Wilfrid Richmond.

The Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 online

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Roman Catholicism.

History. — The first place of debarkation of
Christopher Columbus on the American main-
land was near the present Cape Honduras, where
he landed on Sunday, 14 Aug. 1502. On the
following Wednesday Bartholomew Columbus
landed at the mouth of Rio Tinto. They sailed
thence along the coast to Cape Gracias a Dios
(see Central America). The conquest of the
country was effected by Hernan Cortes, who
found the natives manageable, but their land
^covered with awfully miry swamps,* as he
wrote to the Spanish emperor 3 Sept. 1526. *I
can assure your majesty * he adds, tf that even
on the tops of the hills our horses, led as they
were by hand, and without their riders, sank to
their girths in the mire.* The most important
fact in the history of Honduras — the fact that
the Indians remained in possession of so large
a portion of the country that their descendants

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constitute the bulk of the population io-day—
is a consequence of the policy observed by
Cortes and his successors. The natives were
tractable ; without their assistance it would have
been impossible to move about among the dense
forests, swamps, and mountains; therefore the
Spaniards realized that more was to be accom-
plished by diplomacy than by force. Massacres
occurred, but extermination was not attempted;
on the contrary, Honduras became in time a
nation of Spanish-speaking 1 Indians, those of
pure or nearly pure blood being more numerous
now than before the conquest. For the era of
independence, confederation with the neighbor-
ing states, etc., see Central America.

Bibliography. — American Republics, Inter-
national Bureau of the, ( Monthly Bulletin }
(1902-3) ; Cortes, <Fifth Letter of Cortes to
the Emperor Charles "W ; Diaz, ( Historia Ver-
dadera de la Conquista de la Nueva EspanV ;
Sierra, ^ensaje,* etc., m < Pabellon de Hon-
duras^ Tegucigalpa 10 Jan. 1903; Squier,
< Honduras, > and ( Honduras Interoceanic Rail-
way } ; Wells, c Explorations and Adventures in
Honduras. > Marrton Wilcox,

Authority on Spanish America.

Hone, hon, Philip, American merchant: b.
New York 1781 ; d. there 4 May 1851. He
was a successful auctioneer in New York, es-
tablished there the first savings bank (1816),
was mayor in 1826, and one of the founders of
the Mercantile Library Association. Prominent
in national political affairs, he aided in the
formation of the Whig party. His diary, a por-
tion of which, edited by Tuckerman, appeared
in 1889, contains important side-lights on the
early history of the Whfjfst Hone was also at
one time naval officer of New York port.

Hone, a strop or stone for sharpening
knives and razors. See Whetstone.

Honesdale, honz'dal, Pa., borough, county-
seat of Wayne County; on the Lackawaxen
River; the Erie, and the Delaware & H. R.R/s;
about 15 miles northeast of Carbondale and 30
miles northeast of Scranton. The first locomo-
tive used in America, the ^Stourbridge Lion, 5 *
made its trial trip from this city. It is situated
in a coal-mining region, with good farming land
in the valleys. Its manufactures are silk and
woolen goods, boots, and shoes, machine-shop
and foundry products, axes, electric elevators,
green, cut, engraved, and decorated glassware,
men's clothing, and wheels for polishing glass.
Large quantities of coal are shipped annually
from Honesdale. Pop, 3,10a

Honesty. A flowering herb. See Satin-

Honey, a sweet sticky liquid obtained by
bees and other insects from flowers (see Honey-
Bee; and Flowers and Insects) as food, or
taken home to be stored as food for the young.
The care with which the honey-bee (q.v.) col-
lects and stores this substance in its hive has
led to bee-culture (qv.). Honey is highly nu-
tritive, especially as a iuel for the energies of
the body, as four fifths of its components are
carbohydrates, the remainder being water with
a trifle of protein. The saccharine elements are
mainly grape-sugar and some fruit-sugar, which
are so readily affected by yeast that various
fermented drinks are made with honey as their

basis, of which the best known are the mead
and metheglin in great demand among all Teu-
tonic peoples a thousand years ago, and the
equivalents of which are still made in Russia,.
Abyssinia and elsewhere. Before the general
manufacture and use of cane-sugar, honey was
largely depended upon for purposes of sweet-
ening, and was put into a great number of cakes
and confections now rare or only locally manu-
factured. Of the place which it took among
the ancients in the household, in ceremonials,
worship, and folk-lore a large amount of curi-
ous information may be gathered from such
books as Beckman's < History of Invention >
(1846) ; Dutt's < Materia Medica of the Hin-
doos J (1877), and similar works, of which lists
may be found in Warring's ( Bibliography of
Therapeutics* (1868), and in the < Catalogue of
the United States Army Medical Museum. } The
importance of honey was, indeed, much greater
to the ancients than to us ; as might be inferred
from its frequent mention in the Bible as a
sign of abundance or the resource of the desti-
tute. It has well-recognized medicinal proper-
ties, especially as a demulcent against hoarse-
ness, catarrh, etc., in promoting expectoration in
disorders of the breast, and as an ingredient in
cooling and detergent gargles. Its effect is
usually laxative also. It is used to sweeten cer-
tain medicines; and is sometimes mixe<J with
vinegar in the proportion of two pounds of clari-
fied honey to one pint of the acetic acid, boiled
down to a proper consistence over a slow fire,
and thus forms the oxymel simple of the shops.
It enters into the composition of various sweet-
meats, especially in the East, such as the gen-
uine Oriental nougat. These properties and the
flavor and color of honey vary with the qualities
of the flowers from which it is made. Thus in
Europe the white Narbonne honey of France, is
said to owe its peculiar and delicious flavor to
the rosemary, and other labiate flowers on which
the bees feed. The Grecian honey also stands
in high estimation. Mt Hymettus in Attica
has been famous since classic times for this
product ; but that yielded by the bees who range
the thyme-covered hills of Corinth is said to
excel it Another famous ancient source of
supply was Sicily, especially about Mt. HyMa;
and Corsica is yet celebrated for its honey and
wax, which in ancient times were the chief ex-
ports of that, island. In the eastern United
States the early light-colored honey obtained
from the blossoms of the white clover, is espe-
cially esteemed; also that derived from rasp-
berry plantations, bass-wood flowers and the
like; while that made later in the summer
from buckwheat is in favor among darker vari-
eties. California is an extensive producer of
honey from various flowers.

As the aromatic agreeable flavors and health-
ful qualities of special flowers (fortunately in
the majority) are kept and apparent in ordinary
good honey, so certain bad qualities are re-
tained and spoil some honey, which thereby
becomes deleterious to the human system, acting
as a nauseant, a purgative, affecting the nerve-
centres or even seriously poisoning those who
eat it. This is the case in the United States
with honey made from the flowers of the moun-
tain laurel {Kalmid) and some other toxic
plants. Some persons are unable to eat any

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kind of honey, without disarrangement of the
digestion or nerves, or both; and all should
use it in moderation.

The industry of bee-keeping is for the pur-
pose of supplying the market demand for honey.
Modern hives are so constructed that the bees
build separate combs each filling a box with
glass sides, which are taken out and sent to
market as the bees finish them. Another method
of marketing is in the form of ^strained* honey,
the liquid pressed from the comb after warming,
through sieves of linen cloth, or by other means.
There is no reason why this should not be as
good as that left in the comb, if properly pre-
pared and preserved, and it permits of saving
the material of the combs for wax (q.v.) ; but
it makes possible adulteration, which is freely
taken advantage of. The chief adulterant is
commercial glucose, which occasionally is sub-
stituted to the extent of three fourths of the
volume, leaving only enough real honey to flavor
the mass. As glucose (grape-sugar) is a large
constituent of this substance in nature no great
harm results (when the glucose is good), be-
yond the deception; and wholly artificial honey
has been largely sold in the past as the product
of bees.

The United States is probably the greatest
honey-producing region of the globe, and ex-
ports a vast quantity to Europe annually. The
latest census reports 4,149*426 swarms of
bees, valued at $10,186,513; and the annual pro-
duction of honey at 61,196,160 pounds, which,
together with 1,765,315 pounds of wax was worth

Honey Ant, a true ant of the family For-
micidce, fifth sub-family Camponotina, and allied
to the typical ants {Formica). The honey ant
{Myrmecocystus melligcr), is so called from
certain of the wingless individuals being so many
honey-pots, their abdomens being distended with
honey fed to them by the normal workers/ in-
cluding both dwarfs and majors. It occurs from
central Colorado (Garden of the Gods) to New
Mexico and as far south as the city of Mexico.
It erects mounds six or seven inches across and
two or three inches in height, of the shape
of a truncated cone. In the interior is the
a honey chamber® or. a rough dome-roofed vault
or fissure, the honey-bearers (600 in a large
colony) clinging by their feet to the roof. Their
yellow bodies are stretched along the ceiling,
their swollen, round, amber-colored abdomens
of the size of currants hanging down. The *honey*
is obtained in the ; night time by the workers
which go in long processions to some distant
scrub-oak bearing nectar-producing galls. The
workers return with distended abdomens, and
feed the honeyrbearers with the nectar. C. Mc-
Cook thinks the honey-bearers are not a dis-
tinct caste, but simply workers <( with an over-
grown abdomen.® The honey is thus stored, as
bees store their honey, for food in winter or
times of famine. Consult McCook, <The Honey
Ants of the Garden of the Gods, 5 etc. (Phila-
delphia 1882).

Honey-badger, a small mustiline burrow-
ing animal (Mellivora indica) of India, which
eats insects, irogs, birds* eggs, and small animals
generally, and is fond of honey. The natives
believe it robs graves, but destruction of pout-

try is its worst sin. It is nearly related to the
South African ratel.

Honey-ball, or Globe-flower, the flower of
an American shrub {Cephalanthus occidentalism
of the madder family, which grows in wet places,
where it is called button or river bush, and
bears extremely fragrant flowers whose small
florets are folded or packed into balls, while ^the
long styles and capitate stigmas remind us of
pins stuck in a cushion."

Honey Bear, the sun-bear (q.v.).

Honey-bee. Bees in general are Hymenop-
tera, of the family Apida. Bees are distinguished
from wasps and other hymenoptera in the first
place by the long, broad, flattened basal joint of
the hind tarsus, which is adapted for carrying
pollen to the nest. Bees are also more hairy
than others of their order, and some of the hairs
are plumose or feathery. The mouth-appendages
are long and highly specialized, especially the
long flexible proboscis or tongue (hypopha-
rynx). There are no wingless adult forms.
While the more primitive genera are solitary,
in the more specialized or social kinds, besides
the males and females, there are workers, which
are, as a rule, sterile females in which the
ovaries are undeveloped. Of the bee family
there are now known to be about 150 genera
and 1,500 species.

Original Home of the Honey-bee. — Al-
though the honey-bee {Apis tnellifica) has fol-
lowed the white man in his migrations from the
Old World to the New, and to Australia, New
Zealand, etc., its original birthplace is in south-
ern Asia, probably including the eastern shores
of the Mediterranean Sea. Besides A. mel-
UUca there are seven or eight other species, all
except one southern and eastern Asiatic, includ-
ing the islands of Timor and Celebes; the ex-
ceptional one {A. adamsoni) inhabiting tropical
Africa. and Madagascar. We know little of the
honey-bees of China and Japan.

Like other- domestic animals (and the
honey-bee is the only domestic insect we pos-
sess), this bee is divided into races of which
the Ligurian bee (variety ligustka), originally
inhabiting Italy and adjoining regions, is a well-
marked one, and another is the Egyptian honey-
bee ( ' ' ' ' s -' * '

the o

as 01
to tl
in a

Digitized by



whole, the honey-bee stands at the head of the
hymenopterous series, and, in fact, at the head
of the class of insects, though the house-fly is
in some respects more extremely specialized.

Structure of the Honey-bee. — Besides the
males or drones, and the female or queen, the
colony consists of workers; these carry on the
work of the society, gathering nectar, pollen,
building the cells and feeding the young. The
colony is permanent, differing in this respect
from that of bumblebees, which come to an end
each autumn. We will first describe the chief
points in the external anatomy of the insect
The body is divided into three regions, the head,
thorax, and abdomen. The eyes are of two
kinds, simple and compound, the male differing
from the queen and the workers in the large
compound eye meeting in the middle of the top
of the head. The mouth-appendages consist of
three pairs, — first the jaws or mandibles; these
in the queen and drone are notched, but in the
worker the edge is entire and serves for biting,
and in comb-building for thinning out wax
shreds, also for scooping and molding the wax,
while the next pair of appendages, or accessory
jaws, are called maxillae, and are used as a
trowel. In the bumblebee the maxillae are also
used for piercing the corolla of flowers like the
wistaria and honeysuckle, but those of the
honey-bee appear to be too weak for this pur-
pose. They also ensheathe the proboscis. The
so-called tongue (ligula, lingua or hypopharynx)
is the long, slender, hairy appendage adapted
for gathering the nectar of flowers. It is an
outgrowth of the under lips (labium or fused
second maxillae), is situated in a tube formed
by the maxillae and labial palpi, and can be
partially withdrawn into the memtum, or base
of the under lip. It can move up and down in
the tube thus formed. It is covered by a hairy
sheath, and is very elastic, this being due to a
rod extending through its centre, enabling it to
be used as a lapping tongue. Cheshire states
that the rod on the under side has a gutter or
trough-like hollow, which forms a false tube by
the intercrossing of black hairs. There are also
two side-ducts, which extend along to the end
of the tongue, where the *spoon* or «bouton*
is situated. This is provided with very deli-
cate split hairs, ^capable of brushing up the
most minute quantity of nectar, which by capil-
larity is at once transferred by the gathering
hairs to two side groove-like furrows at the
back of the bouton.* The central duct, because
of its smaller size and consequent greater capil-
lary attraction, receives the nectar, if insufficient
in quantity to fill the side ducts. *But,* says
Cheshire, a good honey-yielding plants would
bring both centre and side into requisition The
nectar is sucked up until it reaches the para-
glossae, which are plate-like in front, but mem-
branous extensions, like small aprons, behind '»
and by these the nectar reaches the front of the
tongue, to be swallowed as before described.
The process of gathering the nectar is not ex-
actly either a sucking or a licking process; but,
as Cheshire shows, the action is primarily due
to capillary attraction.

Organs of Smell and Taste. — Bees are
guided to flowers chiefly by smell, rather than
by the color of the flowers they visit. (See
Flowers and Insects.) The olfactory organs
are multitudes of microscopic pits in the an-
tenna — the organs of smell. The sense of

taste is lodged in a minute soft baggy fold on
the under side of the upper lip, which is rich in
taste-cups; and, besides, there are a few taste-
papillae or cups found by Packard at the base
of the paraglossse and on the base of the labial
palpi. These sites of the gustatory organs are
situated where the food or nectar will come in
contact in passing down the throat into the

Formation of Honey and the Honey-Stom-
ach. — In insects there is the fore stomach (pro-
ventriculus) and the true or chyle-stomach.
The former is called by apiarians the tf honey-
sac* or a honey-stomach.* "If,* says Cheshire,
a it be carefully removed from a freshly killed
bee, its calyx-like * stomach-mouth } may be seen
to gape open and shut with a rapid snapping
movement.* The entrance to the stomach is
guarded by four valves, which open to allow
the passage of food from the honey-sac to tie
chyle-stomach. It is closed at will by circular
muscles. Thus the bee can carry food for a
week's necessities, either using it rapidly in the
production of wax, or eking it out if the weather
is unfavorable for the gathering of a new store.
By means of a complicated mechanism a bee in
sucking up from composite and other flowers
nectar together with much pollen (i) can either
eat or drink from the mixed diet she carries,
gulping down the pollen in pellets, or swallow-
ing the nectar as her necessities demand; (2)
when the collected pollen is driven into the
chyle-stomach, the tube-extension prevents the
pellets forming into plug-like masses just below,
for by its action these pellets are delivered into
the midst of the fluids of the stomach to be at
once broken up and digested; (3) *while
the little gatherer,* says Cheshire, *is flying
from flower to flower, her stomach-mouth is
busy in separating pollen from nectar, so that
the latter may be less liable to fermentation and
better suited to winter consumption. She, in
fact, carries with her, and at once puts into
operation, the most ancient, and yet the most
perfect and beautiful, of all honey-strainers.**

How the Honey is Made. — Honey is made
of nectar, and is due to a chemical change m
the honey-sac. The bee gathers the nectar with
its "tongue,* swallows it; it then passes into the
honey-sac, and is regurgitated as honey. The
nectar when gathered is almost entirely pure
saccharose, and, according to Bertrand, when
regurgitated it is found to consist of dextrose
and levulose ; this change appears to be prac-
tically the conversion of cane-sugar into grape-
sugar. A little salivary fluid is poured out into
the mouth as the bee sucks' the nectar, and this
effects the chemical change. Cheshire thinks
that the salivary fluid is added while the nectar
is being sucked, and is passing over the middle
parts of the under lip, so that the nectar may
be honey when swallowed by the bee.

Many and probably all bees eat the pollen
while gathering it. The plumose hairs of bees
are of use in collecting the pollen grains which
adhere to them, but the exact method of ac-
cumulation of the pollen and the mechanism of
its conveyance from hair to hair till k reaches
the part of the body it must attain in order to
be removed for packing in the cells, is not folly
understood, but the head and front legs scratch
up the pollen-grains, and the honey-bee has a
pollen-basket on each hind leg, the basal joint
of the tarsus being broad and slightly hollow.

Digitized by



with nine rows of short hairs to which the pol-
len-grains adhere.

Life History and Social Life. — In founding
a new colony the young swarms consist of a
queen-bee and a number of workers, a surplus
population of the old colony. The swarming
is not a nuptial flight, but an act of emigration.
After the new swarm has been housed, the work-
ers begin their labors by secreting wax. This
is formed in glands on the inside of the ventral
plates of the abdominal segments, appearing out-
side as thin projecting plates, which are re-
moved by the wax-pincers on the hind legs;
after being molded by the' jaws they form the
hexagonal cells in which the young or larvae
live and the food is stored, and thus the comb
is gradually built up. The queen then lays an
£gg in each cell, and the larvae (grubs) on
hatching are fed by the workers. This they do
by eating honey and pollen,, which is formed in
the digestive organs, into a kind of pap. This
pap looks like arrowroot made with water, and
the very young grubs partly float in it, besides
absorbing it by the mouth. The young grubs,
as they increase in size, are weaned from this
glandular secretion or pap, pollen, honey and
water being added, while the pap or glandular
secretion is gradually withdrawn. The queen
larvae, according to Cheshire, is not weaned, but
the secretion or pap (the so-called ^royal jelly*),
which is a rich, highly nitrogenous food, is
added unstintingly to the end, and owing to this
the queen becomes larger and fertile. When
the colony is progressing well and young bees
«merge, these act as nurses, the old ones going
out of the hive to forage. When the grub is
full-sized the worker bees seal up the cell with
a cover made of pollen and wax, but pervious
to the air. In this cell the grub spins a cocoon
in. which it pupates, finally biting its way out;
the bee developing in three weeks from the time
the egg is laid.

The new queen arises from an egg laid in the
royal cell, which is large and slipper-shaped.
She develops in 16 days. Only one queen is
allowed in the hive at one time. The males
(drones) arise from unfertilized eggs. The
drone cells are a little larger than the ordinary
worker cells. A drone is developed in about 24
days. When a swarm leaves the hive the old
queen quits with it, but when a second swarm
goes off from a hive it is accompanied by a
young queen, who is frequently and perhaps
usually, unfertilized.

The young queens will usually mate when
five to seven days old, flying from the hive for
this purpose. In a day or two after mating the
<jueen generally begins to deposit eggs, and is
then ready for use in the hive or to be sent away
as an 'untested queen.*

Bee-Culture. — Spring is the best season to
start a hive or apiary. In April a good colony
situated in the Central States ought to have
brood in five or six combs. The Langstroth
hive with its modern improvements is the best,
and the novice should select those holding 10 to
12 frames in each story.

Swarming is the result of an abundant se-
cretion of honey, and combs crowded with bees
and brood, that is, overpopulation. Just before
swarming there is a partial cessation of field-
work, the workers clustering or loitering about
the entrance to the hives. Suddenly those which
happen to be in the hive at this time rush forth,

accompanied by the old queesi, and cluster on
some tree or shrub near by. Hiving the new
swarm can be done after a little experience and
the use of smoke. Swarming may be prevented
by giving abundant room for the storage of
honey early in the season, before, as Benton
says, the bees get fairly into the swarming no-
tion. The honey also should be frequently
removed. Also the hives should be well ven-
tilated and shaded in hot weather. To success-
fully winter bees the colony must haye a good
queen, and young workers, also good and abun-
dant food. Those colonies having the most
honey compactly stored in the brood department
and close about the very centre when the last
brood of young bees should emerge, are the ones
which will winter best. A good substitute for
honey is a syrup made of granulated sugar, to
be fed early in autumn. The bees should be
kept dry and warm, and there should be no
manipulation out of season. (Benton.)

Diseases and Enemies. — Diarrhoea is due to
sour or fermented honey, dampness, and chilling
of the bees. Foul-brood is a germ-disease, oc-
casioned by Bacillus alvei; it affects both the
brood and the adult bees. Of insect enemies
the caterpillar of the wax or bee-moth is the

Online LibraryWilfrid RichmondThe Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 → online text (page 176 of 185)