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The Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 online

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tion for the Advancement of Science. His
publications include: c Elementary Geology *
(1861, with E. Hitchcock) ; <Mt Washington in
Winter* (1871) ; and a ( Report on the Geology
of New Hampshire 1 (1873-$), with folio atlas,
his most valuable work.

Hitchcock, Edward, American Congrega-
tional clergyman and geologist: b. Decrfield,
Mass., 24 May 1793 ; d. Amherst, Mass., 27 Feb.
1864. He was principal of the academy in his
native place 1815-18; pastor of the Congrega-
tional Church in Conway, Mass., 1821-5; pro-
fessor of chemistry and natural history in
Amherst College 1825-^45. and president of
Amherst College and professor of natural the-
ology and geology 1845-54. He was appointed
State geologist of Massachusetts in 1830, of the
First District of New York in 1836, and of
Vermont in 1857. In 1850 he was commissioned
by the government of his native State to ex-
amine the agricultural schools in Europe. His
life was in a great measure identified with the
history of Amherst College. Connected with
it almost from the beginning, in his own presi-
dency he procured for it buildings, apparatus,
and funds to the amount of $100,000, doubled
the number of students, and established it on
a solid pecuniary as well as literary and scien-
tific basis. His earliest scientific publications
were the ( Geology of the Connecticut Valley*
(1823), and a i Catalogue of the Plants within
Twenty Miles of Amherst* (1829). Later
works were: ( Lectures on Diet, Regimen, and
Employment* (1831) ; c Lectures on the Pecul-
iar Phenomena of the Four Seasons* (1850);
Reports on the Geology of Massachusetts*
(1833-35-38-41) ; illustrations of Surface Geol-
ogy (1857) ; Elementary Geology, * which
passed through 25 editions m America, and one
third of that number in England; ( Religion of
Geology and its Connected Sciences * (1851);
and Reminiscences of Amherst College* (1863).
Dr. Hitchcock suggested as well as executed the
geological survey of Massachusetts, the first not
only in the long series of scientific surveys in
the United States, but the first survey of an
entire State under the authority of govern-
ment in the world. He was the first to give
a scientific exposition of the fossil footprints of
the Connecticut Valley, and with him ichnology
as a science began.

Hitchcock, Ethan Allen, American soldier:
b. Vergennes, Vt, 18 May 1798; d. Sparta, Ga.,
S Aug. 187a He was a grandson of Ethan

Allen (q.v.), and was graduated at West Point
m 181 7, entering the corps of artillery as a
third lieutenant. In 1829 he became the military
commandant of the corps of cadets, in which
office he continued until 1833. He served in
Florida against the Indians, and in the war with
Mexico, where he received two brevets, one as
colonel and another as brigadier-general. In
1855 he printed for private circulation a pam-
phlet in support of his opinion that genuine .
alchemy was not an art for making gold, but \
that the alchemists were students of man, whose, *
perfection was symbolized by their *phik>so-
pher's stone.* He subsequently published : c Re-
marks upon Alchemy and the Alchemists )

(1857) ; c Swedenborg a Hermetic Philosopher*

(1858) ; < Notes on the Vita Nuova of Dante*

Hitchcock, Ethan Allen, American politi-
cian: b. Mobile, Ala., 19 Sept. 1835; d. Wash-
ington, D. C« 9 April 1909. Was in mercantile
business at St Louis, Mo., 1855-60, then went
to China to enter a commission house, of which
firm he became a partner in 1866. In 1872 he
retired from business, in 1874 returned to the
United States, and in 1874-97 was president of
several manufacturing, mining, and railway
companies. He was appointed envoy extraordi-
nary and minister plenipotentiary to Russia in
1897, and in February 1898 ambassador extra-
ordinary and minister plenipotentiary, the first
ambassador accredited from the United States
to the court of Russia. In 1898 he was nom-
inated and confirmed as secretary of the interior,
and held that position till 4 March 1907.

Hitchcock, James Ripley Wellman, Amer-
ican art critic: b. Fitchburg, Mass., 3 July 1857.
He was graduated at Harvard in 1877, and was
art critic of the New York Tribune 1882-90.
He has written: ( The Western Art Movement
(1885); <A Study of George Inness> (1885);
< Madonnas by Old Masters ) (1888), the text to
photogravures; ( The Future of Etching* ;
( Some American Painters in Water Colors * ;
( Etching in America* ; ( Notable Etchings by
American Artists* ; etc.

Hitchcock, Roswell Dwight, American
Congregational clergyman: b. East Machias,
Maine, 15 Aug. 1817; d. Somerset, Mass., 16
June 1887. Graduated from Amherst College
in 1836 and from the Andover Theological Sem-
inary in 1838, he also studied at Halle and Ber-
lin (1847), in 1845-52 was pastor of the First
Congregational Church at Exeter, N.. H. t and
in 1852-5 professor of revealed religion in Bow-
doin College. In 1855 he became professor of
church history at the Union Theological Sem-
inary, of which institution he was elected presi-
dent in 1880. He became president of the
Palestine Exploration Society in 1871, and vice-
president of the American Geological Society in
1880. An editor of the American Theological
Review*; he wrote: ( The Life, Character, and
Writings of Edward Robinson* (1863) ; Com-
plete Analysis of the Holy Bible* (1869) ; and
Socialism* (1879). With Eddy and Madge, he
compiled < Carmina Sanctorum* (1885); and
( Eternal Atonement,* a volume of sermons,
appeared in 1888.

Hittell, Theodore Henry, American histo-
rian: b. Marietta, Pa., 5 April 1830, In 1852

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be was admitted to the bar at Cincinnati, in
1855 removed to California, in 1855-61 was con-
nected with the Bulletin and Times of San
Francisco and from 1862 practised law. He
was State senator in 1880-2. He wrote a
( History of California, y his chief work; and
compiled <The General Laws of California,*
known as ( Hitteirs Digest,* and 'Hittell's
Codes and Statutes of California.*

Hittites, hit'its, the name of several peo-
ples mentioned in the Old Testament, and in
Egyptian and Assyrian inscriptions. In the Old
Testament the name is applied to three more or
less distinct groups, namely, the "children of
Heth® from whom Abraham purchased a bury-
ing-place; a people or group of peoples which
inhabited Palestine before the Hebrews and
resisted their invasion ; a kingdom in northeast-
ern Syria, with which Solomon formed mar-
riage alliances. The first group dwelt around
Hebron in southern Palestine, and the Hittites
mentioned in connection with David, of whom
the chief was Uriah, may be their descendants.
The second group of Hittites dwelt among the
mountains of central Palestine, and the third
group, united in some sort of empire, had their
seat still farther north. Of this Hittite empire
we learn more from the Egyptian and Assyrian
records than from the Old Testament. The
Heta; according to the hieroglyphic inscriptions,
offered a vigorous resistance in northern Syria
to the Egyptian king Thutmosis III. (18th dyn.:
c. 1560 b.c), and to his successors of the 19th
dynasty, Sethos I., Rameses II. and III., c.
1 350- 1 200 B.C. Carchemish, Kadesh, and
Hamath were among their chief cities. The
cuneiform inscriptions contain notices of a peo-
ple called Hatti who frequently fought with the
Assyrians from the time of Tiglath-pilesar I.
(c. 1 100 b.c.) till that of Sargon II. (721-704
B.c), after which they are no more heard of.
The Hittite monuments and inscriptions which
have been found in Carchemish, Hamath and
neighboring places, as well as throughout Asia
Minor, appear to belong to the Assyrian period.

Hittorf, Jacques Ignace, French archi-
tect: b. Cologne 1792; d. 1867. He studied his
profession in Paris and was employed on many
public buildings and places, doing work on the
Bois de Boulogne, the Champs- Ely sees and
the Church of Saint Vincent de Paul. Among
his publications may be mentioned Architecture
Antique de la Sicile* ; Architecture Moderne
de la Sicile* and Architecture polychrome chey
les Grees.*

Hitzig, Ferdinand, German theologian: b.
Hauingen, Baden, 23 June 1807; d. Heidelberg,
22 Jan. 1875. He was educated at Heidelberg,
Halle and Gottingen. He went to Zurich in
1833 as professor of theology, where he re-
mained until 1861, when he returned to Heidel-
berg. He was quite a voluminous writer on
the Old Testament, composing commentaries on
the Minor Prophets (1838); Jeremiah (1841) ;
Ezekiel (1847); Ecclesiastes (1847); Daniel
(1850) ; Song of Solomon (1855). He made a
translation of the Psalms in 1835.

Hive-bee. See Honey-bee; Bee-culture.

Hives. See Urticaria.

Hoactzin, ho-akt'zin or -ak'zfn, a singular
South American bird (Opisthocomus cristattis)
of the size of a pheasant. It is brown streaked

with white, and the. head has a movable crest
It is interesting principally from the extraor-
dinary way in which the fledglings, as soon as
they leave the nest (in a tree), scramble about
the branches by aid of their wings used like
hands, by reason of the fact that they have a
temporary claw on both the index and pollex.
The food of these birds is mainly leaves and
fruit; and a strong musky odor is given off by
the adults, so that in British Guiana they are 1
called a stinking pheasants. 9

Hoadley, hod'lf, George, American law-
yer: b. New Haven, Conn., 31 July 1826; d.
Watkins, N. Y., 27 Aug. 1002. He was grad-
uated at Hudson College, Ohio, in 1844 ; studied
law at Harvard, was admitted to the bar in
1847 and joined a law firm in Cincinnati of
which Salmon P. Chase (q.v.) was the leading
member. He was appointed judge of the
superior court of Cincinnati in 1850, and
re-elected in 1864. He took a leading part
among the "Barnburners® (q.v.), was a War
Democrat, and during the War joined the
Republican party. He defeated Foraker in a
contest for the governorship of Ohio in 1883,
but failed of re-election in a struggle against the
same candidate.

Hoadly, Benjamin, English Anglican prel-
ate: b. Westerham, Kent, 14 Nov. 1676; d.
Chelsea 17 April 1761. He was educated at
Cambridge ; took orders in 1700, and after being
settled in London distinguished himself in con-
troversy with Bishop Atterbury and others. A
staunch Low-Churchman, he was appointed
bishop of Bangor in 1715. A sermon preached
before the king of 171 7 gave rise to the "Ban-
gorian Controversy* regarding the divine au-
thority of the king and the church. He was
translated to the see of Hereford in 1721, to
Salisbury in 1723, and Winchester in 1734.

Hoang-ho. See Hwang or Hoang-ho.

Hoar, Ebenezer Rockwood, American jo*
rist: b. Concord, Mass., 21 Feb. 1816; d. there
31 Jan. 1895. He was the son of Samuel Hoar
(q.v.), was graduated at Harvard (1835), and
subsequently admitted to the bar. He rose to
be judge of the court of common pleas (1849),
judge of the State supreme court (1859), and
attorney-general of the United States (1869),
and was a member of the Joint High Commis-
sion that framed the Treaty of Washington

Hoar, George Frisbie, American states-
man: b. Concord, Mass., 29 Aug. 1826; d.
Worcester, Mass., 30 Sept 1004. Senator
Hoar's paternal and maternal inheritance was
very remarkable. His grandfather was an
officer in the Revolutionary army and his father,
Samuel Hoar, was one of the ablest lawyers and
statesmen of his time, a member of Congress
from Massachusetts, and a man of great learn-
ing and force of character. Senator Hoar's
mother was a daughter of Roger Sherman, a
signer of the Declaration of Independence. He
was graduated from Harvard in 1846, studied
law there, and began his law practice in Wor-
cester, Mass. The young man was early at-
tracted to politics and identified himself with the
Free Soil party, and his purpose in 1895 — 5°
characteristic of his whole career — is thus
stated by himself: € A1I of us Free Sorters
were drawn into politics by a great issue. It

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was to prevent slavery being extended into the
new territory between the Mississippi and the
Pacific. We were all ardent advocates of free-
dom. The party and the movement were new,
and we were stirred by high ideals. Among the
young men who went into the new movement at
that time were my brother, Ebenezer Hoar,
Erastus Hopkins, Anson Burlingame, Whittier,
Lowell, Longfellow, and many others that be-
came well known. There were no offices to gain.
There was simply a cause to work for. In the
campaign of 1850 the Free Soilers did not
carry a single State, only a few Congressional
districts? He was a member of the Republican
party from the first, and in 1852 was elected to
the Massachusetts house of representatives; in
1857 to the State senate. In the intervals of
service he practised law. In i860 he was city
solicitor. He presided over the Republican con-
ventions in Massachusetts in 1871, 1877, I ^ 2
and 1885; was a delegate to his party's national
conventions in 1876, 1880 (the chairman in that
year), 1884, 1888, 1892 and 1896. He served in
the national House of Representatives for four
successive Congresses, 1869-77, elected as a rep-
resentative of the Worcester district; in 1877
he was elected to the Senate, and was re-
elected in 1883, 1889, i895, and 1901, serving his
country continuously as a national legislator
since 1869, having represented Massachusetts
for a longer period in the national Congress than
any other representative from that State. In
1876, he was one of the managers on behalf of
the House in the Belknap impeachment trial,
and was also a member of the Electoral Com-
mission (q.v.), which decided the Hayes-Tilden
contest for the Presidency, the other Republi-
can members of that famous body being Sena-
tors George T. Edmunds, O. P. Morton and
Frederick T. Frelinghuysen, and Representative
James A. Garfield. In the Senate he was chair-
man of the judiciary committee, and of the com-
mittee on privileges and elections, and a mem-
ber of other important committees. He was
known as the old man eloquent of the Senate,
having served in that body for $7 years and
taken part in all the great questions that have
been' before the country during that time. He
was a determined opponent of the retention of
the Philippines, and independent enough to state
his views fearlessly in the support of his own
theory that the United States should leave the
islands to the control of the Filipinos and pre-
vent interference from foreign nations, but his
honesty and sincerity were unquestioned and
he always retained the confidence of his party
and the respect of all. He was a thorough
American and believed in the future of his
country and placed its welfare above all per-
sonal considerations. tt The lesson which I have
learned in life, which has been impressed upon
me daily and more deeply as I grow old,* he
said in his autobiography, *is the lesson of Good
Will and Good Hope. I believe that to-day is
better than yesterday, and that to-morrow will
be better than to-day. I believe that, in spite
of many errors and wrongs, and even crimes,
my countrymen of all classes desire what is
good, and not what is evil *

Senator Hoar was an idealist, and was not
to be turned aside, even by his loyal love of
party, from following his sincere convictions.
He demanded iustice for the negroes and the

Indians, openly declared his sympathy for Cu-
ban and Filipino, and as firmly opposed re-
ligious intolerance in Massachusetts because his
actions were controlled by reasons which he
considered were founded in righteousness and
truth, and therefore not subject to change.

Senator Hoar was a man of considerable
scholarship and took great delight in literary and
historical studies. He was a member of several
historical and scientific societies, and took much
interest in their work. He was president of
the American Historical Society, president of the
American Antiquarian Society, regent of the
Smithsonian Institution in 1880, and trustee of
the Peabody Museum of Archaeology. He re-
ceived the degree of LL.D. from the College of
William and Mary, Amherst, Yale and Har-
vard. In 1903 he published ( Autobiography of
Seventy Years,* which first appeared in ( Scrib-
ner's Magazine* as a serial. The same year, in
a speech in his home city of Worcester, Senator
Hoar, as if in anticipation of his approaching
dissolution, thus summed up the creed of his
career : »

*If my life has been worth anything, it has
been because I have insisted, to the best of my
ability, that these three things — love of God,
love of country, and manhood — are the essen-
tial and fundamental things, and that race, color,
and creed are unessential and accidental. 9

Although 78 years of age, he was in good
health until the death of his beloved wife in
1903; their devotion had led many to predict
that neither would long survive the other. Sen-
ator Hoar was taken seriously ill in June 1904
but lingered until 30 September, when he died
at Worcester, Mass.

His death was the occasion of a remarkable
display of panegyric in the press of both Re-
publican and Democratic parties. It possessed
the peculiar quality of reconciliation, one party
regretting what the other considered his noblest
quality. The only flaws in his judgment, said
the Republican press, were his disagreements
with the party leaders on the Philippine and
Panama issues ; but to the Democratic press his
noble loyalty to the right on these occasions
was convincing proof of his lofty statesmanship.
The Democratic press regretted his inability to
see any good in their party, while to Republican
journals this virtue redeemed his errors of judg-
ment on the matters of party policy.

One journal said: *As long as the confi-
dence and affection of all the people are given
to such a man, it is foolish and false to assume
that the old standards are departing and the old
ideals becoming broken. The people still know
a man when they see him. Still they respect
and honor the statesman who loves the republic
better than he does himself, who never falters
in his service, to whose fingers gold does not
cling, and whose never- forgotten ideal is the
people's welfare. ,While they honor such qual-
ities above all others, pure and able statesmen
will continue to come to their service,* senti-
ments which were summarized in Ex-President
Cleveland's statement that "Senator Hoars abil-
ity, his high-mindedness, and his freedom from
political trickery, furnish an example of a useful
life which may well be imitated by all those
entrusted by their countrymen with public du-
ties* George Edwin Rthes,

Editorial Staff ^Encyclopedia Americana?

Digitized by



Hoar. Samuel, American lawyer and leg-
islator: b. Lincoln, Mass., 1778; d. 1856. He
was graduated at Harvard in 1802 and three
years later entered upon a highly successful
career as a lawyer. He served two terms as a
State senator and was chosen by the Massachu-
setts legislature to challenge the constitution-
ality of certain laws in South Carolina relating
to the imprisonment of free negroes. He was
subsequently excluded from South Carolina
courts by the State legislature.

Hoarhoond. See Horehound.

Ho'bart, Garret Augustus, American law-
yer and politician : b. Long Branch, N. J., 1844 ;
d. Paterson, N. J., 2 Nov. 1899. He was grad-
ated at Rutgers College, New Jersey, in 1863,
and admitted to the bar in 1866. At Paterson,
where he made his home till his death, he en-
joyed a successful law practice. He became
successively city attorney, prosecuting attorney
for Passaic County, a member of the State
Assembly 1873-8, and of the State Senate
1879-85. During his several terms he was
speaker of the Assembly and president of the
Senate. In 1896 he was nominated at St Louis
for vice-president on the ticket with William
McKinley, whose intimate friend he was, and
was elected to that office.

Hobart, George Vere, American journalist,
playwright, and author: b. Cape Breton, N. S.,
16 Jan. 1867. He was educated in Nova Scotia,
later coming to the United States as a telegraph
operator for the United Press. He became edi-
tor of the Cumberland Sunday < Scimitar, } later
writing for the 'Herald,* Evening News and
< American > of Baltimore. Since then he has been
writing for the Hearst newspapers the humorous
sketches, <John Henry* and < Dinkelspiel. > He
has written <Many Moods and Many Meters*
(1899), and <Li'l Verses for Li'l Fellers'
(1903), both poems; the 'DinkelspieP series
(1900) ; the ( John Henry* books (1901-4), and
the plays, ( After Office Hours,* <Miss Print,*
'Hodge, Podge & Co., } < Sally in Our Alley,* etc

Hobart, John Henry, American Protestant
Episcopal bishop: b. Philadelphia 14 Sept. 1775;
d. Auburn, N. Y., 10 Sept. 1830. He was edu-
cated at the College of Philadelphia (now the
University of Pennsylvania), and the College
of New Jersey (now Princeton), and after
trying commercial life in his brother-in-law's
counting house, went back to Princeton as a
tutor for two years, and was ordained deacon in
1798 and priest in 1801. After brief periods of
pastoral service in Pennsylvania, New Jersey,
and Long Island, he became assistant in Trin-
ity Parish, New York, where he remained until
his elevation to the episcopate, combining with
his other duties a prominent share in the legis-
lative councils of the church, as deputy to the
General Conventions of 1801 and 1804, and sec-
retary to the House of Deputies in the latter
year. In 181 1 he was consecrated as bishop-
coadjutor in the diocese of New York, and
upon the death of Bishop Moore in 1816, suc-
ceeded him both in the full charge of the dio-
cese and in the rectorship of Trinity Church.
He also gave provisional episcopal care at dif-
ferent times to New Jersey and Connecticut.
He was very active in promoting the establish-

ment of the General Theological Seminary, and
upon its location in New York became professor
of pastoral theology. Hobart College also owed
much to him, a debt recognized by the taking of
his name, when, in 1852, the original title of
Geneva College was changed to Hobart Free
College. He wrote or edited a number of theo-
logical works, some of which, especially his
* Companion for the Festivals and Fasts* (1805),
reached several editions. His < Apology tor
Apostolic Order* (1802) is still used as a text-

Hobart, the capital of Tasmania, and up
to 1 881 called Hobart Town, is situated at the
foot of Mount Wellington (4,166 feet high), on
the Derwent River, 12 miles from its outlet in
Storm Bay on the south coast. It has handsome
public buildings, including government house,
the government offices, parliament houses, Epis-
copal and Catholic cathedrals. There are im-
portant domestic manufactures, and in connec-
tion with its considerable shipping interests, a
fine harbor with modern accommodations.
Hobart is connected by rail with Launceston.
Pop. about 31,400.

Hobart College, a Protestant Episcopal
institution, located at Geneva, N. Y. In 1825
it was chartered as Geneva College; but in
1852 the name was changed to Hobart Free Col-
lege, and in i860 to Hobart College. Bishop
Hobart (q.v.) had aided the school by advice
and by money. An endowment from Trinity
Church, New York, had greatly assisted the
institution. The college offers scholarships and
prizes to worthy students, and the departments
are all well sustained. The courses lead to the
degrees of A.B., B.S., and Ph.B. There are
about 44,000 volumes in the library. In 19 10 the
school had 24 professors and instructors and 100
students. The graduates number nearly 1,600.
Langdon C. Stewardson,

Hobart Pasha, Augustus Charles Ho-
bart-Hampden, third son of the Earl of Buck-
inghamshire, English sailor: b. Waltham-on-
the- Wolds, Leicestershire, 1 April 1822; d.
Milan, Italy, 19 June 1886. He entered the Eng-
lish navy as midshipman 1836 and retired as
captain at the conclusion of the Crimean War
in 1863. During the American Civil War he
took the name of "Captain Roberts* and was
given command of a blockade runner, an ac-
count of which is to be found in his ( Sketches
of My Life* published posthumously. In 1867
he entered the Sultan's service, reorganized the
Turkish navy, and fought the Russians on the
Black Sea in the War of 1877-8. He was made
Pasha (1869) and marshal of the Turkish Em-
pire (1881).

Hobbema, Meindert, mln'de'rt hfib^ma,
Dutch landscape painter: b. Amsterdam, 1638;

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