Wilfrid Richmond.

The Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 online

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with daily student life, and a course in such
company and surroundings as our best summer
schools now offer, the student gets an invaluable
taste of real college residence. This mutual help
element in home education is chiefly supplied
by the numerous literary and study clubs, many
of which are coming to give their annual pro-
grams, a definite educational value by limiting
them to a single worthy subject and supplying
members with books, pictures and, if needed,
specimens or other aids.

5. Tests and Credentials. — The great prob-
lem in popularizing education is to secure con-
tinuous and systematic study from those lacking
the stimulus of the schools. Experience shows
that a goal is needed by most people to hold
them to completion of what they begin, by giving
tests and official recognition, with suitable
credentials for work well done. Differing from
the other groups their field is to stimulate, test,
record, and certify, rather than to give instruc-
tion. In spite of the criticisms and abuses of
examinations, no satisfactory substitute for the
good they accomplish when properly used has
yet been found. They are last and least of the
minors, but necessary to a complete system.

Educational Factors. — Most well equipped
schools have all the factors of home education
in active operation, but it is the use of these
factors by those who cannot attend schools that
constitutes home education. Schools imply resi-
dence and are attended consecutively, students
advancing stage by stage from kindergarten to
university. In home education the student will
often use all five minors at once, and in well
organized extension courses with lectures,
syllabus, class, paper work, directed reading,
student club and final examination we have four
of the five minors, and in many subjects the
museum or laboratory element is also added.
A town that aims to provide educational facili-
ties for both old and young at home, through
life must make all five groups available. For
most places the ideal would be to combine in a
single building suitably arranged, the public
library, museum, extension, examination, and
association or club roo:ns, thus massing in a
single institution, for which the best name is
institute, all the essential educational agencies
outside regular schools.

While there should be constant co-operation
and the utmost harmony between the agencies
for home and school education, experience con-
stantly proves that the best results cannot be
obtained by putting home education work in
charge of school authorities. The obvious
reason is that school trustees naturally and
properly feel that the school system is the vital
partj while libraries, museums, clubs, and ex-
tension teaching are only incidentals. The best
results are always reached with independent
trustees, who regard home education as quite
as important as school education, and who
devote all their energies to promoting their own

work. While two governing boards are thus a
necessity, a larger number is. more costly and
less efficient in administration, so that most
close students of this problem advise in all
ordinary circumstances the massing of the five
minors together under a single board with
headquarters in a single building. While in
theory the library is one of the five home educa-
tion factors, in fact the rapidly growing practice
is wisely making home education a part of the
library. This is because the country is being
rapidly dotted with library buildings supported
by taxation and endowments and receiving
private gifts and public appropriations and sup-
port to a degree never equaled in educational
history. The public library is already one of the
most popular of American institutions and is
rapidly gaining ground in all civilized countries.
With buildings, endowments, trustees and public
sympathy and support, it is the most economical,
natural and best centre for the other elements
of home education. In New York the official
title now used is ft New York State Library and
Home Education,* but it is frankly stated that
the words ft home education* will be dropped
when the public learns that library means not a
mere collection of books, but the home of all
this closely allied work.

At the national meeting of American libra-
rians in 1898 the entire program was given to
impressing as strongly as possible the fact that
small as well as large public libraries had the
privilege and duty of giving stimulus and aid
not alone to readers of books, but to all citizens,
young or old, who were seeking intellectual
advancement. Libraries are rapidly introducing
the museum element in collecting and lending
pictures as they do books. Many have started
collections in art, science, or history. Labora-
tories are sure to follow, where persons without
such facilities at home may pursue investigations
and supplement their reading with experimental
work. Even small towns now consider a library
building inadequate which does not provide
rooms for literary, scientific and similar societies
for mutual improvement, and lecture halls, large
and small, for the various phases of extension
teaching. In the last few years this development
has become less a matter of discussion than
the rapidity with which individual libraries may
take on their new and broader functions.

Melvil Dewey,

Formerly Director New York State Library.

Home Rule, the domestic control of local
affairs in a province, colony, or dependency of an
empire. The term has been employed in recent
history most especially with regard to Ireland,
which has been a dependency of England ever
since Pope Hadrian, as is averred, handed it
over to Henry II. of England in n 55, on condi-
tion that a certain portion of its revenue should
flow into the treasury of the Holy See. Since
that time Ireland has been more or less subject
to the government of England. English vice-
roys have ruled at Dublin, and English troops
kept the peace. The Irish are a high-spirited
and proud nation, and the history of their sub-
jugation has been a bloody one. For rany
years, however, they had their own parliament,
and managed their own domestic affairs. Then
came what was called the Union. The Irish

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parliament was abolished, and Irish boroughs
elected representatives to seats at Westminster.
This was in 1801, when it is said that the Irish
parliament which passed the bill for its own
destruction was bribed or cajoled into what
Irishmen of to-day consider a fatal and suicidal
act. The first Irishman of note to attempt a
remedy for Irish grievances was Daniel O'Con-
nell. Catholic emancipation had been won
largely through his agitation, seconded by the
strong and clear-headed statesmanship of Wel-
lington. In 1834 O'Connell brought forward in
the House of Commons his motion for a repeal
of the Union. By recent act of Parliament the
municipal councils of Ireland had been thrown
open to Roman Catholics. O'Connell vas elected
lord mayor of Dublin, and while his motion for
appeal was supported with but 40 votes in par-
liament, he carried it by 45 to 15 votes in the
municipal chamber at Dublin. This was un-
doubtedly the earliest step in the movement to-
ward home rule, which from that time to the
present moment has convulsed Ireland. In the
town council at Dublin one of the 15 who had
voted against O'CofmeH's motion for the repeal
of the union was a brilliant young lawyer named
Isaac Butt. In 187 1 he was elected member of
Parliament for Limerick and with him the Home
Rule party in the English Parliament was born.
The party struggled along for many years striv-
ing by obstruction and agitation in several quar-
ters to maintain the rights of Ireland, and ob-
tain for her better terms in her relations with
the mother country. Mr. Butt, who was a true
home ruler, though a conservative, was at length
incensed by the obstructionist tactics of Parnell
and Biggar, which he thought beneath a the dig-
nity of Parliament,* and practically surrendered
the leadership of his party, in which he was
succeeded by Parnell. In 1877 Parnell was
elected president of the Home Rule Confedera-
tion of Great Britain. Parnell very quickly
showed that he not only had very definite views,
but possessed also the courage of his convictions.
He became an advocate of peasant proprietor-
ship. For the realization of this idea the Land
League was constituted. At a meeting held in
London 21 Oct. 1879 it was declared that the
objects of the league were, first to bring about
a reduction of rack-rents; second to facilitate
the obtaining of the ownership of the soil by
the occupiers. It was very remarkable to see
how English opinion was gradually molded by
the great Land League and Home Rule Party.
In the elections of 1885 many Conservative can-
didates almost echoed the words of Parnell
in declaring for a "liberal measure of home
rule for Ireland.® In the elections of 1885 the
Liberals came in for a majority and Mr. Glad-
stone was premier for the third time. He was
not long in bringing in a bill providing for a the
constitution of an Irish parliament sitting in
Dublin with the Queen as its head.® He urged
the passing of the bill with one of the most
powerful, the most effective, and most touching
speeches which he ever delivered. But his elo-
quence was in vain, the measure was defeated
by a majority of 30. This was not the last
time that Gladstone was to attempt the libera-
tion of Ireland. But bold as had been his
change of opinion in putting forth a measure
he had in earlier life condemned, his conception
of Home Rule for Ireland was quite inadequate

compared with what O'Connell contemplated in
his agitation for repeal. Such as it was, Glad-
stone again staked the existence of his minis-
try on its realization in 1893. The bill passed
the House of Commons, but was rejected in
the House of Lords, and since that time Home
Rule for Ireland has been a dead issue in Eng-
lish politics.

Home Rule, Municipal. See Municipal

Homer, hd'mer, a poet to whom was at-
tributed in ancient Greece the authorship of
the two epic poems, the c Iliad* and the * Odys-
sey, } which form tne foundation of Greek, and
consequently of European literature. Of Ho-
mer's personality, birth, place, and time, ve
have no certain knowledge. His very existence
has been brought into doubt, and in accordance
with the etymology of his name Homer, which
means the same as Vyasa, to whom the Maha-
bharata has been attributed, he is sometimes
taken merely for the ^arranger* or 'compiler*
of the works that go by his name. Seven cities,
however, contended for the honor of being his
birthplace ; their names form the hexameter line

Symrna, Rhodos, Colophon, Salamif, Chios, Argos,

A then*.

These names cover almost the whole geograph-
ical area of Greece and at least point to the ex-
tent of the poet's fame and influence. Although
the dates of his birth and death are equally
doubtful, critics have placed him anywhere in
the oth and 10th centuries before Christ, though
some have thought these dates 500 years too
early. He is traditionally said to have been
blind, like Demodocus, the minstrel of the Odys-
sey. Some in ancient times attributed to him
also the Batrachyomachia, and the so-called Ho-
meric hymns, but it is at least doubtful whether
these were written by the author of the ( Iliad, )
as the Batrachyomachia seems a century later
than the epics, and the hymns to Apollo, De-
meter, Hermes, Aphrodite, and minor divinities
were probably preludes or introductions which
the rhapsodes or minstrels sang or chanted be-
fore beginning the serious business of the epic

The < Iliad ) and < Odyssey > deal with the war
waged by European Greece against Asiatic Troy.

The Iliad. — This 'Poem of Ilium > or Troy
describes some phases of the war waged by
Agamemnon and his brother Menelaus against
Priam, whose son Paris had carried off Helen,
the beautiful wife of Menelaus. The subject
of this epic is called the wrath of Achilles,
the representative Greek hero, a romantic and
dazzling figure. He remains in his tent without
helping in the war because Agamemnon has
taken from him the captive slave girl Briseis.
At length Hector, the champion of the Trojans,
slays in fight Patroclus, the bosom friend of
Achilles, who is roused by this from his sullen
inactivity, and rushes forth to the battlefield*
where he meets and slays Hector, whose funeral
rites form the closing incidents of the poem.

The Odyssey. — The 'Odyssev* describes the
return of Odysseus from the siege of Troy to
his island kingdom, Ithaca, where he is re-
stored to his faithful wife, Penelope, and takes
vengeance on the suitors who have sought her
hand and wasted her husband's substance in

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revelry and debauchery during his absence.
The first four "books describe Odysseus detained
in the magic isle of Calypso, and the despatch
of his son Telemachus to bring him home.
The following eight are taken up with the
hero's homeward voyage with his various ad-
ventures. In books 13-19, Odysseus in the at-
tire of a beggar is found unrecognized at the
door of his home; books 20-24 describe his
vengeance on the suitors.

There were some critics of Greece, notably
Xenon and Hellanicus,* who held that the so-
called Homeric epics were written by different
men. This school of grammarians were called
chorizontes, or separators. There is much in-
deed to give color to such a view. As has
been said, the < Iliad > was written for men, the
< Odyssey } for women. But what principally dis-
tinguishes the ( Odyssey > from the < Iliad > is the
fuller and more complete individualization of
the Greek divinities, the higher tone of religious
and social life. The knowledge of foreign lands
and their products and the means of travel by
sea seem also to have reached a more advanced

It remained for F. A. Wolf in his famous
K Prolegomena ad Homerum ) (1795) to make the
keenest and most searching analysis of these
epics, as regards their unity of composition
and identity of origin. He relies upon the
statement in Greek history that Pisistratus in
540 collected and arranged the Homeric poems
in something like their present form. The epics
are thus made up of separate ballads, sung by
rhapsodes, probably written by different poets,
and Wolf has shown much acuteness in point-
ing out that long epic poems could not have
been transmitted from such early antiquity with-
out handwriting, which did not then exist, and
in indicating what portion of each epic originally
formed individual and distinct songs or lays.
Consult: Jebb, introduction to Homer )
(1887); Monro, 'Homeric Grammar ) (1891);
Ebeiing, ( Lexicon Homericum ) (1885); Leaf,
<The Uiad> (1888); Hayman, <The Odyssey )

Homer, Winslow, American painter: b.
Boston 24 Feb. 1836; d. Scarboro, Me., 29 Sept
1910. He studied in the National Academy of
Design and was also a pupil of Frederic Rondel.
He was sent to the front during the Civil War
as special artist to Harper's Weekly and on his
return to New York exhibited his first impor-
tant work, ( Prisoner from the Front > (1064),
which won him recognition. In 1865 he was
elected Academician. Taking up his residence in
Scarboro, Me., he painted a series of pictures
which indicated a marked development in style,
sentiment, and power. There was a trace of con-
ventionality at least in the subjects of such
pictures as ( Home, Sweet Home,* which he
painted between 1864 and 1884. From the latter
date he began his portrayal of the fisher popu-
lation of New England. Dramatic and realistic
in the highest degree is the series of seven
canvases from the <Life Line > (1884) to the
< Lookout > (1897). But this artist reached hi3
finest vein in his pure marines, of which the
greatest is <The Maine Coast >

Homestead, h5m'sted, Pa., borough, in
Allegheny County, on the Monongahela River
and on the Pittsburg & L. E. and the Penn-

sylvania R.R/s; about seven miles south of
Pittsburg. It was settled in 1871 and incor-
porated and chartered in 1880. The chief manu-
factures are foundry-products, glass, machinery,
and steel products. It is noted for its large
steel plants, which employ over 6,000 men. The
borough owns and operates the waterworks.
At one time Andrew Carnegie (q.v.) was the
principal owner of the Homestead steel works.
Pop. (1910) 18,713. TY ,

There occurred in Homestead a serious strike
which began 6 July 1892. Reductions in wages,
change in time of signing the schedule, and re-
fusal to recognize the Amalgamated Iron and
Steel Association, or to hold any conferences
with the men, had brought on a general strike
to date from a certain time, and enraged the
men into burning H. C. Frick, the manager,
in effigy; whereupon the works were at once
shut down, 1 July, two days ahead of the
agreed time, and the men armed themselves and
prepared to resist by violence any attempt to
supply their places with non-union men. The
advisory committee of the union took charge of
the town with regular armed companies, and
allowed no one to enter the mills without their
permission. On 5 July the company announced
an intention to make repairs, and appealed to
the sheriff for protection ; he sent p. small squad,
who were at once driven from town by the
strikers, the latter denying that any damage
was intended and offering to be sworn in as
deputies themselves. The company then hired
a body of 300 Pinkerton detectives, who came
up the river in barges; but the strikers broke
through the fence surrounding the mill, in-
trenched themselves behind a barricade of steel
rails and billets, and whenever the Pinkerton
men attempted to climb the steep bank (which
they began at 4 a.m. of 6 July), shot them
down. Next day they procured a 10-pounder
brass cannon and bombarded the boat, splinter-
ing her wooden sides, but failing to pierce the
steel plates within. They then sprayed the boats
with oil from a hose, and emptied barrels of it
on the river, setting it on fire to float down
and fire the boats. The detectives repeatedly
ran up flags of truce, which were at once shot
down. At length the advisory committee sent
delegates to offer a safe-conduct to the detec-
tives, if they would leave their arms and am-
munition and quit the town under guard; they
were forced to submit, but when leaving under
escort, the mob stoned, shot, and clubbed them
shockingly, one having an eye struck out by
a woman in the mob. Seven were killed first
and last, and 20 to 30 wounded; and 11 strikers
and spectators were killed by their return fire
from the boats. The governor (Pattison) re-
fused to use the State power to quell the riot
till the 10th, insisting that the local authorities
must do their utmost first, and the sheriff must
summon the citizens; and the troops did not
arrive till the 12th, when the town was put
under martial law. A committee of Congress
was appointed to investigate the case; and later,
a Senate committee in the interest of the strikers
was appointed to inquire into the hiring of
private armed parties to maintain public order.
On 21 July Mr. Frick was shot and stabbed in
his office, but recovered On the 18th a number
of the strikers were arrested for murder; and

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retorted by indicting the Carnegie Company,
the Pinkerton brothers, and five of their men,
for murder. The advisory committee was also
charged with treason and usurpation, in taking
military possession of the town. The mills were
soon supplied with new men, but the strike
was not officially declared <( ofP till 20 Nov.

Homestead and Land Laws. Under the
United States laws any citizen or person who
declares intentions to become a citizen, male
or female, 21 years old, or head of a family,
may become the possessor of a homestead of 80
or 160 acres, by occupation and cultivation, to
be taken from unreserved public lands, sur-
veyed or unsurveyed. A fee of $5 or $10 is re-
quired to be paid for filing affidavit of settle-
ment, citizenship, age or family status. Total
fee is from $26 to $34, according to the land
district. Five years' residence and cultivation
are required, but only three are demanded where
5 or 10 acres of forest trees have been culti-
vated. Ex-Union veterans or their heirs obtain
patent one year after residence. Benefits are
limited to one claim, except that veterans who
have made one land settlement may also take
a homestead claim. Under timber-culture provi-
sions homestead locators may secure another 160
acres, including timber area, by cultivating 40
acres of trees. A homestead is free from debt
liability before patent issues. Locator may, on
proof of settlement six months after occupancy,
buy said land at pre-emption price.

Homestead discussion began in 1852 by the
Free-Soil party demanding reservation for set-
tlers. It was presented first in Congress by
Galusha Grow, 1854. A bill was first offered
in 1859, and passed the House; an act passed
in i860, granting homestead on payment of 25
cents an acre, was vetoed by President Bu-
chanan. The present law was signed by Presi-
dent Lincoln, 20 May 1862. Homestead law
initiated the national land policy. It marks the
third step in definite change from purchase to
settlement. Pre-emption policy, granting pref-
erence to occupancy over speculating purchases,
was the second step. First was sale or grants
en bloc. It began in 1801 when an act was
passed granting pre-emption to Miami Valley
settlers on Ohio-Symmes tract. Sixteen acts
were passed before that of 1832, which fixed
the price at $1.25 and $2.50, and divisions at
40, 80, 120, and 160 acres. Under Pre-emption
Laws, a locator having civic rights and also
able to testify that he or she does not possess
320 acres of land in the United States, or has
not abandoned any to settle on public lands, can
hold for cultivation and residence up to 160
acres. After a limited period a locator may on
satisfactorily proving settlement, purchase and
obtain patent at minimum or maximum rate, the
latter, $2.50, being paid for government land
within railway grant. No restriction is placed
on prc-emptor's acquirement of private lands.
Under timber-culture acts entry additional to
pre-emption or homestead may be made of legal
subdivision, one fourth of which must be de-
voted for eight years to timber culture. On
proof, a patent will issue for tracts; the total
fee is $18.

Timber acts are in the nature of a land
bounty for forest culture in sub-humid areas.

Desert land acts are designed to encourage rec-
lamation by irrigation of arid lands. Entry is of
640 acres permitted on <( dry lands 9 within Cali-
fornia, Nevada, Oregon, Arizona, New Mexico,
North and South Dakota, Wyoming, Utah, Ida-
ho, Montana, and Washington. Three years are
allowed to bring water thereon. On proof of
this, same may be purchased at 25 cents an acre.
Under present laws mineral lands are held for
industrial development, miners' customs being
recognized by Congress and upheld by the fed-
eral judiciary. Locators form district, lode, or
placer, adopt regulations, and elect recorder.
Quartz or lode claims permitted of 1,500 lineal
by 600 lateral feet, 300 on each side of lode.
Boundaries must be marked plainly, entry re-
corded, and work to the value of $100 or more
be performed each 12 months in order to hold
claim. Qualifications as to persons or asso-
ciations are the same as in other land entries.
No alien is permitted to hold, occupy, work, or
possess public lands. Placer claims of 20 acres
to the individual, or not over 160 to associations,
are similarly permitted. Patents issue on prov-
ing up and payment of fees.

The mineral land policy of the United States
fluctuated till the act of 1866 was passed. Lands
were sold or leased at different periods, and
the procedure was wasteful both to miners and
people. Mill sites and right of way for ditches
are provided for. Coal lands are pre-emptible
on civic and occupancy requirements by payment
of from $10 to $20 per acre. First priced land
is not within 15 miles of a railway; the other
is within such distance. The individual limit
is 160 acres; association 320 acres. An as-
sociation on proof of $5,000 expenditure may
enter one section. Only one entry is permitted.
Saline lands being exempt from settlement, are
offered for sale at $1.25 an acre, and then be-

Online LibraryWilfrid RichmondThe Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 → online text (page 172 of 185)