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The Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 online

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d. there 7 Dec. 1 709. He was considered, next
to J. Ruysdaal, the best of the Dutch landscape-
painters, and as a colorist reckoned even su-
perior to Ruysdaal. The figures in his land-
scapes are painted mostly by Berchem, Van de
Velde, Lingelbach, and J. Van Loo. His paint-
ings consist chiefly of forest scenes, ruins, vil-
lages, etc. Some of the most celebrated works
of this master are to be found in public or pri'

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vate galleries in France, Germany, and Holland.
His greatest painting is ( A View in Holland/
with figures painted by Adrien van de Velde.

Hobbes, John Oliver. See Craigie, Pearl
Mary Teresa.

Hobbes, Thomas, English moralist, philoso-
pher, and political scientist: b. within the
borough of Malmsbury, Wiltshire, 5 April
1588; d. Hardwicke, Derbyshire, 4 Dec 1679.
Thomas Hobbes is eminent as writer on the
theory of government, on psychology, and on
metaphysics, and as master of a vigorous and
picturesque English style. He was born in the
year of the Spanish Armada, 1588, and lived
to be 91 years old, active to the end in mind
and in body. He was the son of a poor English
vicar, was educated by his uncle, a prosperous
glover, and spent the last five of his student
years at Magdalen College, Oxford. The Oxford
of that period was given over to a restricted
and arid scholasticism, barring out mathematics,
for example, as a black art; and Hobbes re-
tained through life a vivid memory of the
pedantry and narrowness of the Oxford of his
youth. At the end of ' these student years,
hi 1608, he was employed by Cavendish, after-
wards Earl of Devonshire, as tutor to his
son; and he remained for the next 20 years
in the service of this same great family and
throughout his life, in close and friendly con-
nection with it. For two years he traveled with
his pupil on the continent, and then followed
18 years in England— a service terminated only
by the death of his former pupil and constant
friend, the second Earl. During these years,
Hobbes devoted himself to classical study,
which bore fruit in his vigorous translation
of Thucydides, published in 1628. The three
succeeding years were spent on the Continent,
at first in travel with another English youth,
later in the eager study, mainly at Paris, of
mathematics and natural science. Hobbes him-
self tells us with what astonishment and delight
he first, in 1628, when he was 40 years old, saw
and read Euclid's 'Elements.* In 1631 he be-
came tutor to the third Earl of Devonshire,
son of his late patron and first pupil. With him
he made, in 1634, a third continental journey,
learned to know Galileo during his sojourn in
Italy, and was admitted, in Paris, to the fellow-
ship of a group of mathematicians and scien-
tists. He must have been pondering on prob-
lems of politics and of psychology in the inter-
vals of his study of physics and geometry, for
his next book, which circulated in manuscript
as early as 1640, set forth his theory of human
nature and of the body politic. The publication
even privately of this doctrine brought its
author into prominence and strongly influenced
the course of his life.

The psychology of Hobbes forms the basis
both of his political and of his metaphysical
doctrine. He distinguishes the Cognitive (or
conceptiveV faculty from the < motive > faculty
of the mind, and recognizes five senses, to which
he adds *a sixth sense, but internal, * * *
commonly called remembrance.* He defines the
affective consciousness as * motion about the
heart, y which 'when it helpeth is called pleasure
* * * but when it hindereth the vital
motion is called pain.* And he ends with a dis-

cussion of the passions which reduces will to
desire and conceives each emotion from a nar-
rowly individualistic standpoint 'To endeavour*
he says, 'is appetite*; and, in the race of life,
' continually to out-go the next before is felicity.*
The foundation of the political system of
Hobbes is the teaching that men 'are by nature
equal,* and self-seeking; that a many men at
me same time have an appetite to the same
thing; which yet very often they can neither
enjoy in common, nor yet divide*; that con-
sequently *every man is enemy to every other*
and that 'during the time men live without a
common power to keep them all in awe, they
seek such a Common Power, as may be able to
defend them from invasion of foreigners and
are in that condition which is called War.*
'The only way,* Hobbes continues, 'to erect
such a Common Power, as may be able to de-
fend them from invasion of Foreigners and
the injuries of one another * * * is to con-
fer all their power and strength upon one man
or upon one Assembly of men, that may reduce
all their Wills, by plurality of voices, unto
one Will.* Hobbes accordingly conceives of
a government as formed by a mutual con-
tract of individuals, of whom each seeks simply
his own preservation, happiness, and security.
The contract, he insists, is between each individ-
ual 'subject* and every other — not at all,
between subject and sovereign. It is made, he
says, *by covenant of every man with every
man * * * as if every man should say, /
authorize and give up my Right of Governing
myself to this Man, or to this Assembly of
men, on this condition, that thou give up thy
Right to him.* Upon this theory, that the
covenant of every citizen with every other
underlies government, Hobbes bases his well-
known doctrine of the absolute right of the
sovereign. For, he argues, all the governed
'are bound, every man to every man to Own
and be reputed Author of all, that he that al-
ready is their Sovereign, shall do, and judge fit
to be done.* In other words 'every Subject
is Author of every Act the Sovereign doth.*

Hobbes asserts unambiguously the subor-
dination of church to state. 'The Kingdom of
Christ,* he declares, 'is not of this world;
therefore neither can his ministers (unless
they be Kings) require obedience in His name.*
It follows, he teaches, 'that every Christian
Sovereign [is] the supreme Pastor of his own
Subjects*; and that every subject is bound to
obey the command of his sovereign with re-
gard not only to the forms of religious wor-
ship but to the nature of the doctrines openly
professed. Such conformity to the will of
even an 'infidel sovereign* does not conflict,
Hobbes insists, with our duty to God. For
God requires of us only faith and obedience
to his laws. 'And when the Civil Sovereign
is an Infidel, every one of his own Subjects
that resisteth him sinneth against the Laws of
God (for such are the Laws of Nature) and
rejecteth the counsel of the Apostles that ad-
monisheth all Christians to obey their Princes.
* * * And for their Faith h is Internal and
invisible ; they have the license that Naaman had,
and need not put themselves into danger for it.
But if they do, they ought to expect the'r
reward in Heaven, and not complain of th<» ; -

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Lawful Sovereign; much less make war upon

It is not possible, within the limits of this
article, to outline the ingenious argument by
which Hobbes seeks to toist upon a present
generation, the responsibilities ot a social con-
tract which a past generation made. Still less
is it possible to present an adequate criticism
of the conception of Hobbes. Psychologists
and sociologists have long since agreed that his
psychology and his political theory are alike
defective; that societies and governments grow,
and are not manufactured; and that sympathy
no less than selfishness is a basal instinct
Yet Hobbes's theory of society is still worth
studying, not only because it is expressed in
such vigorous English, nor even mainly be*
cause of the influence it exerted on Rousseau
and Spinoza (qq.v.), but primarily because it
so ruthlessly depicts society as it would be if
men were no more than self-seeking and

It is evident that the brilliant attempt of
Hobbes to justify the absolute supremacy of
the monarch could find little favor in England
in the years of the Parliamentary struggle
with Charles I. Hobbes, who was morbidly
timid, believed that he stood in personal dan-

fer and betook himself, a voluntary exile, to
>aris where he spent n years in the society,
on the one hand, of French men of science and
letters, and on the other hand, of the Eng-
lish royalists. In 1646 Hobbes became the tutor
of the young prince, later Charles II. He pub*
tished in the meantime an epitome in Latin,
c De Cive, } of his doctrine of government, and
afterward the earlier work already referred to.
In 165 1 he brought out the work by which he
is best known, i Leviathan, Or, The Matter,
Form and Power, of a Commonwealth.* This
book is the most popular, forcible, and detailed
discussion of the political theory of Hobbes. It
is prefixed by several chapters which are prop-
erly psychological, and which embody an
egoistic and sensationalistic psychology full of
acute introspection and of keen discrimination.
The later chapters of < Leviathan } include sug-
gestions of materialistic doctrine. In spite of
its monarchical tendency, <Leviathan> was
violently opposed by the influential clerical
party among the English royalists in Paris.
Hobbes concluded that he would be safer even
in Puritan England, returned accordingly, and
lived unmolested under the Cromwells. At the
Restoration, in 1666, he regained the royal
favor and he never afterward lost the pro-
tection of his old pupil, Charles II.

The metaphysical doctrine of Hobbes is
expounded in two books published a few years
after his return to England: <De Corpore,*
which appeared in 1655, and a translation, Con-
cerning Body,* published a year later. This
teaching is succinctly stated in these words:
€ The world (I mean * * * the whole mass
of things that are), is corporeal, that is body;
* * * and that which is not body is no part
of the universe.* The doctrine of Hobbes is,
in other words, frankly materialistic ; he teaches
that the innumerable realities which go to
make up the universe are, one and all, non-
spiritnal. or material. So-culled spirits are, he
holds, merely subtle and intangible bodies; and
even God, the First Cause of the universe, is

body. The philosophy of Hobbes becomes in
its detail a system of mechanics or of physics;
for, since all reality is physical, laws of space
or of motion must be ultimate laws.

1 he metaphysical doctrine of Hobbes deserves
more attention than it often receives, because
it is so thoroughgoing and internally consistent
a system of materialism. The arguments, im-
plicit rather than explicit, on which Hobbes
bases it are none the less, in the view of the
writer of this notice, unsound. In brief, Hobbes
argues for materialism partly because of the
untrustworthiness of consciousness, and partly
on the ground that physical motions are ad-
mitted to be cause of consciousness. u It is
evident, 9 he says, while describing the phe-
nomenon of vision, in the second chapter of
< Human Nature,* • "that from all lucid *
bodies, there is a motion produced to the eye,
and through the eye to the optic nerve, and so
into the brain * * * and thus all vision
hath its original from * motion." From similar
observations he concludes that ideas (or in his
own words, apparitions or phantasms) 'are
nothing really but motion * .* The reasoning
that consciousness because conditioned by
motion is, therefore, identical with motion is
evidently illicit ; and it is observable that Hobbes,
when he tries to define body, motion, and space,
really conceives them in terms of ideal reality.

Just before the appearance of the metaphysi-
cal works, in 1654, an essay <Of Liberty and
Necessity, } written by Hobbes eight years be-
fore in the course of a private discussion with
Bishop Bramhall, was published without the
knowledge and consent of the author. It was
followed in 1656 by a longer and more polemical
work, < The Questions Concerning Liberty,
Necessity, and Chance, clearly Stated and De-
bated between Dr. Bramhall * * and Thomas
Hobbes. * The unambiguous teaching of these
works is a determinism grounded in psychology,
the doctrine "that voluntary actions have all
of them necessary causes and are therefore

Most of the works which Hobbes published
from this time onward are, indeed, controver-
sial in character. Most bitter of them are the
books and essays on mathematical subjects,
maintaining against Wallis and Ward, Savilian
professors in Oxford, the possibility of squar-
ing the circle. The titles of two of these works
are an indication of the spirit in which Hobbes
wrote them: *Six Lessons to the Professors of
the Mathematics * * * in the chairs set up
by * * * Sir Henry Savile in the University
of Oxford* ; and ( Sriyfuu or Marks of
the Absurd Geometry, Rural Language, Scot-
tish Church Politics and Barbarisms of John
Wall is. > Hobbes, who was, after all, no trained
mathematician, was always worsted in these
mathematical contests, but never acknowledged
himself defeated.

More serious than the justified criticisms of
Ward and Wallis on the mathematics of Hobbes
were the attacks upon the orthodoxy and the
morality of his teaching. These attacks, and
especially the abortive attempt to suppress ( Le-
viathan } by act of Parliament, caused Hobbes
great uneasiness. In the Appendix which he
added to his translation . of ( Leviathan } into,
Latin (published 1668) he argued that the teach-

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ingof < Leviathan ) is not heretical, and that there
remains no English court of heresy; and he
wrote at the same time a very vigorous Answer
to a Book Published by Dr. Bramhall * * *
called Catching of the Leviathan,* a book in
which the Bishop of Derry had maintained *that
the Hobbian principles are destructive to Chris-
tianity and to all religion." Nobody doubts
today that these charges are unfounded.
Hobbes, it is true, inculcated a materialistic
philosophy and an egoistic and necessitarian
ethics; but upon these doctrines he himself
based both the philosophical conclusion that God
exists, and an ethical system which exhorts to
justice and social virtues, even while it derives
these virtues from purely selfish instincts. It
is necessary to suppose that many of the men
who decried Hobbes had never read him; and
that the epithets ( free-liver, > and ( atheist,>
which writers of his own and the following
century heaped upon him were due, in part at
least, to the fact that Hobbes remained through-
out his life in some sense under the protection
of his former pupil, Charles II. Very unjustly,
therefore, he was held responsible for the lax
morals of the court. It should be added that
from this time onward Hobbes failed to gain
from the censor license to publish any work
on a political or on an ethical subject. The
chief of the works, written at this period but
published after the death of Hobbes, is behe-
moth: The History of the Causes of the Civil
Wars of England * * * from the Year 1640
to the year 166a*

Hobbes spent the last four years of his life
with the family he had so long served, that of
the Earl of Devonshire. In these later years
he returned to the classical studies of his youth,
publishing when he was 87 years old, ( The
Iliads and Odysses of Homer, translated out
of Greek into English, with a large preface
concerning the Virtues of an Heroic Poem.>
In his very last year he wrote a sketch, in Latin
metre, of his own life. He had feared many
things, and death most of all, but he died quietly
after a short illness, in 1679.

Bibliography. — The authoritative edition of
Hobbes is that of Sir William Molesworth:
( English Works' (in eleven volumes) ; ( Opera
Latina> (in five volumes) — London, 1839-1845.
A recent reprint of the ( Leviathan > is that of
Thornton (Oxford, 1881). Selections, mainly
from the ethical and political writings, are those
of E. H. Sneath (1898), and F. J. E. Wood-
bridge (1903). ( The Metaphysical System of
Hobbes* edited by M. W. Calkins (Chicago
1905) contains the important chapters of Con-
cerning Body.* For biography and criticism
the reader is referred to G. C. Robertson,
<Hobbes > (1886): Leslie Stephen, ( Hobbes>
(1884); and Tonnies, < Hobbes, Leben und
Lehre* (1896). For complete list of the writ-
ings of Hobbes and for further references to
his critics, one should consult the works just
cited, and the Bibliographv of Benjamin Rand,
published as Vol. III., Pt. I. of Baldwin's <Dic-
tionary of Philosophy and Psychology. >

Mary Whiton Calkins,
Professor of Philosophy and Psychology,
Welle sley College.

HobT)le-Bush, a viburnum (V. dim folium)
of the southern interior of the United States,
Vol. id' — 40

whose branches often stretch along the ground
and root at the other end, tripping up the
unwary; hence it has such other names as war-
fa ring-tree, tanglefoot, and devil's-shoestrings.
The branches are long, flexuous, and reddish
in color, and the leaves are nearly orbicular
and turn to a deep red in the autumn. See

Hobkirk's (hobkerks) Hill, Battle of, in

the Revolution, 25 April 1781. After Guilford
Court-house (q.v.), Greene marchsd toward the
British position at Camden under Raw don, and
encamped at Hobkirk's Hill, about i l / 2 miles
north. He had 940 men in line, prudently en-
camping in order of battle; and some militia
just arrived who took no part in the battle. His
trains and artillery had not come up, and a ren-
egade drummer boy informing Rawdon of this,
the latter took 960 men, and making a detour
to the right through the woods in front of
Greene, drove in Greene's pickets with so sud-
den an onslaught that the Americans had barely
time to form. Greene ordered the First Mary-
land to charge bayonets and William Washing-
ton to take the British in the rear with his cav-
alry, while Ford and Campbell executed flank-
ing movements on Rawdon's wings. But Ford
was killed, one of the First Maryland's cap-
tains was shot, the men fell into disorder, and
Col. Gunby ordered the regiment to form on the
rear companies instead of moving the latter for-
ward; the retiring men were seized with a
panic, the famous veterans broke, and though
soon re-formed, the position was dangerous and
Greene had to retreat Gunby was court-mar-
tialed, but acquitted of anything but grave mis-
judgment. Greene's loss was 135, besides miss-
ing militia; Rawdon's 220 (his own figure) or
25S (Tarleton's). Consult Dawson, < Battles of
the United States> (New York 1858) ; Carring-
ton, ( Battles of the American Revolution > (New
York 1877).

Hoboken, hd'bo-ken, N. J., city in Hudson
County; on the Hudson River. It is the ter-
minus of the Delaware, L. & W. R.R. It is
opposite New York city, north of and adjoin-
ing Jersey City, and has on the north and west
the Palisades. Its area is about one square
mile. It has electric railway connections with
a number of the cities and towns of the State,
and by direct ferries with the business district
of New York. The principal streets run north
and south, nearly parallel with the river. Its
long waterfront gives it excellent shipping facil-
ities; and here are located the docks of the
ocean steamship lines ; the North German
Lloyd, the Thingvalla, the Netherlands-Ameri-
can, and the Hamburg-American. The land
upon which Hoboken is located as well as much
of that adjoining, once formed a part of the
territory of New Netherlands. It was early
known as Hobocan Hacking, which means *the
land of the tobacco-pi pe.* The tobacco-pipes
which were inade by the Indians from the stone
found in the vicinity gave rise to the name. In
1630 Michael Pauw, of Holland, purchased from
the New Netherlands Company a tract of land
a part of which is the site of the present city of
Hoboken. The land around was soon cultivated
and as New Amsterdam grew in numbers and
importance, the gardens across the river became

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more valuable. John Stevens (q.v.), in 1804,
purchased the land upon which the city now
stands, and began the town. At this time and
for some years after the Elysian Fields of
Hoboken were much used as pleasure grounds
by New Yorkers. At first Hoboken was a part
of the town of North Bergen, but on 28 March
1855 it was incorporated as a city. The disas-
trous fire at the wharves of the North German
Lloyd Steamship Company, which occurred in
1900, destroyed considerable of the city prop-
erty and three steamers. The estimated number
of lives lost was 20a The chief manufactures
of Hoboken are iron products, leather, silk,
lead-pencils, caskets, wall-paper, beer, ship-
building and repairing, and chemicals. It has
extensive coal yards, and large lumber and
brick yards. The drainage of the lowlands is
now (1003) under consideration, and by this
means a large tract of land will be reclaimed
and the sanitary conditions of the city improved.
The city is the seat of the Stevens Institute of
Technology (q.v.), and of the Sacred Heart
Academy. It has Saint Mary's hospital, public
and parish schools, and several fine church
buildings. The government is vested in a
mayor, who holds office two years, and a city
council. The mayor appoints the school,
library, fire, and health commissioners, also the
assessors. The police commissioners are ap-
pointed by the mayor and approved by the coun-
cil. The council elects the inspectors, the city
clerk and his assistants. Pop. (1890) 43*648;
(1900) S9,304; 0910) 70,324.

Hob'son, John Atkinson, English social
economist: b. Derby, England, 6 July 1858. He
was graduated at Oxford University, and from
1887 to 1897 taught English literature and eco-
nomics for the University Extension Delegacy,
and the London Society for the Extension of
University teaching. He is one of the foremost
of economic writers in England and, as a social-
ist, advocates the monopolistic control of indus-
tries by government, whether municipal, or
national. Among his works are ( The Physiol-
ogy of Industry : Being an Exposure of Certain
Fallacies in Existing Theories of Economics >
(with A. F. Mummery, 1889) ; <The Evolution
of Modern Capitalism* (1894) ; <The Social
Problem: Life and Work 5 (1901) ; and ( Impe-
rialism > (1902).

Hobs on, Richmond Pearson, American
naval constructor: b. Greensboro, Ala., 17 Aug.
1870. He was graduated at Annapolis Naval
Academy in 1889 and took a post-graduate
course at the Ecole Nationale Sup^rieure des
Mines, and the Ecole d* Application du Genie
Maritime in Paris. During the war with Spain
he was present at the bombardment of Matan-
zas and distinguished himself by his heroism in
sinking a collier across the entrance to Santiago
Harbor, on the night of 3 July 1808, for the
purpose of preventing the exit of Cervera's
fleet. He resigned from the navy in 1903.

Hobson's Choice, a proverbial expression,
denoting ^without an alternative. 39 It is said to
have had its origin in the practice of Hobson, a
carrier at Cambridge, England, in Milton's time,
who let horses to the students, and obliged his
customers to take the horses in rotation, that
they might be worked equally. Milton wrote
two epitaphs upon him.

Hoche, Lazare, la-zar 6sh, French soldier:
b. Montreuil 25 June 1768; d. Wetzler 19 Sept
1797. He took service in the French guards
when 16 years old, and at the revolution joined
the popular party. He greatly distinguished
himself at the siege of Thionville and tfce
defence of Dunkirk, and shortly afterwards,
when scarcely 25 years of age, received the com-
mand of the army on the Moselle. In 1793 he
drove tne Austrians out of Alsace, and soon
after was arrested by the Jacobins and impris-
oned at Paris. In 1704 he was released, and
appointed commander of the army destined to
quell the rising in the west, and afterwards to
that in La Vendee. In 1796 he conceived the
plan of attacking Britain, and making a descent
on Ireland, but expired suddenly while in camp
with his army of invasion.

Hockey, a game of ball known as hurley
in Ireland and shinty in Scotland, dating in its
present form from about 1883, when a definite
code of rules was drawn up by the Wimbledon
Club. According to standard rules the game is
played between two teams of 11 players each,
on a ground 100 yards long by 50 to 60 yards
wide. A goal is erected at each end of the field,
and consists of two uprights 12 feet apart sup-
porting a horizontal bar 7 feet from the ground.

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