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The Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 online

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south by west of Gibara, its port; and 70 miles
northwest of the city of Santiago de Cuba.
Fertile agricultural lands are in the vicinity,
also on the southwest is a hilly section bordering
on the interior mountain range. A noted cave
is in the vicinity. The trade is chiefly in sugar-
cane and tobacco. Pop. 6,500.

Hol'ibut See Halibut.

Holiday, any day set apart as a religious
or national festival. (See Festivals.) Certain
days are fixed by law as bank-holidays for Eng-
land and Scotland, and it is enacted that all
business transactions which would have been
valid on any such holiday shall be held as valid
if performed on the day following. Thus, when
a bill of exchange becomes due, or notice of
dishonor falls to be given, on a bank-holiday,
the bill is payable, or the notice stands good on
the following day. The days fixed for England
are Easter Monday, the Monday in Whitsun
Week, the first Monday in August, and the 26th
of December if a week-day. These are in addi-
tion to Christmas Day, Good Friday, and other
holidays previously established. The days fixed
as bank-holidays for Scotland are New Year's

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Day, Good Friday, the first Monday oi May, the
first Monday of August, and Christmas Day;
and if either New Year's Day or Christmas Day
falls on a Sunday, the Monday after is held as
a holiday. The same act empowers the sov-
ereign to appoint by proclamation a special day
to be observed as a bank-holiday, and to alter
by order in council any of the days settled by
the act.

In the United States there is no national
holiday, not even 4 July. The 53d Congress
passed an act making Labor Day a public holi-
day in the District of Columbia, and various
States have followed with a similar act. The
proclamation of the President designating a
day of Thanksgiving only makes it a legal holi-
day in the District of Columbia and in the Ter-
ritories. New Year's Day is a legal holiday in
all the States except Massachusetts, Mississippi,
and New Hampshire. Lincoln's Birthday (12
Feb.) is a legal holiday in Connecticut, Illinois,
Minnesota, New Jersey, New York, North Da-
kota, Pennsylvania, Washington, and Wyoming.
Washington's Birthday (22 Feb.) is a legal holi-
day in all the States except Mississippi. Dec-
oration Day (30 May) in all the States except
Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Louisiana,
Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina,
and Texas. Independence Day (4 July) in all
the States and Territories. Labor Day (in
general, the first Monday in September) in all
the States except Arizona, Mississippi, Nevada,
and North Dakota. Election Day and Christ-
mas Day are generally observed as legal holi-
days in all the States and Territories. There
are various States holidays, such as Patriot's
Day (19 April) in Massachusetts, Pioneer's Day
(16 Aug.) in Utah, All Saints' Day (1 Novj in
Louisiana, Admission Day (9 Sept.) in Cali-
fornia, and Confederate Memorial Day (10
May) in North and South Carolina. Every
Saturday after 12 o'clock noon is a legal holi-
day in New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania,
Maryland, Tennessee, Virginia, in the city 01
New Orleans and in Newcastle County, Dela-

Holinshed, holtnz-hed, Raphael or Ralph,
an English chronicler: d. about 1580. He is
only known by his c Chronicles of Englande,
Scotlande, and Irelande,* the first edition of
which, known as the a Shakespeare edition * be-
cause it is the one the poet is supposed to have
used in collecting material for his historical
plays, was published in London in 1577. In the
preparation of this work Holinshed was as-
sisted by several of the most learned men of
the day.

Holl, Prank, English portrait and genre
painter; son of Francis Holl, an eminent en-
graver : b. London 4 July 1845 * d. there 31 July
1888. He was a very successful student at the
Royal Academy, and exhibited constantly from
his student days. Among his best-known pic-
tures are: < Faces in the Fire ) ; < Fern-Gather-
ers > ; <No Tidings from the Sea' ; < Leaving
Home > ; and the <Gifts of the Fairies. y In the
later portion of his career he devoted himself
to portraiture, in which he jrreatly excelled, and
painted many of the celebrities of the day.

Holland, Edmund Milton, American actor:
b. New York 7 Sept. 1848. He began his pro-
fessional career at Barnum's Museum in i866\
was later for 13 years a member of Lester

Wallack's company, and as a member of the
Madison Square company from 1882 created the
parts of Captain Redwood in < Jim the Pen-
man,' Colonel Moberley in ( Alabama, y and the
title-role in Colonel Carter of Carters ville.*
In 1895-7 be starred with his brother Joseph, and
later (1901) appeared as Eben Holden in the
dramatization of Irving Bacheller's book of that

Holland, Frederic May, American author:
b. Boston 2 May 1836; d. Concord, Mass., 17
May 1008. He was graduated from Harvard
in 1859, entered the ministry of the Unitarian
Church in 1862, but resigned in 1874. He wrote :
<The Reign of the Stoics> (1879); Frederick
Douglass, the Colored Orator* (189O; and
< Liberty in the Nineteenth Century > (1899).

Holland, Henry Richard Vassall Fox, 31
Loan, English statesman: b. Wiltshire 21 Nov.
1773; d. 22 Oct. 184a He succeeded to the
peerage by the death of his father when less
than one year old. In 1798 he took his place in
the House of Lords, and as the nephew of
Charles James Fox was at once acknowledged
as a Whig leader. In 1806 he was commissioner
for settling disputes with the United States;
was lord f ivy seal in 1806-7 ; and chancellor
of the ducny of Lancaster. He made Holland
House the resort of the wit, talent, and beauty
of his day. He was the author of: <Life oi
Lope de Vega* (1806) ; <Three Comedies from
the Spanish* (1807): <Foreign Reminiscences y
(1850) ; Memoirs of the Whig Party > (1852).

Holland, John P., American inventor: b.
184 1. As one of the most successful designers
in the interesting field of submarine navigation,
Holland is well known. His first boat was
built in 1875; a second was launched in 1877,
and a third in 1881. After a series of severe
tests, the Holland boat was ordered by the
United States government for the navy in 190a
In 1903 eight of the submarines were put in
commission. These have a speed varying from
8.87 to 8 knots, a horse-power of 16b (with one
exception), and a displacement in general of
122.55 tons. For some time the inventor was
interested in the Holland Submarine Boat Com-
pany, but from this he has now retired to de-
vote his time independently to submarines and
flying devices. His more recent designs call
for smaller and more compact vessels, with
much less complicated mechanism, power of
remaining longer submerged, and increased
safety in operation. See Submarine Naviga-
tion, History of.

Holland, Josiah Gilbert, American editor
and author: b. Belchertown, Mass., 24 July
1819; d. New York 12 Oct 1881. He began the
study of medicine in 1840, in 1844 was graduated
from the Berkshire Medical College, and entered
practice at Springfield, Mass. The years that
followed were discouraging, for patients did not
come to the young doctor. With true Yankee
versatility he turned his hand to anything,—
taught district school, was a traveling writing-
master, and a daguerreotypist. Of his boyish
mortification at being a mill hand he has written
in <Arthur Bonnicastle.* He tried editoriaJ
work, and started <The Bay State Weekly Cour*
ier,> which ran for six months. Subsequently
he taught at Richmond, Va., and for 16 month*

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wii superintendent of public schools at Vicks-
burg, Miss. All these varied experiences gave
him the knowledge of American life and appre-
ciation of workaday struggles which later made
the value of his poems, essays, and novels. In
1849-66 he was assistant editor of the Spring-
field Republican, and from 1851 also part owner
of that journal* It was largely due to his in-
fluence that the Republican became so widely
known and popular a journal. In it his < Letters
to Young People Married and Single : By Tim-
othy Titcomb* first attracted readers by their
vivacious style, moral sincerity, and good com-
mon sense. Later, in book form (1858) they
had a great and immediate success.

In 1870 Dr. Holland was one of the founders
and became editor of ( Scribner's Monthly,>
later the Century Magazine,* and the editor-
ship of this periodical he retained till his death
in 1881. Holland's novels: < Arthur Bonni-
castle> (1873) ; < Sevenoaks > (1876) ; and
Nicholas Minturn > (18^7), although showing
his quick and sympathetic observation and con-
taining fine passages, have been less popular
than his poems. The latter, in their constant ap-
peal to the moral sense, and in their accurate
portrayal of the homely and picturesque in
New York life, found many admirers. Several
of the short lyrics, with <Bittersweet > (1858) ;
<Kathrina> (1868), and <The Mistress of the
Manse > (1871), came as messages of an Ameri-
can poet who understood and honored his own
people. Consult the c Life> by Plunkett (1894).

Holland, Thomas Erskine, English jurist:
b. Brighton 17 July 1835. He studied at Ox-
ford, was called to the bar in 1863, in 1874
became a reader in English law at Oxford, and
shortly afterward professor of international
law. The University of Perugia appointed him
to an honorary professorship in recognition of
his attainments. His best-known work is his
'Elements of Jurisprudence ) (1880; 9th ed.
1900), to which was awarded the Swinney prize
(1804), decennially bestowed for the best book
published on jurisprudence, and which is now a
standard text-book in England and the United
States. He wrote further: <An Essay on
Composition Deeds ) (1864) ; ( Essays on the
Form of the Law* (1870) ; <The European Con-
cert in the Eastern Question > (1885) ; Studies
in International Law* (1898), and other works.

Holland, William J., American Presby-
terian clergyman and educator: b. Jamaica, W.
I., 16 Aug. 1848. He was graduated from Am-
herst College in 1869, from the Princeton The-
ological Seminary in 1874, entered the ministry
of the Presbyterian Church, and was a pastor at
Pittsburg, Pa., in 1874-91. In 1891-1001 he
was chancellor of the Western University of
Pennsylvania (Allegheny), and in 1897 was
appointed director of the Carnegie Museum at
Pittsburg. In 1887 and 1889 he was naturalist
of the United States eclipse expeditions to
Japan and West Africa respectively. A recog-
nized authority on museum administration and
zoology, he wrote numerous scientific papers in
learned publications, and ( The Butterfly Book*

Holland, a popular designation for the
Kingdom of the Netherlands, derived from the
provinces of North and South Holland, form-

erly constituting a feudal countship alKed to the
Holy Roman-German Empire, and from 1806-10
with other parts of the Netherlands, Hanover,
and Oldenburg, ruled by Louis Bonaparte as the
Kingdom of Holland. The region is the seat
of the hardy and industrious Dutch race and of
the Dutch language called by the natives Neder-
duitsch, a dialect of Low German phonology,
with evolutionary periods of Old, Middle, and
Modern, and an interesting historical and varied
literature. See Netherlands.

Holland, Mich., city, in Ottawa County, at
the head of Black Lake, which is really an arm
of Lake Michigan, and on the Pere Marquette
railroad; about 80 miles west of Lansing and
25 miles southwest of Grand Rapids. It has
direct communication by steamers with Chicago,
Milwaukee, and other lake ports. Holland was
settled in 1847 by a Dutch colony, and many of
its inhabitants are of Dutch descent In 1867
it was chartered as a city. It is located in an
agricultural region, once a lumber section. The
manufactures are largely articles made of wood,
but the beet-sugar industry is growing in im-
portance. The chief manufacturing establish-
ments are planing-mills, furniture, tub, and
basket factories, flour-mills,, tanneries, wood-
working machinery shops, pickling-plants, beet-
sugar factory, grain elevators, and creameries.
The manufacture of launches is also an impor-
tant industry of Holland. The trade is chiefly
in the manufactures, and in grain and vegetables.
The city owns and operates the electric-light
plant and the waterworks. Holland is the seat
of the Western Theological Seminary and of
Hope College, both under the auspices of the
Reformed Church in America. It has a number
of fine public buildings, and a free public
library. The summer resorts on Black Lake
add to the industrial wealth of the city. Pop.
(1890) 3,945; (1900) 7,790; (1910) 10,490.

Holland-linen, a fine and close fabric, so
called from its first being manufactured in
Holland ; also a coarser linen fabric, unbleached
or dyed brown, used for covering furniture,
carpets, etc.

Hollander, Jacob H., American econo-
mist: b. Baltimore, Md., 23 July 1871. He was
educated in the Baltimore schools and graduated
from Johns Hopkins University in 1891, re-
ceiving his Ph. D. degree in 1894. His ability
as economist and financier was soon recognized,
and he became associate professor of finance at
Johns Hopkins. In 1897 he was appointed
secretary of the Bimetallic Commission abroad
and was chosen chairman of the Baltimore
municipal lighting commission in 1900. In the
same year the secretary of war appointed him
special commissioner to revise the laws relating
to taxation in Puerto Rico, and while engaged
in this service he was made treasurer of Puerto
Rico by President McKinley.

Hollar, Wenzel or Wenceslaus, vent'zSl or
wen'sSs-las h61'lar, Bohemian engraver: b.
Prague 13 July 1607; d. London 28 March 1677.
He accompanied the Earl of Arundel, English
ambassador to Germany, to London, who em-
ployed him to engrave some of the pictures of
bis collection. Among his numerous works,
which are greatly esteemed for their delicate,

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firm, and spirited execution, and which include
some 2,740 plates, are the set of 28 plates,
entitled, ( OrnatUs Muliebris Anglicanus,* rep-
resenting the dresses of Englishwomen of ail
ranks and conditions in full-length figures;
Holbein's < Dance of Deaths etc.

Hollcben, hol'la-ben, Theodore von, Ger-
man diplomat: b. Stettin, Pomerania, 16 Sept.
1838. He was educated at the universities of
Heidelberg, Berlin, and Gottingen; became an
officer in the Body-Guard Hussar Regiment;
and took a distinguished part in the Franco-
Prussian War. He entered the diplomatic serv-
ice in 1872; was charge d'affaires at Peking,
China, 1873-4, an <i a t Tokio, Japan, in 1875;
minister at Buenos Ayres in 1876-84; at Tokio
1885-9; and at Washington, D. (J., 1892-3. In
1897 he became ambassador extraordinary and
plenipotentiary to the United States. At the
command of Emperor William he, together with
Secretary Hay, of the State Department, had
charge of the arrangements for the official re-
ception of the emperor's brother, Admiral Prince
Henry, in February 1902. Failing health caused
his resignation, and in 1903 he was succeeded by
Baron Speck von Sternberg.

Hol'ley, Alexander Lyman, American en-
gineer: b. Lakeville, Conn., 20 July 1832; d.
Brooklyn, N. Y., 29 Jan. 1882. He was grad-
uated at Brown University in 1853, and be-
came editor of <The Railroad Advocate > in
1856, changing its name to ( The American En-
gineer. > He introduced into the United States
in 1865 the Bessemer steel process, erecting
the first Bessemer works in the country at Troy,
N. Y. He was lecturer on the manufacture of
iron and steel at Columbia University 1870-82.
Holley secured many patents, the most important
probably being that for the detached converter-
shell, an improvement in the Bessemer process.
He published with Z. Colburn: ( Railway
Economy: a Report on European Railways )
(1858); < American and European Railway
Practice* (i860) ; <A Treatise on Ordnance and
Armor* (1865) ; etc. In 1800 a bronze bust of
Holley was placed in Washington Square, New
York, by the mechanical engineers of the United
States and Europe.

Holley, Marietta, American author, known
by her pseudonym, (< Josiah Allen's Wife": b.
near Adams, Jefferson County, N. Y., 1844* She
began her literary career as a contributor to
the Christian Union, } the independent,* Pe-
terson's Magazine,* and other periodicals; and
in 1873 published her first book, ( My Opinions
and Betsy Bobbet's,* which in a measure re-
called the ( Widow Bedott Papers > of F. M.
Whitcher. This was followed by a series of
works containing many touches of distinctive
and genuine humor: ( Samantha at the Cen-
tennial* (1876); ( My Wayward Pardner*
(1880); <Miss Richard's Bov> (1882); <Sweet
Cicely* (1885); ( Miss Jones's Quilting* (1887);
( Samantha at Saratoga> (1887); ( Poems*
(1887); <Samantha Among the Brethren >
(1891), considered by many her best volume;
<Samantha at the World's Fair* (1893), and
others. Her writings have had large sale, and
been translated into several foreign tongues.

Hollidaysburg, h5lT-daz-berg, Pa., borough,
county-seat of Blair County: on the Juniata

River, and the Pennsylvania railroad; about &
miles east of Pittsburg and five miles south 01
Altoona. Rich coal -fields, iron-ore beds, and
limestone quarries are in the vicinity. The chief
manufactures are foundry products, agricultural
and mining implements, nails, and furniture,
ffoliidaysburg Female Seminary is a prosper-
ous institution. Pop. (1910) 3,734.

Hol'lins, Alfred, English musician: b. Hull
1865. He was born blind, and was educated at
an institution for the blind in York, and at the
Royal Normal College for the Blind in Upper
Norwood, where he specialized in music (piano
and organ) ; he also studied music in German}-.
He was popular at the English and German
courts, where he gave recitals; and was for a
time organist at the United Free Saint George's
Church in Edinburgh. He visited America in
1886 and 1888, and his organ compositions are
widely known and liked throughout the United

Hollins, George Nichols, American naval
officer: b. Baltimore, Md., 20 Sept. 1799; d.
there 18 Jan. 1878. He entered the navy as
midshipman in 1814, and while assigned to the
President, Stephen Decatur, was captured by
the English and held prisoner at Bermuda until
the conclusion of peace. He served also in the
Algerine war of 18 15, later assumed command
of an East Indiaman, and in 1844 attained com-
mander's rank. In 1855, on complaint of Ameri-
can residents who claimed they had been in-
jured by the local officials, he bombarded Grey-
town, Nicaragua. At that time Nicaragua wa<
under English protection, and the property and
lives of English residents having been im-
perilled, international complications with Great
Britain arose. Hollins was commissioned com-
modore in the Confederate navy at the outbreak
of the Civil War, attacked the Federal blockad-
ing squadron at the passes of the Mississippi
River, and was appointed flag-captain of the New
Orleans station. He was superseded in 1862.

Hol'lister, Cal., town, county-seat of San
Benito County; on the Southern Pacific rail-
road ; about 80 miles southeast of San Francisco,
and 35 miles east by south of Santa Cruz. It is
situated in a rich agricultural region, noted for
its fruit. The chief industrial interests of the
town are connected with dairying, fruit-growing,
and the shipment of grain and live-stock. Pop.

Holloway, hol'o-wa, Laura Carter, Ameri-
can author: b. Nashville, Tenn., 22 Aug. i&4&
She was at one time editor of the ( Home
Library Magazine * of Chicago, I1L, was for 12
years associate editor of the Brooklyn Daily
Eagle, and collaborated with Anton SeidI in the
preparation of musical terms for the ( Standard
Dictionary.* She wrote: ( Ladies of the
White House> (1870) ; c The Mothers of Great
Men and Women* (1884); <The Home in
Poetry* (1884); Chinese Gordon 5 (1885);
<Thc Buddhist Diet Book> (1887); and other

Holloway, Thomas, English patent medi-
cine proprietor and philanthropist : b. Devonport
22 Sept. 1800; d. Tittenhurst 26 Dec. 1883.
About 1837 he began to sell his well-known
ointment, and soon afterwards brought his
pills to the notice of the public. He ultimately

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succeeded in amassing a very large fortune
•which he partly devoted to benevolent ob-
jects. The Royal Hollo way College for Women,
on the equipment and endowment of which he
expended about $4,000,000 was opened on 30
June 1886. It contains a collection of pictures
valued at $500,000. Near it is a sanitorium
founded by him for the mentally afflicted of the
lower middle class.

Holls, hdlz, George Frederick William,
American lawyer and statesman: b. Zelienople,
Pa., i July 1857; d. Yonkers, N. Y., 23 July
1903. He was graduated from Columbia in
1878, and from the law school there two years
later. He was admitted to the bar and estab-
lished a large law practice in New York city,
becoming senior member of the firm of Hollis,
Wagner & Burghard ; in his later life he visited
Europe frequently and became widely known
there, especially in Germany where he established
a branch of his law firm. He was prominent in
philanthropic work, being for years an officer
of the Legal Aid Society and a director of the
Charity Organization Society. He was also an
active member of the Republican party, and,
much in demand as a campaign speaker, espec-
ially as he could address the Germans in their
own language. In 1893 he was a delegate-at-
large to the New York Constitutional Conven-
tion, where he was chairman of the committee
on education, a member of the committee on
-cities, and author of several amendments. His
frequent visits abroad gave him a wide and in-
telligent interest in international questions, and
at the time of the Hague Conference he was
very influential in arousing interest and obtain-
ing a large delegation from the United States.
He was secretary of the American delegation
at the Conference (18J99), was the American
member of the committee which drafted the
arbitration treaty, and author of the clause on
* Special Mediation* He was afterward ap-
pointed a member of the permanent international
<rourt of arbitration. A few months before his
death President Roosevelt asked him to umpire
the adjustment of claims between Germany and
England and Venezuela, but he declined. He
lias written: <Sancta Sophia and Troitza*
(1888); Compulsory Voting> (1891) ; and
c The Peace Conference at the Hague and Its
Bearings on International Law and Policy )

Holly, James Theodore, American Protes-
ant Episcopal bishop: b. Washington, D. C, 3
Oct. 1829. He was of African Roman Catholic
parentage, but withdrawing from the Roman
Catholic Church, entered the Episcopal Church
in 185 1, studied for the ministry and in 1856
became rector of St. Luke's, New Haven Conn.
Jn 1874 he became missionary bishop of Haiti.

Holly. See Aquifoliace^.

Holly Springs, Miss., a point on the
"Mississippi Central Railroad, about 40 miles
southeast of Memphis and about 25 miles south
of Grand Junction, on the Memphis & Charles-
ton Railroad, and an important strategical point
After the battle of Iuka, 19 Sept. 1862, and the
Confederate defeat at Corinth, 3-4 Oct. 1862, the
Confederates fell back to Holly Springs. Early
in November Gen. Grant had concentrated an
army of 30,000 men in the vicinity of Grand
Vol. 10 — 41

Junction to make a movement along the line of
the Mississippi Central Railroad in the direction
of the rear of Vicksburg. On 8 November Gen.
McPherson, with 10,000 infantry and 1,500 cav-
alry, advanced from Grand Junction southward
and pushed the Confederates under Gen. Pem-
berton back to Holly Springs. The main body
of Grant's army moved forward, and Pember-
ton, abandoning Holly Springs, fell back to
Grenada, Grant following to Oxford, 30 miles
beyond Holly Springs. There he arrived 5
December, and arranged with Gen. Sherman
a combined movement on Vicksburg. Grant was
to move directly south on the line of the rail-
road and take the place in rear; Sherman to
move a force from Memphis, accompanied by a
gunboat fleet, to descend the Mississippi and
attack in front. A depot of supplies was estab-
lished at Holly Springs, guarded by Col. Mur-
phy, with two regiments of Wisconsin infantry

Online LibraryWilfrid RichmondThe Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 → online text (page 169 of 185)