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and a regiment of Illinois cavalry, and Grant
was about to move forward from Oxford, when
Gen. Earl Van Dorn, at the head of 3,500 cav-
alry, dashed into Holly Springs at daylight, 20
December, and attacked Murphy, who had been
warned of the impending danger on the 19th, but
neglected to take the necessary precautions and
was surprised. He made a feeble resistance and
surrendered his infantry; the cavalry cut its
way out and escaped with the loss of only seven
men. Van Dorn took about 1.500 prisoners, de-
stroyed stores to the value of $1,500,000, and left
town m the afternoon. This disaster, in con-
nection with Forrest's raid into West Tennessee,
which destroyed Grant's communication, forced
him to abandon his movement on Vicksburg and
fall back to Grand Junction, leaving Pember-
ton at liberty to concentrate his forces at Vicks-
burg against Sherman. Sherman was informed
of Grant's failure, but the information reached
him after his bloody repulse at Chickasaw Bluff,
27-28 Dec. 1862. Consult: < Official Records,*
Vol. XVII.; Greene, < The Mississippi. }

E. A. Carman.

Hollyhock, a tall and rather coarse flow-
ering plant (Althaa rosea) of the mallow fam-
ily, said to be a native of China, but now culti-
vated all over the world as an ornament of old-
fashioned gardens. It rises in a single leafy
stalk, sometimes to the height of six or eight
feet, studded with large single or double flowers,
in varieties from white to yellow, rcarlet and
purple. Although rather difficult to start and
slow of growth, it remains a hardy and easily
nurtured perennial of highly effective beauty
when suitably placed.

Holm, Saxe, a pseudonym affixed to a col-
lection of Stories* (1st series 1874; 2d 1878).
originally published in < Scribner , s Monthly > and
generally believed to be by Helen Hunt Jackson

Holman, hol'man, William Steele, Ameri-
can politician: b. Veraestau, Dearborn County,
Ind., 6 Sept. 1822; d. Washington, D. C, 22
April 1897. He studied at Franklin College
(Ind.), was admitted to the bar, and began
practice t-t Aurora, Ind. In 1847-9 he was
prosecuting attorney, in 1850 a member of the
State Conrtitutional convention, in 185 1-2 of
the State legislature. He was a judge of the
court of common pleas in 1852-6, in 1856 was
elected as a Democratic representative to Con-

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gress, where with the exception of^ eight years,
he served until his death. His vigilance in op-
posing unnecessary appropriations and doubtful
measures obtained for him the sobriquets of
«The Watchdog of the Treasury,* and «The
Great Objector. 5

Holman-Hunt, William. See Hunt, Wil-
liam HOLMAN.

Holmes, honiz, Abiel, American Unitarian
clergyman and annalist: b. Woodstock, Conn.,
24 Dec. 1763 ; d. Cambridge, Mass., 4 June 1837.
He was graduated at Yale College in 1783, and
became subsequently a tutor in the college, pur-
suing at the same time his theological studies.
In. 1785 he was settled over a parish at Mid-
way, Ga., where he remained till 1791. Return-
ing north he became pastor of the first parish
in Cambridge, and continued to fill the office
till 26 Sept 1832. Besides publishing a 'Life of
President Stiles ) in 1798, he was the author also
of 'Annals of America > (1805), which gave
him a high reputation for care and accuracy.
It was republished in England in 181 3. He con-
tributed frequently to the collections of the
Massachusetts Historical Society, in Vol. XXVII.
of which will be found a complete list of his

Holme*, 6-meV, Augusta Mary Anne,
French composer: b. Paris 1847; d. there Jan.
1903. She studied composition with Lambert,
Klose, and Cesar Franck, and began her career
as a pianist. Her first work of magnitude was a
setting of the psalm <In Exku,* sung for the
first time in 1873. She later wrote consider-
able music, including 100 songs, characterized by
much grace of expression. In the larger form9
her compositions include the well-known sym-
phony c Hero et Leandre ) ; three other sym-
phonies, 'Lutece^ which in 1879 won third prize
m an open competition directed by the Paris
municipality. ( Les Argonautes* and < Irlande > ;
the symphonic poems, <Les Sept Ivresses,*
'Roland^ < Pologne, > < Au Pays Bleu > ; an ode
of triumph, < Patrie ) ; a four-act lyric opera, <Le
Montagne Noire } (Grand Opera 1895), and an
allegorical cantata, ( La Vision de la Re : ne. )

Holmes, Burton, Amerkan traveler and
lecturer: b. Chicago 8 Jan. 1870. After a sec-
ondary education at Chicago he traveled in all
the countries of continental Europe, as well as
m Japan, Algeria, Tunis, Morocco, Corsica,
Greece, and Thessaly, Hawaiian Islands, the
Yellowstone Park, the Grand Canon of the
Colorado, the Philippines, and China. About
1890 he became known as a platform lecturer,
giving in popular form the results of his ob-

Holmes, Mary Jane Hawes, American
; novelist : b. Brookfield, Mass. ; d. Brockport.
s N. Y., 7 Oct. 1007. She was married to Daniel
» Holmes, a lawyer of Brockport, N. Y. She pub-
lished many volumes of domestic fiction which
have had an extraordinarily wide circulation
but in which the literary element is slight
Among her novels are: < Tempest and Sun-
shine ) (1854) (perhaps the best known of them
all); <Lena Rivers* (1856); < Marian Gray*
(1863); < Milbank > (1871 ); <Queenie Hether-
ton> (1883).

Holmes, Nathaniel, American jurist and
Shakespearian scholar: b. Peterboro, N. H., 2

Jan. 1815 ; <L Cambridge, Mass., 26 Feb. 1901. He
%as graduated from Harvard in 1837 and after
admission tQ the bar in 1839 began to practise
in St Louis. He was judge of the supreme
court of Missouri 1865-9, and Royall professor
of law at Harvard 1868-72. He retired front
his profession in 1883 and henceforth devoted
himself to study and authorship. He was a
strong believer in the Baconian theory of the
origin of Shakespeare's plays, which he defends
in his work, ( The Authorship of Shakespeare >
(1866). In 1888 he published ( Realistic Ideal-
ism in Philosophy Itself.*

Holmes, Oliver Wendell, American poet,
essayist and physician: b. Cambridge, Mass., 29
Aug. 1809; d. Boston, Mass., 8 Oct 1894. He
was the son of Rev. Abiel Holmes (q.v.), min-
ister of the first parish in Cambridge, and on the
maternal side was a descendant of Anne Brad*
street (q.v.) and related to the orator Wendell
Phillips, the poet Richard Henry Dana, and the
theologian, Dr. Channing. He was educated at
Phillips Academy, Andover, and at Harvard,
and was graduated from the latter in 1829 in a
class which contained several who afterward
became famous. In the next year he became
well known through his poem < 01d Ironsides,'
first published in the Boston Advertiser, and
which prevented the breaking up of the famous
frigate Constitution. He spent a year in the
Harvard Law School but soon turned his at-
tention to medicine and after studying in Paris
three years returned to America where he re-
ceived his degree of M.D. in 1836, the same
year in which his first volume of poems ap-
peared. He was professor of anatomy and
physiology at Dartmouth College 1839-40. He
married in the last named year and established a
practice in Boston, becoming in 1847 professor
of anatomy and physiology in the Harvard Med-
ical School, a post which he resigned in 1882,
when he was at once made professor emeritus.
In 1849, and for several succeeding years, he
made his summer home at Pittsfield, Mass*, the
scene of his novel < Elsie Venner.* He was
one of the first contributors to the * Atlantic
Monthly * when it was established in 1857, the
opening chapter of his c Autocrat of the Break-
fast Table * appearing in the first issue. It is
this work, which has found innumerable readers
both at home and abroad, by which he will be
longest remembered. These brilliant, conversa-
tional papers were followed in 1859 by a similar
series, ( The Professor at the Breakfast Table.*
and these in 1872, by <The Poet at the Breakfast
Table.' Many of his best poems were scattered
through these volumes. In 1861 appeared his
novel < Elsie V nner: a Romance of Destiny,*
and in 1868 <The Guardian Angel,* a less strik-
ing fiction than its predecessor, but like that ex-
hibiting a remarkable series of studies of char-
acter. <A Mortal Antipathy* (1885) was his
only other essay in fiction. His volumes of
verse Crania* (1846), and <Astrea* (1850),
had made him well known as a poet ere he ap-
peared before the public as the kindly breakfast
table autocrat, and he continued to write poetry
at frequent intervals for the rest of his life. He
was especially happy as the poet of occasions,
but much of his verse, witty and sparkling as it
is, is ephemeral from its very nature and not
destined to endure. In such serious poems,

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however, as: <The Chambered Nautilus* ; ( The
Voiceless 1 ; <The Last Leaf > ; <The Iron Gate> ;
and one or two hymns, he takes high rank
among the poets of his time, while such poems
as c The One Hoss Shay > ; Evening, By a
Tailor,* and ( Parson Turell's Legacy,* to name
no others, are inimitable examples of humorous
verse. His later collections of poems comprise:
* Songs in Many Keys ) (1861) ; ( Songs of Many
Seasons> (1875) ; <The Iron Gate* (1880) ; and
before the Curfew* (1887). As a physician
and medical lecturer he was very successful, and
among his purely professional works may be
named: ( Lectures on Homeopathy and Its
Kindred Delusions ) (1842) ; ( Currents and
Counter Currents in Medical Science > (1861);
< Border Lines in some Provinces of Medical
Science > (1862); <Medical Essays,* a reissue of
some of his earlier work (1883). Still other
volumes by Dr. Holmes are : ( Soundings from the
Atlantic* (1864), a series of essays originally
contributed to the ( Atlantic Monthy,* where
the bulk of his writing first appeared ; ( Mechanism
in Thought and Morals* (1871) ; lives of <John
Lothrop Motley> (1879) ; and <Ralph Waldo
Emerson* (1884) ; <Our Hundred Days in Eu-
rope* (1888) ; a sprightly record of a short
visit to England in 1886, on which occasion
honorary degrees were conferred upon him by
the universities of Cambridge, Oxford and Edin-
burgh; and ( Over the Teacups* (1891). His
70th birthday was celebrated by a breakfast given
in his honor by the publishers of the x Atlantic
Monthly,* and on this occasion the poet read his
poem c The Iron Gate,* which many persons have
considered even finer than ( The Chambered
Nautilus* which Holmes himself preferred to
any other verses of his. At its best Holmes's
prose style is thoroughly admirable, character-
ized as it is by an unerring sense of the value
of words and their fitness for conveying a de-
sired impression, and illumined by the interfused
play of a delicate fancy and the most sparkling
humor. Next to < The Autocrat* must be
ranked ( The Guardian Angel* among his prose
works, the same kindly tolerant spirit being
dominant in both, and the same shrewd, whole-
some perception of character. In much of his
earlier poetry, excepting in his lyrics, Holmes
uses the formal ten-syllabled . iambic pentameter
of the 1 8th century, but in his hands the measure
seems at times more flexible than when used by
Pope and his school, and it is at all events re-
lieved from solemnity by his ever present hu-
mor. c Urania* is the best-known of his earlier
efforts in this manner, and ( The Schoolboy*
(1878) his most notable later one, this latter
having been written for the centennial anni-
versary of Phillips Academy at Andover.
Holmes's special characteristic was kindliness,
which found its expression as well in his verse
as in his prose, and in his ordinary living. He
could be keenly satirical on occasion but he
never became in the least cynical. Perhaps no
American writer, not even Longfellow or
Lowell, ever won the English heart so com-
pletely as Holmes. Longfellow found a wide
hearing in England for his poetry, it is true, and
Lowell was thoroughly appreciated by the upper
class Englishman of his time, but Holmes was
the most generally beloved of the three. In his
own country Holmes's gentle, tolerant writing did

not a little toward softening the asperities of
controversy and liberalizing unconsciously the
heart of Puritan New England. Consult : Morse,
<Life and Letters of Oliver Wendell Holmes*
(1896); and litres by Kennedy (1883); E. E.
Brown (1884).

Holmes, Oliver Wendell, Jr ? American
jurist: b. Poston 8 March 1841. He was grad-
uated from Harvard in 1861, and in the same
yrear entered the army as lieutenant of the 20th
Massachusetts regiment He was wounded at
the battles of Ball's Bluff, Antietam, and the
second battle of Fredericksburg, and was mus-
tered out of the army in 1864, with the rank of
brevet lieutenant-colonel. He then studied at
the Harvard Law School, and was admitted to
the bar in 1866, beginning his practice in Boston.
He was editor of the ( American Law Review*
( 1870-3) ; became professor at the Harvard Law
School in 1882, and in the same year justice in
the Massachusetts supreme court; in 1899 he
was appointed chief justice of the same court
His decisions in this position gave him wide
fame among lawyers, and were characterized by
originality and literary finish. In several cases his
decisions were in favor of organized labor; his
position being that workingmen had a right to
combine and to Support their interests by argu-
ments, persuasion, and the bestowal or refusal
of those advantages which they otherwise law-
fully control, so long as they do no violence or
threaten no violence.* In August 1902, he was
appointed a member" of the United States Su-
premeCourt He has published : ( The Common
Law* (i88r), lectures delivered before the
Lowell Institute; and a collection of speeches
(1900) ; he also edited the 12th edition of
Kent's < Commentaries* (1873).

Holmes, Theophilus Hunter, American
soldier: b. Sampson County, N. G, 1804; d.
near Fayetteville, N. C, 21 June 1880. He was
graduated from the United States Military Acad-
emy in 1829, served in the Florida war the occu-
pation of Texas, and the Mexican War, and at
the beginning of the Civil War was major and
superintendent of the general recruiting service.
On 22 April 1861, he resigned his commission in
the United States army, forthwith was appointed
brigadier-general in the Confederate forces, and
organized several North Carolina regiments. He
was in command at Aquia Creek, and, promoted
major-general, was in command of the trans-
Mississippi department from September 1862 to
March 1863, was commissioned lieutenant-gen-
eral, and 3 July 1863 lost heavily in an unsuc-
cessful attack on Helena, Ark.

Holmes, William Henry, American geolo-
gist : b. Harrison County, Ohio, 1 Dec. 1846. He
was graduated at the McNeely Normal College
in 1870, in 1872 was made an assistant on the
United States geological survey, and in 1880-9
was a geologist on the survey. In 1889-98 he
was archaeologist to the United States bureau of
ethnology, directing explorations, and in 1894-8
also curator of anthropology in the Field Colum-
bian Museum of Chicago, and professor of
anthropic geology in Chicago University. In
1898 he was appointed head curator in the de-
partment of anthropology in the United States
National Museum. His chief works are : Arch-
aeological Studies among the Cities of Mexico >

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(1895) ; and c Stone Implements of the Potomac-
Chesapeake Tidewater Province* (1897).

Holocaine. See Cocaine.

Holocephali, hol-d-sef'a-H, or Chimaeroi-
dea, a group of small shark-like fishes of
bizarre appearance occurring in the deeper por-
tions of all colder seas, including in all about
seven species, five in American waters. They
have a cartilaginous skeleton, are of no value as
food, and are known to fishermen as rat-fish and
elephant-fish (q.v.). The name Chimaera, given
to one genus, emphasizes the strange appearance
of these fishes. See Ichthyology.

Holophytes, holo-fits. See Fungi.

Holostei, ho-16s'te-i, a group of fishes, the
bony ganoids, largely fossil, represented by the
garpikes. See Ichthyology.

Holothuria, h&l-S thu'rf a, echinoderms of
the class Holothuroidea, popularly called a sea-
cucumbers,** from their resemblance in shape and
rough skin to that vegetable, in which the body
is long, cylindrical, somewhat worm-like, less
radiated than other echinoderms with a thick
muscular body-wall of longitudinal and trans-
verse muscles. The skin is usually thick, tough,
and imbedded in it are in certain forms calca-
reous plates, wheels and anchors. The mouth is
surrounded with a circle of ten branched tenta-
cles, adapted both for respiration and for seizing
the food, which consists mainly of foraminifera.
The intestine is very long apd slender, thus in
Thy one briar eus, which lives* in mud and sand
on the coast south of Cape Cod, the intestine in
an individual three or four inches long is nearly
seven feet in length ; it opens at the end of the
body, and connects with the ^respiratory tree,*
by which the water is introduced into the in-
terior of the body. Unlike other echinoderms the
so-called madreporic body is internal. Holo-
thurians move by tubes or ambulacra feet
which are filled with water, and when distended
act as suckers to drag the animal .over the bot-
tom. These suckers are either arranged in five
rows or with three rows on the ventral surface,
and two above, the latter in some form obso-
lete, or they are scattered irregularly over the
surface of the body, while in Caudina arenata of
the New England coast there are no suckers.
A tendency to bilateral symmetry is seen in a
form like Psoitis, which has a creeping disk and
three rows of suckers on the flattened disk-like
under side.

The holothurians undergo a metamorphosis,
somewhat like that of the starfish; but the trans-
parent larva called tf auricularia, B is barrel-
shaped; what corresponds to the hoops of the
barrel being bands of cilia, while the ear-like
projections in certain forms give it the name
auricularia. Before the larva is fully grown,
the body of the young holothurian begins to bud
out from near the side of the larval stomach,
the calcareous cross-like plates are deposited,
and the tentacles begin to grow out Finally
after the larval body is absorbed the young
holothurian sinks to the bottom. The degree of
metamorphosis is less marked than in other
echinoderms, while in two forms development is
direct, the young growing in a marsupium or
brood-pouch. A form {Cladodactyla crocea)
Jiving in the south seas at the Falkland Islands,
carries its young in a sort of nursery where they

are densely packed in two continuous fringes
adhering to the dorsal tubes. Holothurians are
remarkable from the fact that when captured
they eject their intestine, a new one in time being
regenerated. The large forms lying about on
the coral reefs are known to harbor a small
slender fish (Fieraster) which lodges in their
cloaca or in the branchial tree. Many of the
species are very large, being nearly two feet in
length. A common species on the Florida keys
and reefs is Holothuria Horidona; it lives in
water only a few inches deep and can be picked
up in large numbers; it is fully 15 inches in
length, and lives on foraminifera. It has been
collected, dried and a shipload exported to
China, but the trepang or beche-de-mer of com-
merce is either of two species (H. edulis, and H.
tremula) inhabiting the Pacific Ocean (see Tre-
pang). A California species is also dried and
exported by the local Chinese.

The class of Holothuroidea is divided into
two orders: (1) Actmopoda represented by Ho-
lothuria, Cucumaria, Thyone, Psolus, etc.; and
(2) Paractinopoda, of which Synapta is an ex-
ample, the common form living in sand at low
water on the New England coast being Lepto-
synapta girardii. A few forms inhabit great
depths. Remains of holothurians have been
found fossil ; certain calcareous plates attributed
to them occurring in the Carboniferous, Lias,
Jura, and Cretaceous strata. Minute calcareous
bodies referable to Synapta, etc., have been de-
tected in the Paris Eocene limestones.

Hoist, hoist, Hermann Eduard yon, Ger-
man-American historian; b. Fellin, Livonia,
Russia, 19 June 1841 ; d. Freiburg, Germany, 20
Jan. 1904. He studied history m Dorpat and
Heidelberg and in 1865 traveled through France,
Italy, etc His writings were looked upon
with suspicion by the Russian authorities
and his further stay in that country becoming
unsafe, he removed to the United States in
1866. Here he became American correspondent
of the ( K61nische Zeitung,* and sub-editor of
the < Deutsch-amerikanischer Conversations- Lex-
icon. } In 1872 he was appointed extraordinary
professor of history in the University of Stras-
burg and in 1874 ordinary professor at Freiburg-
im-Breisgau. In 1876 he undertook, with means
furnished by the Baden government, a journey
to London for the purpose of study and in
1878-9 a similar journey to North America at
the expense of the Prussian Academy of Sci-
ence. In 1802 he accepted an appointment in
the University of Chicago. He has published:
Constitutional and Political History of the
United States> (1873); 'The French Revolu-
tion Tested by Mirabeau's Career* (1804), etc.

Holstein, hol'stln, Germany, a former
duchy of Denmark, and member of the Ger-
manic Confederation, since 1866 united to
Schleswig-Holstein (q.v.), Prussia.

Holstein Cattle. See Dairy Cattle.

Holston, hdl'st6n, a river which rises hi
the southwestern part of Virginia, flows south
and southwest into Tennessee and unites with
the French Broad River about five miles east of
Knoxville. The Holston and the French Broad
are the head-streams of the Tennessee River.
The course of the Holston is through a moun-
tainous country, noted for its beautiful scenery.

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It has as tributaries many small mountain
streams. Its length is about 200 miles.

Holt, Joseph, American jurist: b. Breckin-
ridge County, Ky., 6 Jan. 1807 ; d. Washington,
D. C, 1 Aug. 1804. He began legal practice at
Elizabethtown in 1828, and in 1857 was ap-
pointed commissioner of patents. In 1859 he
became postmaster-general and in i860 secretary
of war. He was made by Lincoln a judge-advo-
cate general of the army, with colonel's rank,
was promoted brigadier, b revetted major-general
for distinguished service in the bureau of mili-
tary justice, and was retired in 1875. With the
exception of Cass, he was the only member of
Buchanan's cabinet that was not a Confederate
sympathizer. Among the courts over which he

? resided were those before which Fitz-John
'orter and Lincoln's assassins were tried.
Hol'ton, Kan., city, county-seat of Jack-
son County; on the Missouri P., the Chicago,
R. I. & P., and the Union P. R.R.'s; about 28
miles north of Topeka and 30 miles west of
Atchison. It was settled in 1859 and received
its charter in 1870. It is situated in a section
noted for good farms. The chief manufactures
are flour, wagons, cigars, creamery products,
and planed lumber. Its trade is chiefly in
wheat, corn, hay, live-stock, and local manufac-
tured products. The government is vested in a
mayor, who holds office two years, and a com-
mon council. Pop. (1010) 2,842;

H8Ity, Ludwig Heimich Christoph, lood'-
vTg hln'riH kres'tof hel'tif, German lyric poet:
b. Mariensee, near Hanover, 21 Dec 1748; d.
Hanover 1 Sept. 1776. In 1769 he went to
Gottingen to study theology. Here, falling in
with Burger, Voss, the Stolbergs, and other
poets of kindred tastes, he became one of the
founders of the Gottingen "Hainbund 1 * This
league of young enthusiasts was aflame for
Klopstock, then considered the greatest German
poet for patriotism and for friendship, detested
Wieland's sensual poems and his Frenchified
manner, read the classics together, and wrote
poetry in friendly emulation. Holly's poems re-
veal a lovable personality. The strain of sentimen-
tality that runs through all his work is not

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