Wilfrid Richmond.

The Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 online

. (page 168 of 185)
Online LibraryWilfrid RichmondThe Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 → online text (page 168 of 185)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

sor, with the title of Conrad IV., by most of the
states of the empire ; but Innocent IV. laid him
under an interdict, and declared him to be de-
prived of all his lands. The conflict between
Conrad and the Pope lasted until the latter's
death in 1254. The fame of the house of Hohen-
staufen is based upon the political greatness to
which the Fredericks in particular attained;
their success in reducing to order all the states
of the empire; the encouragement which they
gave to commerce and trade, and their efforts
to promote the sciences and arts.

Hohemollern, ho'en-tsol-lern, Germany f a
province of Prussia, formed in 1849 by the union
of the two principalities of Hohenzollern-Hech-
ingen and Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen. It con-
sists of a narrow irregular strip of country en-
circled by Wurtemberg and Baden. Area 441
square miles: pop. about 68,000. The princely
family of Hohenzollern dates from Thassilo,
Count of Zollern, who died about 800 A.D., after
having founded a castle near Hechingen, on the
Zollern hill in the Swabian Alb. The fine
Hohenzollern castle of 14th century architecture,
built in the latter half of the 19th century,
occupies the site of the ancient family-seat.
There have been several lines and branches of
the Hohenzollerns, the first separation taking
place about 1165, when Frederick IV. founded
the elder or Swabian and Conrad III. the
younger or Franconian line. The elder line was
subdivided, in 1576, into the branches of Hech-
ingen and Sigmaringen. Frederick VI., the rep-
resentative of the younger line, in 141 5 received
from the Emperor Sigismund the investiture of
the electorate of Brandenburg, thus founding
the reigning dynasty of Prussia. The two
branches of the elder line continued unbroken
till 1849, when the reigning princes ceded their
respective rights and principalities to the king
of Prussia, who in 1871 became German
Emperor. The main branch of the Hohenzol-
lerns is now represented by the imperial family
of Germany. See Germany.

Hoisting Apparatus, mechanical devices
for lifting and moving laterally heavy weights.
They are known under various names and in*

dude cranes, derricks, overhead trolleys, crane-
derricks, etc. The smaller are operated by
hand power, the larger by steam or electric
power. By their aid the heaviest weights may
be readily lifted to any desired height and
^slewed" into any desired position. Their use
dates from the most ancient times, and they are
now in constant and general use all over the

Derrick. — This is the simplest form of a
machine for hoisting. The name is derived from
a family by that title who adapted its form
from the early English style of gallows, and
the name has now come into common use. In
form the derrick is like the letter V, one side
being fixed immovably by guy ropes, the other
hinged to the bottom of this fixed upright, so
that it can be raised or lowered at will. This
movable jib is somewhat shorter than the up-
right and the whole apparatus is on a platform
which can turn laterally in a circle. Through
the top of the jib is run a pulley block, a rope
passing through this and down to the base of
the upright, where it is wound about a cylin-
der, or winch. This, when revolved by hand or
other power, winds up the rope or cable, thus
raising the weight attached to the other end of
the rope. The jib is lowered or raised to get
the proper angle for picking up the article to be
lifted. This simple form of hoister is in constant
use by builders in constructing modern high
buildings. By its use, heavy or light weights
can be quickly lifted from the ground to the
top of even 30-story structures. Derricks are
commonly made of wooden spars, unless the
work to be done is very heavy or the jib ex-
ceedingly long. In such case, a tubular iron
spar is used. Hoisting engines of such power
and facility of control are now made that they
enable the operator to move the jib up or down
or sideways easily and quickly. The *stifT-leg*
derrick has its upright firmly braced by timbers
running from the top to the ground, but this
form is not common except in stone quarries or
in some work where the derrick is stationary.
The more common form is the guy-rope der-
rick, where strong wire cables extend from the
top of the upright to the ground. With this
arrangement, the hoisting machine can be moved
and located in a fresh position easily. Derricks
that will lift and swing to position weights of
from 5 to 50 tons are now made in this coun-
try. In the contemplated work on the Panama
Canal, derricks capable of moving 100-ton loads
of stone and rock are to be built, with a radios
of over 100 feet for the jib.

Crane. — Thus named because the arm or
boom resembles the neck of the crane, which
raises and lowers its neck to lift objects from the
ground. It differs from the derrick in not
having any mast or upright, usually. In the
common form of crane the whole apparatus is
centered upon a heavy platform which is itself
on wheels. The engine which operates the
winch also slews the boom in a cirdfe, and, in
some cases, moves the whole outfit along the
rails upon which the wheeled platform rests.
At the base of the boom, on the platform, is an
inverted ^V* horse, to which are attached the
pulley blocks through which run the ropes for
raising and lowering objects to be lifted. In
large foundries, ship-yards and like places, the
locomotive crane runs upon a track which Hsu*

Digitized by



u s

O z


o «

z °
o *

> u

H s

* *-

O >



Digitized by


Unw. library, IX) Sante Cruz 200i

Digitized by



ahV extends the length of the yard or shop, or
perhaps clear around it. Under its own steam,
the ponderous machine runs along this track to
the object it is desired to move. Steam power
then slews the itu.:hine laterally so that the end
of the jib or boom is over the object, when the
latter is attached to the rope running over the
end of the jib, the winch turned by the engine
and the object lifted into the air. A second
rope over another winch then raises the jib to
the desired height and the machine runs back
over the track to the point desired, where the
object is deposited. The utmost expertness and
delicacy of handling is acquired by the operator
of this steam locomotive crane, which will thus
grasp and carry where desired objects weighing
often 50 tons or more. The common size is the
one capable of lifting five tons only, though
there are at Port Royal, in the United States
navy yards, several large cranes which just as
easily lift 50 tons. This latter machine has a
boom 85 feet long and will travel under its own
steam along the track 50 feet per minute. It will
hoist a 40-ton load seven feet per minute and
slew, or turn, a complete revolution in two min-
utes. The smaller cranes are much used on
flat cars as wrecking apparatus for railroads, in
excavating and dredging and in heavy construc-
tion work. Scores were used in digging the
subway for New York city. A small 5-ton
locomotive crane costs about $7,500. This style
of hoisting apparatus is peculiarly the product of
American genius and machines made in America
are found in all large contracts for bridge' build-
ing, railroad construction and like work in every
corner of the world. A new machine for placer
mining installed in New Mexico in the summer
of 1903 adopts this form of crane, using the
water over and over for sluicing the sand. It
also operates a clam-shell shovel. In more diffi-
cult digging the ^orange peel* form of shovel is
used, the crane raising a ton or more of earth
in the shovel and depositing it where desired.

Overhead Trolleys. — In the yard of a ship-
building company at New London, Conn., has
been installed a system of overhead hoisters
which combine the advantages of both the der-
rick and the crane advantageously. The two
enormous steamships, Minnesota and Dakota,
were constructed by its aid solely. The two
ships were built side by side and one trolley
system served for both. By this method there
are three steel spars, each 120 feet long, each
supporting a steel cross-yard 174 feet long.
These masts are braced by immense steel guy
ropes or cables. The distance between the masts
is 300 feet and the tops of the yards, or jibs, are
84 feet from the ground. The working field of
the trolleys is a rectangle 600 feet long and 174
feet wide. Along the jibs a track made of wire
rope is laid, on which a carriage is swung, suitably
centred and controlled. On the main mast, just
below the yard, is the house containing the oper-
ator and engine. This one man controls the
trolley carriages on all the jibs, the raising or
lowering and slewing of the jibs and masts and
the return of the trolley carriages to the point
desired. All is done swiftly and accurately, each
carriage being capable of carrying 5,000 pounds.
This system can operate four of these trolleys
when desired.

Crane-derrick. — This is a combination of the
crane and the derrick, as its name indicates. It

resembles a figure 4 in construction. The mast
can be slewed, but the yard or jib is a fixture
and cannot be raised or lowered. Near the
juncture of the jib and mast is the house in
which sits the operator and where the engine
is located. Along the under side of the jib is
suspended a wire cable track on which runs a
grappler carriage. The jib is usually very long,
at least 60 feet, and the grappler runs to die end
of this or to such point as is desired to be at-
tached to the object to be lifted. This form of
hoister is much used in bridge building and in
places where a long reach of jib is desired.

At least 25,000 hoisting machines of these
various types are made annually in the United
States, one fifth of which are exported. About
$25,000,000 is the annual expenditure for this
class of machines, aside from the cost of hoisting
engines, ropes, wire cable and the other ap-
purtenances of the trade. The largest locomo-
tive cranes cost $50*000 and the small wooden
derrick $300 to $1,000. The industry has grown
to enormous proportions and new improvements
in methods of hoisting are constantly being made
for special purposes. Putnam Drew.

Hokusai, ho-koo-sa f e. See Japanese Art.

Holacan'thus. See Butterfly-fish.

Holbach, Paul Heinrich Dietrich, powl
hln'riH det'riH hdl'baH (Fr. ol-bak), Baron
von, German philosophical writer : b. Heidel-
sheim, in the Palatinate, 1723; d.' Paris 21 June
1789. He was educated, in Paris, where he
passed the greater <patrt< Cf his life. He was the
centre of a circle of men of wit, but of free
thinking principles, using bis great fortune, says
Rousseau, generously, and appearing to advan-
tage in the learned society which he gathered
round his table. He was the author of a great
number of works, most of which were anony-
mous or pseudonymous. The principal work at-
tributed to him, which appeared in 1770 under
the name of M. Mirabaud, and excited much at-
tention in the learned world, is the 'Systeme
de la Nature ou les Lois du Monde physique
et morale He afterward published 'Systeme
social, or Principes naturels de la Morale et de
la Politique > — a development of the previous
work, showing the application of the principles
promulgated in it to morals and politics; ( Bons
Sens, or Idees naturelles opposees aux Idees
surnaturelles > ; Elements de la Morale uni-
verselle > ; etc. According to Holbach matter is
the only form of existence, and everything is
the effect of a blind necessity.

Holbein, Hans, hSnts h61'- or hdllrtn,
the Elder, German painter: b. Augsburg 1460;
d. Alsace 1524. His art training began under
the influence of Martin Schongauer, but he
quickly launched out into a new style, which left
ancient precedents behind. He developed a
dramatic energy, a clear and lifelike coloring
and pre-eminent distinction of expression which
rendered him the acknowledged head of a new
school. His figures took the attitude of life.
The pictures over the altar in the Cathedral at
Augsburg, painted in 1493, are good specimens
of his best work ; in them are portrayed incidents
in the life of Virgin Mary. To the same class
belong the remains of an altarpiece in the
Dominican Church at Frankfort-on-Main, repre-
senting scenes of the Passion (1501) ; 16 paint-
ings of the Passion in the Munich Gallery; the

Digitized by



portrait of the artist with his two sons, in the
gallery *t Augsburg. His later pictures show
traces of the influence exercised by the Italian
renaissance, and those painted about 15 12 and
later are vastly superior to his early work.
Among them is his c Fount of Life ) (1519), now
in the royal gallery at Lisbon; the altarpiece
<Sk Sebastian* (1515), at Augsburg; the altar-

fiece <St Katharine, } in the same gallery; etc
n such works the bold and devotional concep-
tion, delicacy and directness of expression, ease
of drawing and splendor of coloring, are beyond
praise. Excellent also are some of his prelim-
inary sketches and outlines, and in Basle, Berlin,
and Copenhagen are collections of his pencil
sketches, the most remarkable of which is that
at Berlin. Consult: Woltmann, < Holbein und
seine Zeit ) (1866).

Holbein, Hans, the Younger, German
painter: b. Augsburg 1497; d. London Nov. 1543.
He probably received instruction in painting
from his father, and about 15 15 went to Basle,
where he engaged in illustrating books. At
Basle he also painted his earliest portraits, and
in 1517 went to Lucerne. Here he painted the
house of Jacob von Hertenstein, designed win-
dows, and executed other works. Returning to
Basle in 1519, he became a burgher in the fol-
lowing year, and during a seven years' residence
in that city he executed many works of great im-
portance. In 1526 he went to England. Letters
from his friend Erasmus, whose famous ( Praise
of Folly ) he had illustrated, procured him the
patronage of the chancellor; Sir Thomas More,
who employed him to delineate the portraits of
most of his own personal friends about the court,
and introduced him to the notice of Henry VIIL,
who was a liberal encourager of the fine arts.
Among the portraits produced by him during
this period are those of More, Archbishop War-
ham Bishop Fisher, and several other distin-
guished persons. From 1528 till 1532 he was
again in Basle, but in the latter year he returned
to England, where he was destined to spend
nearly all the remainder of his life. Holbein
painted most of the principal English nobility,
whose portraits place him among the world's
greatest portrait-painters. Some of his earlier
productions, especially his < Dance of Death,*
are also celebrated. In 1538 he completed and
published this series. Among the pictures of
Holbein's last period are 'The Ambassadors >
(1533). and portraits of Hans of Antwerp
0533)» English Lady and Gentlemen (1534),
Sir Richard Southwell (1538), Duke of Norfolk
(i539)» Thomas Cromwell, Lady Jane Seymour,
Henry VIIL (1542, unfinished), and others.
Comparatively few of Holbein's pictures are still
extant in England, great numbers of them hav-
ing been destroyed by Puritan fanatics, or sold
and dispersed over Europe. Many of them also
perished in the great fire in London in 1666.
Holbein also excelled in wood-engraving, and
before his visit to England had produced a large
number of wood-cuts. He was one of the earli-
est to paint portraits in miniature. See Wolt-
mann, c Holbein und seine Zeit } (1874) »' Wor-
num, <Life and Works of Holbein* (1867) ;
Knackfuss, Holbein der Jungere* (1896).

Holberg, Ludwig, loodMg h6n>erg,
Baron, Danish author: b. Bergen, Norway, 3
Dec. 1684; d. Copenhagen, 28 Jan. 1754. He
studied at Copenhagen, Oxford and Paris, and

after paying a six months' visit to Rome re-
turner \o Copenhagen in the end of 17 16. In
17 18 he was appointed to an ordinary professor-
ship in the university of that city, where after this
date he chiefly resided till his death. In 1735
he was unanimously elected rector, and in 1737
treasurer of the university, and in 1747 was
raised to the rank of baron. Holberg's numerous
productions in various departments of literature
as well as the important and salutary influence
which he exercised upon his countrymen, place
him in the front rank of the literary men of his
age. He was extremely versatile — now de-
voted to history, now to poetry, and now to the
drama ; but during his whole life he was a sworn
enemy to pedantry, theological disputatiousness,
and scholastic metaphysics. His works may be
divided into four classes — poems, stage pieces,
philosophical treatises, and historical works.
His poems are chiefly of a satirical nature. The
most celebrated among them is ( Peder Paars,*
a comic heroic poem in 14 cantos, still regarded
throughout the Scandinavian countries as a mas-
terpiece, and the hero of which has become the
national comic impersonation in Denmark. It
has been translated into several languages. Al-
most equally famous is his Nicholas Klimm's
Subterraneous Travels, } a satirical romance in
prose, originally written in Latin, but translated
into seven modern European languages shortly
after it appeared, into Danish first by Baggesen
(1789). His numerous stage pieces are either
comedies or farces, and nearly all characterized
by true comic power. Among his philosophical
writings the most important is his ( Moral Re-
flections' (1744). His historical works include:
( The Political. Ecclesiastical, and Geographical
Condition of the Danish Monarchy,' a work of
great value as a source of reference ; * A General
History of the Jews,' and *A History of Famous
Men and Famous Women 5 (1739-45).

Horbrook, John Edwards, American nat-
uralist : b. Beaufort, S. C, 30 Dec 1794 ; d. Nor-
folk, Mass., 8 Sept. 1871. He was graduated
from Brown in 181 5, from the medical school of
the University of Pennsylvania in 1818, began
practice at Charleston, S. C, in 1822, and in
1824 was appointed to the chair of anatomy in
the Medical College of South Carolina, a post
he held for over 30 years. In the Civil War
he was head of the South Carolina examining
board of surgeons. His American Herpetology,
or a Description of Reptiles Inhabiting the
United States' (1842), won for him recognition
among European scientists. He published but
10 numbers of his i Ichthyology of South Caro-
lina J (1854 et seq.), when the Civil War com-
pelled its discontinuance.

HoTcomb, Silas Alexander, American ju-
rist: b. in Gibson County, Indiana, 25 Aug
1858. He received a common school training,
studied law in Nebraska, and in 1891 was made
judge of the 12th judicial district. He was
governor of Nebraska from 1894 to 1808, having
been elected by fusion of the Populist and Demo-
cratic voters. He has been justice of the
supreme court of Nebraska from 190a

Hofcombe, Chester, American diplomatist
and author: b. Wmfield, N. Y., 16 Oct 1844.
He was graduated at Union College in i86r;
and served as interpreter and secretary to the
United States Legation in China, 1871-85. Be-
coming an authority on the Chinese and ChinefC

Digitized by



affairs, in 1896 he acted for the Chinese govern-
ment in its financial embarrassments. He has
published: travels in Western China ) (1875);
<The Practical Effect of Confucianism upon the
Chinese Nation* (1882) ; c The Real Chinaman>
(1895); <The Real Chinese Question* (1899).

Holden, hol'den, Albert J^ American

musician: b. Boston 1841. He studied music
in New York, and since 1855 has been organist
at the Church of the Divine Paternity and at the
Church of the Puritans. He has composed more
than 300 anthems, hymns and other church
music, but his compositions are not confined to
sacred music; they include songs, ballads, and
choruses; he has also edited and compiled nu-
merous collections.

Holden, Albert W., English painter: b.
London 6 July 1848. He studied drawing and
antiquities at the British Museum, and gained a
studentship at the Royal Academy of Arts,
where he afterward exhibited. He has painted
historical and humorous genre pictures, and has
a high reputation as a portrait painter. Since
1887 he has been professor of fine arts, King's
College, London. Among the well known works
he has exhibited are: <A Bank Holiday ) (1883) ;
< Naughty Polly > (1898) ; <The Annunciatkm>
(1896) ; etc.

Holden, Edward Singleton, American as-
tronomer: b. St. Ix>uis, Mo., 5 Nov. 1846. He
was graduated at Washington University in
1866, and at the United States Military Acad-
emy in 1870; was professor of mathematics at
the Naval Academy in 1873-81 ; and director of
the Washburn Observatory (Madison, Wis.) in
1881-5. In 1885-7 he was president of the Uni-
versity of California, and in 1888-08 director of
the Lick Observatory, on Mount Hamilton, San
Jose, Cal. It was in connection with the Lick
Observatory that his most important work was
done, and his services to astronomy found recog-
nition in America and from European states.
Among his publications are: < Index Catalogue
of Nebulse> (1877); ( Life of Sir William
HerscheP (1881); 'Astronomy* (with S. New-
comb, 1892) ; ( Mountain Observatories > (1896) ;
< Essays in Astronomy > (1900).

Holden, Sir Isaac, English inventor: b.
Hurlet, near Paisley, 7 May 1807; d. Reighley,
Yorkshire, 13 Aug. 1897. While a worker in a
cotton mill in Paisley he fitted himself for the
post of a teacher. While conducting an experi-
ment he discovered the lucifer match, but he
secured no patent on the invention, the financial
benefit of which fell to others. Subsequently
he was manager, then owner of a wool-combing
establishment, and by his mechanical improve-
ments made significant changes in that industry.
His shops at Bradford, with branches at Croix
and Rheims, eventually became the largest of
the kind in the world. He was several times
elected to Parliament in the Liberal interest.

Holder, hol'der, Charles Frederick, Amer-
ican naturalist: b. Lynn, Mass., 5 Aug. 1851.
He studied at the United States Naval Academy,
but resigned in 1871 ; in 1871-5 was assistant
curator of the American Museum of Natural
History, from that time turned his attention to
lecturing and literary work, and became known
as a leading writer on popular science. At Pasa-
dena, Cal., whither he removed in 1885, he be-

came president of the board of education, pro-
fessor of zoology in Throop University, and
honorary curator of the university museum.
Among his publications are: c Elements of
Zoology> (1885); 'Living Lights> (1887);
< Louis Agassiz, ms Life* (1892) ; < Along the
Florida Reef> (1892) ; < Stories of Animal Life>
(1900); <Half-Hours with Nature* (1901).

Holds'worth, Annie E.„ English novelist:
b. Jamaica. She was married to Eugene Lee-
Hamilton, the poet, in 1898. She has been co-
editor of <The Woman's Signal,* with Lady
Henry Somerset, and is the author of the popular
novels: < Joanna Traill, Spinster*; c The Years
that the Locust Hath Eaten * ; < Spindles and
Oars*; <The Gods Arrive ) (1897); etc.

Hole, Samuel Reynolds, English Anglican
clergyman: b. 5 Dec. 1819; d. Rochester, Eng.,
27 Aug. 1904. He was educated at Oxford, took
orders, was ordained in 1845 and was vicar of
Caunton, 1845-87. From 1887 he was dean of
Rochester Cathedral. He visited the United
States on a lecture tour in 1896, where his hu-
morous, anecdotical lectures were very popular.
He was a recognized authority on rose culture
and wrote: ( A Book about Roses, > which has
reached its 15th edition; < The Memories of
Dean Hole* ; <More Memories* ; c Addresses to
Working Men* ; <A Little Tour in America * ;
<Our Gardens> (1899) ; ( Then and Now )
(1901); etc.

Hole, William, English painter: b. Salis-
bury 7 Nov. 1846. He was destined for the
profession of engineering but after a journey to
Italy turned his attention to art. He studied at
the Edinburgh school of art, and in 1889 was
elected member of the Royal Scottish Academy.
His versatility is shown by the excellence of his
work in portrait, genre and fresco, while as an
engraver he has made many famous plates after
such masters as Millet, Constable and Millais*
Among his best known paintings are : <The End
of Forty-Five ) (1879) ; and c News of Flodden*

Holguin, 51-gen', Cuba, city in the prov-
ince of Santiago de Cuba ; about 25 miles by rail

Online LibraryWilfrid RichmondThe Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 → online text (page 168 of 185)