Wilfrid Richmond.

The Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 online

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tion, with icy coldness of the face and body,
lividity of the feet and hands and feebleness of
the pulse (precisely resembling the symptoms of
opium observed by Schweikert and others), was
at first treated unsuccessfully by Stiitz with
potash, but afterward cured in a speedy, perfect,
and permanent manner by opium. According
to Vicat, J. C. Grimm, and others, opium
produces an extreme and almost irresistible ten-
dency to sleep, accompanied by profuse perspira-
tion and delirium. This is the reason why Ost-
hoff was afraid to administer it in an epidemic
fever which exhibited similar symptoms^ for the
system he pursued prohibited the use of it under
such circumstances. It was only after having
employed in vain all the known remedies and
seeing that death was imminent that he resolved
to try it at all hazards, and behold,
it was always efficacious. J. Lind also
avowed that opium removes the head
troubles, and the burning sensation in the
skin and the difficulty of perspiring during
the pyrexia; under opium the head be-
comes free, the burning febrile heat disappears,
the skin becomes soft, and its surface is bathed
in a profuse oerspiration. But Lind was not
aware of the circumstance that opium produces
very similar morbid symptoms in the healthy.
Alston says that opium is a remedy that excites
heat, notwithstanding which it certainly dimin-
ishes heat where it already exists. De la Gue-
rene administered opium in a case of fever at-
tended with violent headache, tension and
hardness of the pulse, dryness of the skin, burn-
ing heat, and hence difficult and debilitating per-
spirations, constantly interrupted by the extreme
restlessness of the patient. He was successful
with this case because opium possesses the fac-
ulty of creating an exactly similar feverish con-
dition in healthy persons, of which he knew
nothing, though it is stated by many observers.
In a fever where the patients were speechless,
eyes open, limbs stiff, pulse small and intermit-
tent, respiration labored, snoring, and stertorous,
and deep somnolence (all of which are symptoms
perfectly similar to those which opium excites),
this was the only substance which C L. Hoff-
mann saw produce any good effects. Wirthen-
son, Sydenham, and Marcus have in like manner
cured lethargic fevers with opium. C. C. Ma-
thai, in an obstinate case of nervous disease,
where the principal symptoms were insensibil-
ity and numbness of the arms and legs, after



having for a long time treated it with inappro-
priate remedies, at length effected a cure by
opium, which, according to Stiitz, Young, and
others, causes similar states in an intense degree.
Hufeland performed, by the use of opium, the
cure of a case of lethargy of several days' dura-
tion. How is it that opium, which, as everyone
knows, -of all vegetable substances is the one
which in its primary action (in small doses)
produces the most severe and obstinate consti-
pation, should be one of the most efficient rem-
edies in constipation of the most dangerous
character, if not by virtue of the homoeopathic
therapeutic law, so long unrecognized? The
honest Bohn was convinced by experience that
opiates were the only remedies in the coKc
called /miserere* ; and the celebrated F. Hoff-
mann, in the most dangerous cases of this nature,
placed his sole reliance on opium combined in
the anodyne liquor called after his name. Gin
all the ( theories } contained in the 200,000 med-
ical books which cumber the earth furnish us
with a rational explanation of this and so many
other similar facts?*

The great German physician and philosopher
was careful to credit other medical men with
having obtained foregkams of his great discov-
ery. •How near,* he says, a was the great truth
sometimes of being apprehended!* And again:
•There have been physicians here and there
across whose minds this truth passed like a flash
of lightning without ever giving birth to a sus-
picion of the homoeopathic law of nature.*

From Hahnemann's literary and experimental
investigations alone, both he and his disciples
have unhesitatingly justified their belief in a
general curative relation between drugs, as rep-
resented by their symptoms, and diseases as
represented by their symptoms, and their belief
that this curative relation is properly set forth
by the word •similarity.* The proofs herein
presented are considered conclusive, although
similar evidence has been constantly accumulat-
ing in the writings of medical men of all schools,
and in the practice of hundreds and thousands
of homoeopathic physicians for more than a cen-
tury.

In Hahnemann's foot-note (see Dudgeon's
Appendix to the ^rganon,* p. 207) it is shown
that he early became aware of the •danger
which is to be anticipated from large doses of
homoeopathic remedies.* He says, however,
that •it often happens, from various causes
which cannot always be discovered, that even
very large doses of homoeopathic medicines
effect a cure, without doing any particular
harm.* In most instances homoeopathic physi-
cians came to regard the small dose as a neces-
sity to homoeopathic practice. Thus, a full dose
of belladonna, or of opium, administered to a
patient already suffering with symptoms like
those producible by one of these drugs, might
be perilous. Experience also taught them
that the curative action of the homoeopathic
drug could be secured as well or even better
through the small dose. The results claimed
for these small or minute doses naturally
aroused the skepticism of physicians and lay-
men alike, and became a serious hindrance to
the spread of the homoeopathic system. The
very nature of the homoeopathic principle, how-
ever, carries with it the necessity for the use of
the diminished dose.



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HOMCHUQGY



Homoeopathic physicians, when prescribing
minute doses of their remedies, are under the
necessity of employing great care in securing
absolute purity and simplicity in the preparation
of their medicines; and this has led to the need
of a special pharmacy for homoeopathic pre-
scribes. Another corollary of the homoeopathic
law of cure is the ^single remedy,® without
which no prescription can be strictly homoeo-
pathic. Still another principle follows from the
application of this law: namely, that a homoe-
opathic prescription can never be made from the
name of the disease. The similarity must be
traced between the symptoms of the drug and
those of the individual patient. This fact is for-
tunate in that it at once brands the advertised
•homoeopathic* proprietary medicine as a fraud
and a pretense, no matter in what form it may
be put upon the market

The spread of homoeopathy in the country of
its birth, and in other countries of Europe, has
been slow. The delay in securing its estab-
lishment has been due partly to the cause al-
ready mentioned — an unwillingness on the part
of both physicians and laymen to accredit the
little dose with curative potency. But the chief
obstacle to its advancement is to ^e sought in
inimical legislation and the lack of facilities and
authority to educate young men and women for
homoeopathic professional life, and the conse-
quent inability to supply the public need of
homoeopathic physicians.

Homoeopathy was introduced into the United
States in 1825 by a physician named Hans B.
Gram, who at that time settled in New York.
In this country, with its free institutions and
its asserted freedom of opinion, the new medical
thought found less antagonism U> overcome,
although there were many obstacles' \6 be en-
countered, chiefly of a social and legislative
character. The physicians of America, less con-
servative, perhaps, than those of Europe, were
more disposed to inquire into the scientific and
practical aspects of homoeopathy, with the result
that in less than 20 years more than 300 of them
were engaged in its practice. These physicians
speedily conceived the necessity for having their
own students educated under teachers of their
own faith and practice, and in 1&48 organized
and equipped a medical college for this pur-
pose. This school was almost immediately suc-
ceeded by others; and these institutions have
very largely contributed to the rapid spread of
homoeopathic practice in afl parts of the United
States.

When Dr. H. B. Gram arrived in New York
in 1825, the only homoeopathic literature in the
English language was Hahnemann's <Geist der
homuopathischen Heilkunst,* a pamphlet of 24
pages, translated by himself and published by
J. & J. Harper, of New York. The remaining
homoeopathic literature was all in the German
language, and it is recorded that such was the
interest felt in the subject that numerous con-
verts to Hahnemann's system, some of them past
middle life, pursued the study of German in or-
der to facilitate their investigations in homoeop-
athy. At the close of the first quarter-century
of the new practice, more than 25,000 pages in
the English language had been published by the
homoeopathic press, and at the end of 50 years
the aggregate reached more than 150,000 pages.
(See transactions of the World's Homoeo-
pathic Convention of 1876, Vol. II., pp.. 1020-65.)



The progress that homoeopathy has made in
the United States can be best shown by the rec-
ords of its organizations and institutions. The
American Institute of Homoeopathy, the national
society of homoeopathic physicians, organized in
1844, now has a membership of over 2,000.
There are six other national organizations,
formed to promote various departments of med-
ical and surgical interest. State societies are
organized in 36 of the commonwealths, and at
the present rate of increase these bodies will in
a few years exist in every State. To these may
be added 150 local societies of various kinds.
In the United States homoeopathic physicians
are in charge of 220 hospitals, general and spe-
cial, 66 other institutions — asylums, homes, etc..
and 65 dispensaries, 20 medical colleges, and
32 medical journals.

The exact number of physicians practising
homoeopathy in this country cannot be ascer-
tained with accuracy, but it is known to be not
less than 12,000, and has been estimated as high
as 18,000. The number of people employing
these physicians, regularly or irregularly, can-
not be less than 15,000,000. Thus has the in-
fluence of homoeopathy extended during its
American career of 75 years.

The influence of homoeopathy upon public
and professional sentiment has been beneficent
and pronounced. Laymen and physicians have
alike learned from the practice, that large
quantities of potent and dangerous drugs are
not often necessary to determine recovery from
disease, and physicians have reached the wise
conclusion that cures sometimes occur under
the influence of small doses, as well as quantities
with larger.

.. Bibliography. — Ameke, 'History of Homoe-
opathy* ; Boericke, ( A Compend of the Princi-
ples of Homoeopathy > ; Bradford, homoeopathic
Bibliography of the United States from the Year
1825 to 1891 inclusive*; ( Life and Letters of
Dr. Samuel Hahnemann ; <The Pioneers of
Homoeopathy*; Dake, < Therapeutic Methods > ;
Dudgeon, <The Lesser Writings of Hahne-
mann } ; < Lectures on Homoeopathy > ; Dunham,
'Homoeopathy the Science of Therapeutics*;
Hahnemann, <Organon of the Art of Healing*;
c Materia Medica Pura ) ; <The Chronic Diseases :
Their Peculiar Nature and Their Homoeopathic
Cure*; Mack, <The Philosophy of Homoeop-
athy ) ; transactions of the American Institute
of Homoeopathy > ( 1 844-1903 ) ; transactions
of the World's Homoeopathic Convention*
(1876). Pemberton Dudley, M.D., LL.D.,
Professor of Institutes of Medicine, Hahnemann

Medical College, Philadelphia.

H
E. G
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HOMOOXttI AN— HONDURAS



Homoouaian, hd-mo-oo'sT an (Greek ho-
mo-, «the same,* and ousia, ^substance*) and
Homotousian (Greek homoios, *like,» and ousia,
^substance*). The Council of Nice adopted the
word homoousian to express that the Son was
of the same substance with the Father, while
the followers of Arius adopted the term homoi-
ousian, as a sort of middle and reconciling: the-
ory, to express that the Son, though not of the
same, was yet of a similar substance with the
Father. The doctrine of Arianism was not only
that the Son was subordinate to the Father, but
that he was totally unlike him, being a mere
created being.

Homoplasy, ho'mo-plas-i, the effect of the
influences of convergence (q.v.)» upon homolo-
gous structures. The term was proposed by E.
Ray Lankester and used at first with a rather
broader meaning subsequently restricted and
defined by Osborn. See Analogy.

Homop'tera. See Hemiptera.

Horns, horns. See Hems.

Hondo, hon'do (signifying ^chief island 9 ),
the largest island of Japan (q.v.), for a long
time erroneously known as Nippon or Niphon,
the Japanese name for the whole empire.

Honduras, British, or Belize, a colony
in Central America, bounded on the north and
northwest by Yucatan (Mexico), on the east
by the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Honduras,
and on the south and west by Guatemala. Its
chief town, Belize, has 16,047 inhabitants. The
Cockscomb Mountains in the southern district
rise to the height of 3,700 feet. Principal rivers
are the Old, the New, and the Sibun. The
northern part of the colony contains vmtny"
lagoons, and a chain of cays stretches *afong
the coast. The forests yield mahogany and
logwood in large quantities; cattle raising and
the cultivation of coffee and fruits receive some
attention. The value of exports since 1897 has
been decidedly greater than that of imports.
During the fiscal year 1008-09 exports
reached $2,287,000 in value; imports for the
same period, $2,682,000. In 1908 exports of ma-
hogany amounted to 14,398422 superficial feet;
logwood, 5,775 tons. Registered shipping: 14
steamers and 278 sailing vessels. Vessels en-
tering and clearing 1908, 507,443 tons. The
total number of letters, booVs, postal cards,
parcels, and newspapers transmitted by the post-
office in 1008 was 471,728. That is to say, pro-
portionately to the population, from 100 to 350
per cent more than in the neighboring Guatemala
and Honduras. The standard of currency since
15 Oct. 1894 has been United States gold. In
common use are silver coins and government
notes. British Honduras is governed as a crown
colony, by a governor, assisted by executive and
legislative councils, the former composed of five
members and the latter of eight. Expenditures
since the close of 1890 have been less than the
revenue, the latter being derived from customs
duties, excise, land-tax, licenses, and the sale or
leasing of lands. Total expenditure in the
year ending 31 March 1909 about $555,000;
revenue, $375,000; public debt, $1,738,680. There
are 42 primary schools, with 4488 pupils, receiv-
ing aid from the government; also a few
denominational secondary schools. Population,
according to the latest census, 43,270, an increase
of about 64 per cent since the previous census.



For origin and early history of the settlement,
see Belize; also Central America.

Consult: Consolidated Laws of the Colony
of British Honduras ) (London 1887) * Gibbs,
< History of British Honduras* ; and Hender-
son, c An Account of the British Settlement of
Honduras.* Marrion Wilcox,

Authority on Spanish America.

Honduras, Gulf of, a spacious inlet of the
Caribbean Sea, having on the west British Hon-
duras, and on the south Guatemala and Hon-
duras. In it several smaller bays of which
the Gulf of AmatiQue, with its inner recess, th<
bay of St Tomas, are spacious and deep. Sev
eral large rivers, the Belize, Chamelicon, Dukf,
Motaguaand Ulua, flow into the gulf. Along
the shores are the islands of Turneffe, Mana-
bique, the Bay Islands including Ruatan, Utila,
and Bonaoca, and numerous islets and reefs
called cays.

Honduras, Republic of, a country of
Central America, bounded on the north and
northeast by the Gulf of Honduras and the
Caribbean Sea; on the southeast and south by
Nicaragua ; and on the southwest and west by
Fonseca Bay, Salvador, and Guatemala. Esti-
mated area, 46,250 to 46400 square miles. The
total population * (1910) is 745,000 ; by the
(latest) official statistics of 1901 the departments
are as follows: Tegucigalpa, 81,800; Copan, 62,-
398; Gracias, 48,242; Choluteca, 45.340; Olancno,
44496; El Paraiso, 39,918; Santa Barbara,



36,228; Valle, 33»45o; Comayagua, 29,023; La
Paz, 27,384; Intibuca, 26,348; Cortez, 21,801;
Yoro, 19,088; Col6n, 13,791; Atlantida, 8,707;
Bay Islands, 4,737- The capital, Tegucigalpa,
4ia* 35,000 ^inhabitants. Mountain ranges, ^vhich
*rise*to neights of 5,000 or even 10,000 feet, are
massed in the western half of the republic; the
Juticalpa, Camasca, and Tompocente ranges,
however, are near the frontier of Nicaragua
in the east. Rivers emptying into the Caribbean
Sea or Gulf of Honduras are the Coco or
Wanks, and Patuca, in the east, and the Ulua,
Chamelicon, etc., in the west The Choluteca
flows southward from the Misoco Mountains
near Tegucigalpa, and empties into Fonseca Bay,
on the Pacific coast. Large lakes are the Cara-
tasca, on the Mosquito coast, and Yojoa, among
the western mountains. The chief port on the
Pacific is Amapala; other ports of entry are
Puerto Cortez (on the Gulf of Honduras), La
Ceiba, Truxillo, Roatan, and Iriona.

Minerals, Woods, and Agricultural Products.
-^ Gold is round between the south and centre ;
silver in almost all sections. Lead, copper, salt-
peter, iron, coal, platinum, zinc, and antimony
are also widely distributed. The value of ore*
produced annually is approximately $1,000,000
(that is 20,000 ounces of gold, 1,000.000 ounces
of silver, and a considerable quantity of cop-
per). Only about 5 per cent of the mines of the
country are being: worked. The forests from
sea-level to an altitude of 1,000 feet, contain ma-
hogany, ebony, dyewoods, sarsaparilla and other
medicinal plants, and cabinet woods, cedar, etc
At an elevation of 1,800 feet are dense and very
extensive forests of pine and similar woods.
Agriculture receives more attention than for-
merly, and the leading product is the native
maize, of which about 500,000 bushels are raised
annually, chiefly in the departments of Copan,
Gracias, and Santa Barbara. Bananas and plan-



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HONDURAS



tains are grown on 42,840 acres of territory in
the departments of Cortez, Atlantida, the Bay
Islands, etc The annual wheat crop is about
15,000 bushels; rice 4,000,000 pounds. Nearly.
20,000 acres are devoted to the cultivation of
plantains. Cocoanuts, lemons, and oranges are
produced for export on a large scale. The
<roffee crop in 1909 amounted to 5,500,000
pounds, and tobacco to 1,500,000 pounds. Sugar-
cane is cultivated on 13,263 acres; indigo on
^about 9,000 acres. The total value of agricul-
tural products annually is about $3,000,000.
The number of cattle is estimated at 571,120;
horses, 43,549; mules, about 14,000, etc. Large
<iuantities of sarsaparilla (the product of the
stnilax medica) are exported to the United States.

Commerce and Manufactures. — The total
value of imports in 1909 was 6,841,115 pesos,
or about $2,581,553 in United States currency;
•of exports, 5,275,094 pesos. Imports came
chiefly from: the United States (60 per cent),
•Germany, Great Britain, Belize, Central America,
and France. Exports were sent to: the United
States (two thirds of total), Great Britain,
Central America, Spain, and Germany, with
comparatively small amounts to other countries.
The trade report for the fiscal year ending
Aug. 1 1909, shows the values of the principal
articles exported to be as follows: Bananas,
$008,643; cyanide, $536,544; cocoanuts, $113,139;
■silver, $100,668; coffee, $57,920; hides, $52,638,
and cattle, $47,601. Exports to the United
States were valued at 64,690 Pesos more
than imports from that country. Native indus-
tries include the manufacture of cigars, flour,
hats, and candles.

Railways, etc. — A contract for the comple-
tion of an interoceanic railway was entered into
by an American syndicate in 1897; in 1902 the

fovernment's concession to the syndicate lapsed,
ut a prorogue was requested. The line from
Puerto Cortez runs southward to San Pedro
and La Pimienta. Tegucigalpa is to be con-
nected with the" Pacific coast, at San Lorenzo,
"by a line which is now being constructed. Roads
in the country, with a few exceptions, are mere
mule-paths. A cart-road from the capital to
San Lorenzo is completed as far as La Venta.
There are 245 post-offices, and the number of
letters (both internal and foreign correspond-
ence) is not more than 1,250,000 in a year. The
republic has 3,249 miles of telegraph wire; the
capital and some other towns telephone services.
Money, Weights, Measures, and Banking.*—
The standard dollar, or silver peso, is worth
about 40 cent, United States currency. Gold
coins of the value of 20, 10, and 5 dollars, and
silver pieces, fractions of one dollar, are also
in circulation. While the metric system is au-
thorized by law, the chief measures and weights
in commercial use, as in the other countries of
Central America, are: Centaro =4.2631 gallons;
fanega (dry) = 1.5745 bushels ; libra = 1.043
pounds; and vara =33.874 inches. Note also,
manzaua = 1 5-6 acres, and arroba = 2^-^/2
-gallons. The capital of the Bank of Honduras,
30 June 1902, was 600,000 pesos; bank-bills in
circulation, 60,242 pesos.

Government, Finances, Army and Navy.—
The president and vice-president of the republic,
nominated and elected by vote of the people,
serve for four years; the former is assisted by
the ministers (chiefs of departments) of
finance, interior, foreign relations, public works,



war, public instruction, and justice. The legis-
lative body is composed of deputies elected by
the people, there being one deputy for each
10,000 inhabitants. The budget for the fiscal
year 1909 gives, as the total of receipts from
all sources, 3,848,446 pesos, the largest items
being, customs duties, 2,379,926 pesos; banana
export tax 94,952 pesos; and ordinary expendi-
tures, 3,822,234 pesos, to which must be added
409,048 pesos paid on the public debt, and 4,-
317,106 pesos on special accounts, making a
total of 8,548^88 pesos. On the 1st of August
1908 the internal debt of Honduras amounted
to 4,015,258 pesos. During the year 190&-9 this
was increased 413,042 pesos, less 409,048 pesos.
This last sum represents payments made on
account of the debt. The net increase was there-
fore 3,995 pt sos, making the total internal debt
on 1 August igop 4,019,253 pesos. The princi-
pal item of ordinary expenditures was 1,495,-
829 pesos, on account of the Department of
War. The external debt on Honduras, of which
a considerable portion is in dispute, amounts to
about £22,500,000. Of this sum over £1 7,000,000
represents interest. A report of the Minister of
War of the Republic of Honduras gives the
total number of privates in the whole army at
the close of 1909 was 45,576* the number of
principal officers 955, and the number of sub*
ordinate officers 2,900. Honduras has two small
vessels which serve as revenue cutters and war
vessels. They carry a small armament of
Hotchkiss guns.

Population, Education, and Religion. — The
total number of inhabitants, as shown by
departments in the first paragraph of this
article, is 745,000, exclusive of forest tribes.
•Very 'few of "this hummer are of Spanish descent,
the great mass of tlie people being Indians or
Mestizos. The Government is encouraging the
spread of education, and to this end it recom-
mends better salaries for teachers. A law school,
a school of commerce, a national institute, and
normal schools for both sexes are maintained,
and the primary schools in 1900 numbered 655,
with a corps of 767 teachers and 25,975 matricu-
lates. Large sums of money have been spent
by the administration for public instruction,
mainly in the form of salaries to primary school-
teachers. The Government intends to re-
establish the school of medicine. Freedom of
worship is secured by constitutional guaranty;
the Government does not contribute to the
support of any church ; the prevailing religion is



Online LibraryWilfrid RichmondThe Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 → online text (page 175 of 185)