-
ganized 15 Jan. 1836: Judge Henry A. Billiard, pres-
ident; reorganized 1846 with Judge F. X. Martin,
president; incorporated 1847 ana a new charter given
30 April 1877, transferring it from Baton Rouge to
New Orleans. From i860 to 1888 Judge Charles
Gayarr6, president, being succeeded by Judge W. W.

Howe. Since 1894 Prof. Alcee Fortier has been pre*

Maine. — The Maine Historical Society, Portland;
organized 1822; H. \V. Bryant, recording secretary;
The Bangor Historical Society, Bangor; The Kennebec
Antiquarian Society, Augusta; York Institute, Saco;
The Sagadahoc Historical Society, Bath; The Lincoln
County Historical Society, Wiscasset; The Skowhegan
Historical Society, Skowhegan; The Waterville His-
torical Society, Waterville; and The Eliot Historical
Society, Eliot.

Maryland. — The Maryland Historical Society, Bal-
timore; Geo. W. McCreary, librarian; The Frederick
County Historical Society, Frederick; The Harford
County Historical Society, Belair, Dr. Archer, pres-

Massachusetts. — See data previously given.
'Michigan. — The Michigan Pioneer and Historical
Society, Lansing; organized 22 April 1874; issues each
year a volume of historical collections; Henry R. Pat-
tengill, secretary.

Minnesota. — The Minnesota Historical Society, St,
Paul, is the only society in that State.

Mississippi. — The Mississippi Historical Society;
organized 1898; Dr. F. L. Riley, secretary; Dunbar
Rowland is director of the department of archives and
history of the State of Mississippi, Jackson. This de-
partment was created 26 Feb. 1902 and is under the
auspices of the historical society.

Missouri. — The Missouri Historical Society, St.
Louis; chartered in 1875; The State Historical So-
ciety, Columbia, in 1899.

Montana. — The Montana Historical Society, He-
lena; organized December 1864; incorporated February
1865 and is a part of the State Library; Miss Laura E.
Hovey, secretary and librarian.

Nebraska. — The Nebraska State Historical Society,

New Hampshire. — The New Hampshire Historical
Society, Concord.

New Jersey. — The New Jersey Historical Society,
Newark; organized 1845; William Nelson, correspond*
ing secretary; Bergen County Historical Society, Hack-
ensack, 1902; New Brunswick Historical Club, New
Brunswick, Hunterdon County Historical Society,
Flcmington; Salem County Historical Society, Salem;
Princeton Historical Association, Princeton; Woods*
town and Pilesgrove Historical Society, Woodstown.

New Mexico. — The Historical Society of New Mex-
ico; incorporated 5 Feb. 1881; home office, Santa Fe.

New York. — See previous references.

North Carolina. — The Historical Society of North
Carolina was chartered in 1833; rechartered 22 March

Online LibraryWilfrid RichmondThe Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 → online text (page 155 of 185)