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The Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 online

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In front of each goal a line 12 feet long is
drawn parallel to the goal-line and 15 yards
from it; and from each end of this line, with
the corresponding goal-post as centre, a seg-
ment of a circle is drawn outwards to meet the
goal-line. Thus, a kind of semicircle flattened
at the top is drawn in front of each goal, and no
goal is scored unless the ball is hit from within
this line or striking-circle. The ball used is an
ordinary cricket ball painted white; and each
player is provided with a stick, curved at the
end, without any metal fittings, and not too
thick to be passed through a ring two inches in
diameter. The players are arranged on the
field as in Association football, namely, goal-
keeper, two backs, three half-backs, five for-
wards. The game is started by one player of
each side bullying the ball in the centre of the
ground, that is, by first striking the ground with
his stick and then striking his opponent's stick
three times, after which either may strike the
ball. When the ball is driven between the goal-
posts under the bar by a stroke from within the
striking-circle, a goal is scored, and the game is
won by the side with a majority of goals scored.
The ball may be caught or stopped with any
port of the body, but it must not be carried,
kicked, or knocked on except with the stick; it
must be played from right to left only. The
goal-keeper is allowed to kick the ball away in
defending his goal. Ends are changed at half-

Hock'ing, Joseph, English nonconformist
clergyman and novelist: b. St. Stephens, Corn-
wall, 1859. He was educated at Owens Col-
lege, Manchester, and entered the nonconform-
ist ministry in 1884. Among his many published
books are: < Story of Andrew Fairfax ) (1903) I
<The Scarlet Woman> (1899); c The Purple
Robe ) (1900) ; c The Madness of David Baring*
(1000) ; < Greater Love* (1901) ; <Lest We For-
get* (1901). He is a brother of S. K. Hock-
ing (qv.).

Hocking, Silas Kitto, English Methodist
clergyman and novelist: b. St Stephen's, Corn-

Digitized by



wall, 24 March 1850. He was ordained a min-
ister in the Methodist Free Church in 1870, and
after holding pastorates in Liverpool, Manches-
ter, and elsewhere, resigned from the ministry in
1896. He is a prolific writer and several of his
books have been much read in America.
Among them may be named <Alec Green >
(1878) ; <For Light and Liberty > (1890) ; <One
in Charity> (1893) ; <A Son of Reuben> (1894) ;
< God's Outcast (1808); <The Awakening of
Anthony Wen (1901) ( Gripped > (1902).

Hocking River, a stream which has its
rise in Fairfield County, Ohio, and flows south-
east into the Ohio River. The whole length is
about 80 miles; it is navigable for about 70
miles. Along the shore, in the upper part of
the course, is the Hocking Canal.

Hocking Valley Railway Company, The.
The Mineral Railroad Company was incorporated
14th April 1864, to build a railroad from Colum-
bus to Athens, Ohio, but beyond making prelimi-
nary surveys and securing some rights of way,
nothing was done toward the construction of the
line. Mr. M. M. Greene, who was operating
salt works at Salina (now Beaumont), Ohio, in
the Hocking Valley, seven miles north of
Athens, in 1867, took up the project, and on 26
June of that year, by decree of the Franklin
County Common Pleas Court, the name was
changed from Mineral Railroad Company to
Columbus & Hocking Valley Railroad Com-
pany. In 1868 the line was opened for traffic
from Columbus to Lancaster, and in 1869 was
completed as far as Nelsonville, where it
reached the coal field.

Construction was finished 25 July 1870, to
Athens with a branch from Logan to Straits-
ville, m the coal district. The annual report of
the president for the year 1870 stated: a That
the company owned 12 locomotives, eight pas-
senger cars, three baggage cars, 279 coal, 60 box,
and 26 flat cars, in addition to which, private
parties furnished 403 coal cars, and that with all
this equipment, together with 150 other cars
furnished by connecting lines, the company was
unable to supply the demand for coal and would
have to provide more coal cars. 35 The gross
earnings of the line for 1870 amounted to

In the year 187 1, the gross earnings increased
to $548,942 and the president's report for that
year stated that a valuable trade for coal had
been commenced through Cleveland to points on
the Lakes. The report further stated that the
heavy traffic made it necessary to renew some
of the rails, and that, in order to have a test
between iron and steel, 50 tons of steel rails
were purchased as an experiment and laid in
sidings in Columbus yard under the heaviest
wear of any part of the road.

The coal business of the line developed rap-
idly, the gross earnings for the year 1872 being
$854*892. The company trebled its number of
coal cars and began to feel the need of proper
outlets for traffic to points beyond Columbus,
connecting lines being either unable or unwilling
to furnish cars for the business offered their
lines. It was thereupon determined to under-
take the construction of a line to supply the
great demand of the Lakes and the Northwest
for Hocking Valley coal, and Toledo was se-
lected as the most appropriate port. Accord-

ingly on 28 May 1872, the Columbus & Toledo
Railroad Company was incorporated by M. M.
Greene, P. W. Huntington, B. E. Smith, W. G.
Deshler, James A Wilcox, and John L. Gill,
and a preliminary survey was at once made.

The line was permanently located from Co-
lumbus to Toledo on 15 Oct. 1873. The financial
panic of 1874, however, made it necessary to
defer for nearly a year the construction, which
was commenced 17 Aug. 1875; on 15 Oct. 1876,
the line from Columbus to Marion was opened
for traffic, and on 10 Jan. 1877, the first regular
train ran through to Toledo, where the com-
pany had acquired valuable frontage on the
Maumee river for the construction of docks.

The Columbus & Hocking Valley and Co-
lumbus & Toledo Railroad companies entered
into a contract 22 Feb. 1877, providing for the
joint management of the two lines and for the
joint use of terminal property and facilities in

During the year 1877, extensive docks were
constructed at Toledo, and connecting lines at
Toledo furnished an outlet to points in Michigan
and Canada. In the meantime, the Columbus
& Hocking Valley Railroad had continued to
prosper. In 1877, the Monday Creek and Snow
Fork branches in the coal field were partially
constructed and opened and seven iron furnaces
were in blast in the coal region.

The Ohio & West Virginia Railway was in-
corporated 21 May 1878, to build from Logan,
in the Hocking Valley, to Gallipolis, on the ..
Ohio river, and some little grading was done
upon this line, but no further progress was
made until one year later, 21 May 1879, when
Hocking Valley interests took up the project,
amended the charter to extend from Gallipolis
to Pomeroy, and commenced construction. The
line was opened for traffic 15 Oct. 1880, from
Logan to Gallioolis, and 1 Jan. 1881, to Pomeroy.

The Columbus & Hocking Valley, and Co-
lumbus & Toledo Railroad companies, and The
Ohio & West Virginia Railway Company were
consolidated 20 Aug. 1881, under the name of
the Columbus, Hocking Valley & Toledo Rail-
way Company.

In 1895, the Wellston & Jackson Belt Rail-
way was built by the Hocking Valley Company
from McArthur Junction to Jackson, through
the Jackson County coal field, affording a valu-
able feeder to the line, and was opened for
traffic to Wellston 1 Dec. 1895, and to Jackson
10 Feb. 1896.

During the past few years, radical improve-
ments have been made in the capacity of the line
for handling traffic ; 40 ton coal cars to the num-
ber of nearly 6,000 have been added to the
equipment, mogul freight engines have been
superseded by consolidation engines of greater
capacity, making a large increase in the loading
of freight trains ; improved machinery for hand-
ling coal and iron ore has been placed on the
company's docks at Toledo, and the yards,
sidings, and station facilities of the line have
been increased to take care of the constantly
growing traffic.

Of the five seams of bituminous coal mined
in the State of Ohio, four are to be found on
the line of the Hocking Valley Railway, and
through its connection with the Kanawha &
Michigan Railway at Athens it also receives
shipments of coal and coke from the Kanawha

Digitized by



ft New River districts of West Virginia.
Through its control of dock facilities at vari-
ous points on the Great Lakes it has been
enabled to transport coal for shipment by lake
to the amount of nearly 2,000,000 tons during
the navigation season of the year 1904.

The Hocking Valley is the longest line of
railway entirely within the limits of the State
of Ohio, and occupies a central position from
the Ohio river to Lake Erie, passing through
the capital, with branches in the populous re-
gions of the coal fields. In 1910 the total mile-
age of the Hocking Valley Railway was 350,
made up as follows : Toledo to Pomerov, 256.8
miles; Athens branch, 26.9 miles; Jackson
branch, 17.3 miles; other branches, 43.7 miles.
For the year ending 30 June 1910, the gross
earnings were $7,569,330. The operating ex-
penses were $4,654,281, thus showing net earn-
ings of $2,915,049, which with other income
of $1,090,988 shows the total net income of the
company for that year, $4,006,037.

F. B~ Sheldon,
Assistant to President
Hodder. Alfred, American author: b»
Celina, Ohio, 18 Sept. 1886; d. New York 3
March 1907. In 1886-9 he read law in the
office of Senator Teller, in 1889 was admitted
to the bar at Denver, Colo., studied in the Har-
vard graduate school in 1 890-1, and was Morgan
fellow there 1891-2. He was for a time lecturer
in English literature and drama at Bryn Mawr
College, contributed extensively to the New York
< Nation, > and published <The Powers that Prey>
(with Josiah Flynt, 1900), a collection of stories
of the criminal classes, and <The Specious
Present (1901), a metaphysical treatise.

Hodge, Archibald Alexander, American

Presbyterian divine : b. Princeton, N. J., 18 July
1823; d. Princeton 11 Nov. 1886. He was the
son of Charles Hodge (q.v.) and was graduated
at Princeton College 1841, where he became
assistant professor. In 1847 after graduation in
the Theological Seminary of the same place he
went to Allahabad, India, as a missionary. He
stayed in Asia for three years and returning
home held pastoral charges in Maryland, Vir-
ginia, and Pennsylvania until 1877, when he
became his father's assistant at Princeton Semi-
nary, succeeding in 1878 to the chair of didactic
and exegetical theology made vacant by his
father's death. Among his works the most im-
portant are 'Outlines of Theology ) (1879);
<The Atonement > (1886).

Hodge, Charles, American Presbyterian
theologian: b. Philadelphia 28 Dec 1797; d.
Princeton, N. J., 19 June 1878. He was edu-
cated in Princeton College, graduating in 1815.
In 1816-19 he studied in the theological semi-
nary at Princeton, in 1820 was appointed
instructor there, and two years later made pro-
fessor of Oriental and biblical literature. In
1840 he was transferred to the chair of didactic
and exegetical theology in the seminary, and 12
years afterwards appointed to the additional
chair of polemical theology. In 1825 he founded
the < Biblical Repertory, y afterwards was re-
named ( Biblical Repertory and Princeton
Review,* and merged in 1872 in the Presby-
terian Quarterly and American Theological Re-
view.* From the foundation till 1872 he was
editor of and chief contributor to the * Review, y

and two of his works, < Princeton Theological
Essays > (1846-7),; and * Essays and Reviews*
(1857), were compiled from his numerous arti-
cles in that periodical. Other works are: ( Com-
mentary on the Epistle to the Romans y
(1855; enlarged, 1866); Constitutional History
of the Presbyterian Church in the United
States* (1840-41) ; <The Way of Life> (1842) ;
Systematic Theology > (1871-2), a compre-
hensive treatise giving an exposition of Calvin-
istic theology; and < What is Darwinism ?>

Hodge, Frederick Webb, American ethnol-
ogist: b. Plymouth, England, 28 Oct. 1864.
He was brought to this country at the age of
seven years, and was educated at Washington,
D. C. In 1884 he received appointment to the
United States Geological Survey, in 1886 be-
came secretary of the Southern Archaeological
Expedition, and in 1889, was appointed to the
Bureau of Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution.
He has written various papers on the Indians of
the southwest.

Hodge, John Aspinwall, American Pres-
byterian theologian: b. Philadelphia, Pa., 12
Aug. 1831; d. 1001. He graduated from the
University of Pennsylvania (1851) and from
Princeton Theological Seminary (1856). After
35 years of pastoral work he was appointed in
1893 professor of biblical instruction and church
polity in jJncoln University. Among his works
are <What is Presbyterian Lawr ) (1882) ;
'Theology of the Shorter Catechism> (1888);
<The Ruling Elder at Work> (1897).

Hodges, George, American Episcopal cler-
gyman : b. Rome, N. Y., 6 Oct. 1856. He was
graduated from Hamilton College, Clinton, N.
Y., in 1877, and from the Berkeley Divinity
School, Middletown, Conn., in 1881. He was
assistant rector of Calvary Church, Pittsburg,
Pa., 1881-9, and rector 1889-04, in the year last
named becoming dean of the Episcopal Theo-
logical School in Cambridge, Mass. He has
published among other works: Christianity
Between Sundays* (1892); ( The Heresy of
Cain> (1894) ; ( In the Present World> (1896) ;
< Faith and Social Service > (1896); <The Bat-
tles of Peace> (1897); 'The Path of Life >
(1897) ; < William Penn* (1000). He is one of
the most prominent members of the Low Broad
Church School in the Episcopal Church.

Hodgetts, hoj'£ts, Edward Arthur Brayley,

English journalist: b. Berlin, Germany, 12 June
1859. He has been connected with several influ-
ential London journals in the capacity of cor-
respondent and was foreign editor of the New
York World in 1894. Among his published
books are < Liquid Fuel* (1890) ; < Round About
Armenia y (1896) ; ( A Russian Wild Flower*
(1897) ; and a translation of ( The Swiss Fam-
ily Robinson* (1897).

Hodgkin, hoj'kin, Thomas, English histo-
rian and banker: b. Tottenham, Middlesex, 29
July 183 1. He has been for many years the
senior partner in a banking firm at Newcastle-
on-Tyne, but since 1874 has given his time to
historical writing. He has published < Italy and
her Invaders, > a work of much importance* of
which eight volumes have already appeared
(1880-99); 'Dynasty of Theodosius* (1880);
<Life of George Fox> (1896) ; <Life of Charles
the Great > (1897); etc.

Digitized by



Hodgkin's Disease* See Pseudoleukemia.

Hodgkinson, hoj 'kin-son, Eaton, English
engineer: b. Anderton, Cheshire, 1789; d. 1861.
After a somewhat desultory education, and the
pursuit of independent investigations in mechan-
ics he was appointed in 1847 professor of the
mechanical principles of engineering at Univer-
sity College, London. He was one of the royal
commission appointed in 1847 to inquire into
the application of iron in railroad building. His
principal- experiments led him to the determina-
tion of the "neutral line* in the section of frac-
ture, an important step in the progress of engi-
neering science. Among his many writings is
Researches on the Strength and Other Proper-
ties of Cast Iron 5 (1846).

Hodgson, h5j'son, Shadworth Hollway,
English metaphysician: b. Boston, Lincolnshire,
25 Dec. 1832. He was educated at Rugby and
Oxford and is the author of ( Time and Space )

(1865) ; ( Principles of Reform in the Suffrage 5

(1866) ; <The Theory of Practice> (1870) ; 'The
Philosophy of Reflection* (1878); <The Meta-
physic of Experience 5 (1898) ; etc.

Hodograph, h6d'6-graf, the term for a
velocity diagram which facilitates the study of
kinematics. It signifies the curve along which
the extremities of lines drawn from a fixed point
pass and exhibit in direction and magnitude the
velocities of a moving object at the different
points of its orbit or path.

Hoe, Richard Marsh, American inventor:
b. New York 12 Sept. 1812; d. Florence,
Italy, 7 June 1886. He was the son of Robert
Hoe (q.v.). In 1846 with his brother Peter S.
he perfected a rotary printing-press which was
called *Hoe's lightning press.* Subsequently-
the two brothers invented the Hoe web-perfect-
ing press. These were especially adapted to
newspaper printing and made a revolution
in that art. The sons of Richard M. Hoe and of
Peter S. Hoe conducted the business after the
death of the brothers, and added various im-
provements to the original Hoe printing-press.
The factory in New York in 1903 was said to
be the largest printing-press works in the world.

Hoe, Robert, American inventor: b. Leices-
tershire, England, 1784; d. 1833. He came to
the United States in 1803, was for a time a
joiner, and later entered partnership with his
brothers-in-law, Matthew and Peter Smith, for
the sale of a hand printing-press, the invention
of the latter. He took over the business in
1823. The original Hoe printing-press was
designed and built by him. •

Hoe, Robert, American manufacturer: b.
1839. He is a nephew of Richard M. Hoe
(q.v.). He became the head of the Hoe firm,
and maintained its high position among estab-
lishments of its class. A founder of the Grolier
Cub of New York, he was also its first presi-
dent. He published an edition (1880) of Ma-
berley's < Print Collector. 5

Hoel>er, Arthur, American artist: b. New
York 23 July 1854. He studied under Beckwith
in New York and under Gerome at the Ecole
des Beaux Arts, exhibited for the first time at
the Salon in 1882, and is a contributor to most
American exhibitions. He is art critic to the
Commercial Advertiser. Among his writings
are treasures of the Metropolitan Museum of

Art 5 ; and c Painting in the 19th Century in
France Belgium, Spain and Italy. 5

Hoey, Prances Sarah Johnston, Irish nov-
elist: b. near Dublin 1830. She was married to
A. M. Stewart in 1846, and to John Cashel
Hoey in 1858. Among her books, which have
circulated in America as well as in England,
are: <A House of Cards ) ; <A Golden Sorrow 5 ;
( No Sign 5 ; <A Stern Chase > ; <His Match and
More. 5

Hofer, ho'fer, Andreas, Tyrolese patriot:
b. Sankt Leonhard 22 Nov. 1767; d. Mantua 20
Feb. 1810. He was landlord of the inn a Am
Sand* at Sankt Leonhard, and hence often
known as «Sandwirt. 55 In 1796 he led a rifle
company against the French on Lake Garda, and
after the Peace of Luneville was prominent in
the organization of the Tyrol militia. In 1809
he led in an insurrection of the Tyrolese for
shaking off the yoke of Bavaria, to which their
country had been transferred by the Treaty of
Presburg. In a short time, with intermittent
assistance from the Austrians, he defeated the
French and Bavarian troops, and nearly the
whole country was liberated. Hofer then car-
ried on the military and civil administration,
till the Peace of Vienna was proclaimed. Mis-
led by false reports he commenced hostilities
anew, and thus forfeited the protection of the
amnesty. He remained concealed for some
time, but was at last betrayed to the French, and
carried to Mantua, where he was tried by a
court-martial and shot. His family was in-
demnified for the loss of their property by the
Emperor of Austria in 1819, and his son en-
nobled. The career of Hofer furnished material
for tragedies by Immermann and Auerbaoh.
Consult the studies by Heigel (1874) and
Stampfer (1891).

Hoff, hof, William Bainbridge, American
naval officer: b. Philadelphia, 1846; d. Wash-
ington, D. C, 23 May 1903. He entered the
naval service in i860, and in 1863 was gradu-
ated from the Naval Academy. He took part
in several naval campaigns during the Civil War,
and at the torpedo school and on the United
States steamship Dale he pave his attention to
the instruction of seamen in gunnery. In 1893
he was marine commissioner to Great Britain
for the World's Fair at Chicago, and was re-
tired in 1807. He was the author of Elementary
Naval Tactics 5 ; and Avoidance of Collisions
at Sea. 5

Hoffman, hoTman, Charles Fenno, Ameri-
can poet and novelist: b. New York 1806; d.
Harrisburg, Pa., 7 June 1884. He entered Co-
lumbia College, and studied law at Albany,
being called to the bar in 1827. In 1830 he be-
came joint-editor of a New York journal, and
three years later started the c Knickerbocker
Magazine. 5 For many years he edited the
< American Monthly Magazine, 5 also. In 1849
his mind began to give way, and from that time
till his death he was an inmate of Harrisburg
lunatic asylum. His first separate publication
was <A Winter in the West 5 (1835), followed
in 1837 by <Wild Scenes in Forest and Prairie, >
and in 1840 by the novel < Greyslaer: a Romance
of the Mohawk, 5 which met with immediate and
remarkable success. An earlier novel, c Vander-
lyn, 5 appeared in the < American Monthly Mag-
azine 5 during 1837. Several of his songs have

Digitized by



gafned great popularity. His published volumes
of verse include: <The Vigil of Faith> (1842) ;
<The Echo ) (1844) ; <Lays of the Hudson, and
other Poems > (1846); Move's Calendar, and
other Poems > (1848).

Hoffman, Eugene Augustus, American
Episcopal clergyman: b. New York 21 March
1829; d. near Plattsburg, N. Y. t 17 June 1902.
He was educated at Rutgers and Harvard col-
leges and at the General Theological Seminary.
He held successive rectorships at Elizabeth, N.
J., Burlington, N. J. f Brooklyn, N. Y., and Phil-
adelphia, and in 1879 was appointed dean of the
■ General Theological Seminary, New York, and
[with others of his family, heavily endowed that
linstitution. Dean Hoffman built Christ Church
'and rectory at Elizabeth, N. J., and also churches
at Woodbridge and Milburn, N. J. He was the
author of <Free Churches* (1858) ; and <The
Eucharistic Week> (1859 and 1893).

Hoffman, Murray, American jurist: b. New
York 29 Sept. 1791 ; d. Flushing, L. I., 7 May
1878. He graduated from Columbia College in
1809; was admitted to the bar, became assistant
vice-chancellor of the superior court of New
York in 1839, serving till 1843, and was elected
judge in 1853, holding that position for eight
years. He wrote: <Orhce and Duties of Masters
in Chancery and Practice in the Master's Of-
fice 5 (1824) ; <A Treatise on the Practice in the
Court of Chancery, 5 in three volumes (1834-40) ;
Reports of Cases, Court of Chancery 5 (1839-
40) ; several treatises on Church Law and nu-
merous other works.

Hoffman, Richard, American pianist and
composer: b. Manchester, England, 24 May
183 1 ; & 17 Aug. 1909. He came to New York
in his 16th year. He received early instruction
from Rubinstein, Liszt, Thalberg, Dobler and
Meyer. After his arrival in America he made
a tour of the country as a soloist, and later ac-
companied Jenny Lmd on her tours; he also
played with Gottschalk and Von Bulow in New
York in 1875. Later he became an important
figure in American musical life. He composed
music for the piano, songs, anthems, ballads
and church music

Hoffman, William M., American inventor:
b. Buffalo, N. Y., 1853. He received only a lim-
ited education and began to earn his living when
nine years of age. He prospered until he was
20, when misfortune overtook him and he be-
came a fireman on the Erie Railroad The
clumsiness in the action of the piston rod which
runs to the driving-wheels of an engine, in-
volving such a waste of power, attracted his
attention and decided him to build an engine
in which there should be no such starting and
stopping, but in which the power should create
a direct rotary movement. He studied for eight
years the technical branches of engineering, and
at the end of this period became chief engineer
of a large tannery in Buffalo. He there in-
vented a new set of 'fleshing* and 'putting out*
machinery for use in a tannery, and sold the
invention to obtain funds with which to experi-
ment on his engine. He went to Detroit in

Online LibraryWilfrid RichmondThe Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 → online text (page 166 of 185)