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The Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 online

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most destructive, but with care it can be kept
out of well-regulated hives.

Agency of Bees in Cross- Fertilization or
Plants.— A hive is an essential thing in an
orchard, and were it not for the visits of bees
the fruit in many cases would not set. Also in
hothouses where cucumbers are raised, a small
hive of bees is indispensable for fertilizing the
flowers. See Bee-keeping; Flowers and In-

Consult: Cheshire, <Bees and Bee-Keeping >
(2 vols., London 1886) ; Benton, < The Honey
Bee* ; Bulletin No. 1, new series, U. S. Depart-
ment of Agriculture, Division of Entomology,
Washington, 1896, contains a list of the best
books on bee-keeping.

Alpheus S. Packard,

Late Professor of Zoology, Brown University.

Honey-bird, or Honey-guide. See Gutde-


Honey Bloom, one of the American spe-
cies (Apocynum androsamifoliutn), the *spread-
ing dogbane 9 of the family Apocyanacea* (q.v.).
It grows in fields and thickets all over temperate
North America, and has the medicinal qualities
characteristic of the family.

Honey-buzzards, a genus (Pernis) of Old
World hawks, formerly called a perns,* which
subsist mainly on insects, especially burrowing
wasps, and bees, with their young and food-
stores, which they dig out of the ground.

Honey-creepers, a group of small warbler-
like birds (the family Ccerebida) of gay plu-
mage, numerous in the West Indies and neigh-
boring lands, where they are known about
gardens and plantations and admired for their
agility in searching flowers for small insects,
and their cheery notes. Among them are the
a banana-birds* (q.v.).

Honey-dew, the sweet secretion of certain
plants and insects. (1) Some trees in warm
climates yield from their leaves in very warm
moist weather a saccharine liquid which may
fall in drops, or may form a sticky film over each
leaf. This exudation, dried, is one form of

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manna. (2) Certain hiinute insects, chiefly
plant-lice, leaf-hoppers, and related bugs, yield a
sweetish secretion, sometimes so copiously as to
bedew a whole tree, and even fall in drops, giving
the phenomena called weeping trees. The usual
cause in this case is the presence of a tree-hopper
(Proconia undata). Honey-dew in both cases
attracts insects in large numbers, who feed
upon it or upon the lesser insects gathered to
the feast: and these, in turn, attract larger
predatory animals, as birds, lizards, etc. More-
over dust sticks to it, closing the pores of the
leaves to the injury of the tree; and, still worse,
the honey-dew forms a highly favorable culture-
ground for the spores of smuts and other per-
nicious fungi.

Honey-eater, or Honey-sucker, any of va-
rious small and somewhat thrush-like long-billed
birds of the family Meliphagidct, which inhabit
the Australian regions, and seem to feed upon
the nectar of flowers. They do so to some ex-
tent, but mainly are in search of insects within
the corolla, collecting them easily by means
of a peculiar tongue, which is divided near
the end into a sort of fringe. They also eat
soft fruit, and spend much of their time hunting
insects on the ground. Well-known examples
are the soldier-bird, parson-bird, phnlico, frrar-
bird (qq.v.) and others familiar in Australia
and New Zealand.

Honey-guides. See Guide-birds.

Honey Hill, Battle of. On the night of
28 Nov. 1864 Gen, Foster, commanding the Fed-
eral troops in the Department of the South, left
Hilton Head, S. C, with 5,000 infantry, cav»
airy, and artillery, and about 500 sailors and
marines, for Boyd's Neck on the south side of
Broad River, the object of the movement being
to cut the railroad connecting Savannah and
Charleston, and otherwise co-operate with Sher-
man, who was marching to the coast Owing
to a thick fog many of the boats lost their way,
and it was late in the afternoon of the 29th be-
fore the troops got ashore. Gen. Hatch was put
in command, with orders to push forward and
cut the railroad. Hatch marched immediately;
the guides and maps proved worthless,* and/after
marching and countermarching the greater part
of the night, he went into bivouac about 2
o'clock on the morning of the 30th. Informa-
tion of Foster's appearance at Boyd's Neck was
carried to Gen. Hardee at Savannah on the
evening of the 29th, and next morning at 2
o'clock, the advance of G. W. Smith's Georgia
militia arriving at Savannah, Hardee directed
Smith to hasten it to Grahamsville Station on
the Charleston & S. railroad. The station was
reached at 8 a.m., and the men marched put on
the road leading to Broad River landing, about
three miles where, on the crest of the north hank
of a small stream, a work for light guns had
been thrown up and trenches for infantry pre-
pared. These works were about 100 yards from
the little stream, and upon Honey Hill, 10 or 12
feet above the water leveL On the right of the
battery of five guns was a dense forest^ on the
left an open pine wood. The ground m front
was open. Preparations were completed by 10
o'clock, at which hour about 1,000 militia filled
the trenches on the right and left of the battery.
Early in his march Hatch encountered the Con-

federate outposts, drove them in, and, soon
after 10 o'clock, came under fire of the guns.
Hatch attempted a flanking movement, but
failed, and made several direct assaults during
the day, all of which were repulsed, and at dusk
he began his retreat to Boyd's Neck. His loss
was 711 killed and wounded, and 43 missing.
During the action Smith was reinforced by die
47th Georgia, but at no time did he have more
than 1,400 men. He lost 8 killed and 4s
wounded. Consult 'Official Records, 1 Vol.
XLIV - E. A. Carman.


Locust Tree.


Honey-shucks. See

Honeysuckle, a genus of plants, Lonicera,
belonging to the natural order Caprifoliocect*
Upward of 100 species are native to the north*
em hemisphere. The honeysuckle family is rep-
resented in the North American flora by differ-
ent species, among which are L. sempervirens,
the trumpet honeysuckle ; L. grata, American
woodbine; L. Aava, yellow honeysuckle, etc.
«Coral honeysuckle* is another name in the
United States for L. sempervirens. It is much
valued in the South, where it is native, for its
flowers of beautiful color and grateful perfume.
In the eastern United States the Japanese honey-
suckle has escaped from cultivation. The com-
mon honeysuckle, L. periclymenum, with distinct
leaves and red berries, is indigenous in Great
Britain; but two others have been naturalized,
Lcaprifoliutn, distinguished by its upper leaves
being united (connate) and perfoliate, and by
its smooth orange-colored berries ; and L. xylos-
teum, an erect shrub, with small, yellowish, scent-
less flowers and scarlet berries. There are many
other species in America, Europe, and Asia, and
the name honeysuckle is often given to shrubs
with sweet flowers of quite different genera. '

Honey-sweet. See Meadow-sweet.

Hongkong, hong'-kong', or Hian-Kiang*
he'an-keang (signifying nhe place of sweet
streams*), an island off the southeast coast of
China, forming with Kau-lung on the main-
land, a British crown colony and naval station*
The island is on the east side of the estuary of
the Chu-Kiang or Canton River, 90 miles south
of Canton, and is separated from the mainland
by the narrow Lyemun strait. About 10 miles
long and about 7^2 miles broad, the island is of
rocky formation, attaining in Victoria Peak a
maximum altitude of 1,809 feet. While almost
treeless it is noted for its profuse flora. Good
water is abundant. Hongkong is a great entre-
pot for the foreign commerce of China, and
Victoria (q.v.) the chief town and centre of its
commerce is a free port The foreign commerce
is carried on mainly with Great Britain and Ger-
many, whence considerable^ quantities of goods
are imported, cottons being the principal kern,—
and to which tea, silks, hemp, etc., are exported.

Hongkong export, in vessels of European
construction, goods to the value of about
$4,000,000, besides $2,500,000 worth of goods in
transit, making a total of $6,500,000, and showing
an increase over the previbus years.'

Comparing 1902 with 1001 the number of
steamships which entered the port of Hongkong
and their classification by the flags they carried,
is as follows:

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Univ. library, UC Santa Cruz 2001

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Total Tonnage


1 901


























jApaiiese ....... . r














In 1908, 22,740 vessels representing 11,164,386
tons entered; and 22,697 (11,142,731 tons) cleared.

The currency is chiefly in silver dollars.
The revenue of the government is derived from
land rents, licenses to sell opium, spirits, etc.,
taxes, postage, .office fees, fines, etc. The col-
ony's prosperity is due chiefly to the presence of
large numbers of Chinese engaged in trade or
in working building stone, one of the island's
principal products. Exclusive of the naval and
military establishments which numbered 5,597
and 7,640 respectively, the population ( 1908) was
329,560, of which 3*6j3&> were Chinese and
one third of these by birth, British subjects.
Hongkong was ceded to Great Britain in 1842;
some 376 square miles on the mainland, with
200,000 Chinese inhabitants, were leased in 1898.

Honolulu, Hawaii, capital and princjjpa}
city of the Hawaiian Islands (now a United
States Territory), and commercial metropolis of
Polynesia; the business heart of the central
Pacific. It is 2,080 miles southwest of San
Francisco, in lat. 21* \f 56" N., Ion. 157* 51' 48"
AY. It lies on the southwest side of Oahu (the
third island of the group in size, and northwest
of Hawaii, with a safe harbor formed by a
-natural breakwater of coral reef, pierced by a
"broad opening. A fine lighthouse here throws
a light visible for 25 miles. With its natural
advantages, and the absence of rivals, the city
occupies a unique position. From its central
location it is a common point of touch for the
three great trans- Pacific steamship routes —
from the United States and British Columbia to
New Zealand and Australia, from the same to
Japan, China, and the Philippines, and from
South America to Japan and China. Several
independent steamship routes also run from it
It has regular communication with San Fran-
cisco, Vancouver, and Seattle, Peru, Auckland,
and Sydney, New York and Boston, Yokohama
and Hongkong, Liverpool, Glasgow, and Bre-
men, besides other places. The steamship line to
Sydney touches at the Fijis; the line to Auck-
land, at Apia, Samoa. From Honolulu it is
3,850 miles to Auckland, about 4,000 to Sydney,
and 3,445 to Yokohama. It is the port of foreign
trade for the archipelago; hundreds of vessels
and some $20,000,000 worth of products pass in
and out of it annually. There are numerous
wharves and warehouses here and a government
custom-house. (For the items of the trade, see
Hawaii : the great items are sugar and molasses,
rice, coffee, hides, and wool.)

Honolulu lies at the mouth of the valley of
"Nuuanu, which runs back between two high
ridges to a pass between two peaks about 3,000
feet high in the great eastern range of moun-

tains; the view from the brink of the pdli or
precipice at this pass, is one of the notable
sights of the neighborhood. The climate is
mild and equable, and many sufferers from lung
troubles in the United States seek it for a
sanatorium. The extreme range of temperatures
is 52 to 88°, average 70 . The rainfall is very
irregular, but never slight ; from 40 to 60 inches
annually. The island is volcanic, the bordering
reefs coral; hence the city streets are macad-
amized with coral and lava, porous rock making
good surface drainage. The city is well laid
out in American fashion, being indeed a mod-
ern American place; the old one-story wooden
huts, mingled with grass huts among the trees,
have mostly given place to cottages, unpreten-
tious indeed, but neat and comfortable, and mak-
ing parts of a beautiful and picturesque whole of
luxuriant gardens and surroundings of tropical
trees, with which also some of the streets are
abundantly shaded — the great Norfolk pine,
papaya, bread-fruit, mango, and monkey-pod,
umbrella-tree, tamarind tree, algaroba, bamboo
and koa, date and cocoa palms, candle-nut, royal-
palm and poinciana regia, alligator-pear, china-
rose bush, blooming all the year round, etc.,
many with rich and fantastic blossoms, others
with great parasitic ferns, besides peach, olean-
der, banana, guava, orange, citron, and others.
The flowers are also of great beauty and lux-

The city has nearly 200 acres of public parks.
There aie ajhmoflern appliances and services for
civilized work and comfort; several first-class
hotels, physicians, lawyers, daily and weekly
newspapers, four banks and two theatres, in-
surance offices, several hospitals, a public li-
brary, etc. There are 22 public schools, includ-
ing a high school and normal school, with a
total attendance of over 4,000 pupils, besides 37
private schools, with an attendance of 2,700 pu-
pils. There are a number of churches, Prot-
estant and Catholic; the city is the seat of a
Roman Catholic and an Anglican bishop. It is
also the residence of the government officials,
and the consular agents of many European
powers. It has waterworks owned and oper-
ated by the Territorial government, and fur-
nishing excellent water, pumped from artesian
wells, supplemented by water from the adjoining
valleys. Ice is made by machinery. There is an
electric street lighting system operated by the gov-
ernment, and an electric street railway system,
built and conducted by a chartered company;
a telephone system; and there is a submarine
cable to San Francisco and wireless tele-
graph to the neighboring islands. Of manufac-
tures the number of different lines is upward
of 30, of course chiefly for local needs; the
largest branch is foundry and machine-shop
manufacture, which is carried on in large works,
and turns out some $650,000 a year of product.
Next to this is rice-milling, with some $150,000
a year. Minor industries are ice, harness,
leather, jewelry, soap, and shipbuilding. The
total number of all employees in 100Q was 6,498,
and the total salaries and wages paid $2,795,000.

The chief building is "the former royal palace,
now the executive building, in the Italian style,
finished in 1882. The judiciary and other gov-
ernment buildings are near it. The most inter-
esting place is the museum, with many curious

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relics of early Hawaiian history, corals, and
shells and other native curiosities, land and
marine. The chief in interest and value is the
great feather war-cloak of Kamehameha I.,
the founder of the monarchy, valued at $150,000.
This was the chief treasure of the former sov-
ereignty, and was used as a mantle of state by
the sovereigns. It was made of yellow feathers
from the tnatno bird, found only in the moun-
tains, each bird furnishing only two small tufts
of feathers for it, one from under each wing.
It is four feet long, and has a spread at the
bottom of nj^ feet. Nine generations were em-
ployed in making it

Honolulu harbor was discovered by Capt.
Brown in November 1794. The city as a mod-
ern foundation dates only from 18 16, when
John Young, an Englishman, and a faithful coun-
sellor of the king, Kamehameha, advised its for-
tification. Previously it had been only a native
village of huts, of little commercial importance.
In 1820 it was made the capital of the archipel-
ago, and afterward became the seat of govern-
ment Population (1870) 14*852; (1800) 22,907;
(1900) J9y3o6; (1910) 52,183, showing a rapid
increase since the annexation of Hawaii to the
U. S. Of the population in 1900, 24,746 were
males and 14,560 females; the total being di-
vided '.s follows; 11,690 Hawaiians, 9,061 Chi-
nese, 7,229 whites, 6,179 Japanese, 5,000 Portu-
guese, and 147 negro. Of these, 21,871 were
born in Hawaii and 17,435 Dorn m foreign coun-
tries. (This classification is' based utfon a census
taken by the plague inspectors during the spring
of 1900, and is believed to be approximately cor-
rect Of the 7,229 whites about 2,000 are classed
as foreigners.) W. D. Alexander,

Former Surveyor-General Hawaiian Islands.

Honor, Knights of, a secret, beneficiary
order founded in 1873. In 1910, there were in
the United States 34 grand lodges, 1,159 sub-
lodges and 20,460 members. Since its organiza-
tion the order has disbursed over $95,000,000
in benefits, and in 1910 the amount was $1,450,-
000. The order is incorporated under the laws
of Missouri, with headquarters in St. Louis.

Honor, Knights and Ladies of, a fraternal,
benevolent society founded in 1877 at Louis-
ville, Ky. In 19K) there were 16 grand lodges,
1,300 sub-lodges, and 76,000 members* Since its
organization over $28,000,000 has been disbursed
in benefits, and during 1910, the amount was

Honorius I. hd-no'rf-us, Pope: d. 12 Oct.
638. He was elected pope in 625. In the hope
of allaying a controversy he temporized with
the leaders of the Monothelite heresy, which,
while recognizing the twofold nature of Christ,
declared he had but one will, a doctrine con-
demned by the sixth council of Constantinople.
He was anathematized by the council that con-
demned the heresy. Pope Leo II., in confirm-
ing the acts of this council, says that Honorius
was condemned for a not extinguishing the flames
of incipient heresy.* For a full account of the
case of Honorius, consult Parson, i Studies in
Church History,* Vol I.

Honorius IL, Pope: cL 14 Feb. 1130. He
was elected pope in 1124, and was at the time
of his election bishop of Velletri. A part of
the bishops and cardinals had previously invest-

ed Cardinal Thibaut with, the papal dignity; but
both candidates having resigned Honorius was

Honorius III., Pope: d. 18 March 1227.
He became pope 'm 1216, on the death of Inno-
cent III. He at once wrote to the King of Jeru-
salem to assure him of his support ; to the bish-
ops of France, to encourage pilgrims, and to the
Emperor of Constantinople to promise him as-
sistance. John, king of England, had left to his
successor, Henry III., the burden of a war with
the French Prince Louis, who laid claim to the
English throne, and had been encouraged in his
pretensions by Innocent. Honorius reconciled
the barons with Henry, and obliged Louis to re-
nounce his pretensions. He then turned his at-
tention to the crusades, and crowned Frederick
II. emperor of Germany, on condition that he
would go to Palestine within two years. In
France he instigated Philip Augustus and Louis
VIII. to support the war against the Albigenses.
He was succeeded by Gregory IX.

Honorius IV., Pope: d. 3 April 1287. He
was elected pope in 1285, and supported the
French king, Philip the Bold, in the war against
Peter of Aragon.

Honorius, Flavius, Roman emperor, son o£
Theodosius the Great, b. Constantinople Q Sept.
384 a.d. ; d. Ravenna, Italy, 26 Aug. 423 a.d. On
the death of his father m 395 the empire was
divided into two parts, Honorius receiving the
western half, with Rome as his capital. The
principal events of his reign are the adoption of
rigorous measures against paganism in 399; the
devastation of Northern Italy by Alaric in
400-403; another irruption of barbarians under
Rhadagasius 405-6. Both invasions were re-
pelled by his able minister Stilicho, who, how-
ever fell under the displeasure of his weak and
indolent master, and was assassinated at Ra-
venna in 408. Taking advantage t)f the death
of the defender of Rome, Alaric marched upon
the city and plundered it in 41a

Hooch, or Hoogh, Pieter de, pe'ter d&
hooH, or hog, Dutch painter: b. Utrecht 1630;
d. Amsterdam soon after 1677. His early art
training was much influenced by Rembrandt.
In 1655, he was enrolled in the Painters' Guild
of Delft, where he resided, but later removed to
Amsterdam. He was the chief representative of
Dutch genre painting, and his specialty was the
delineation of Dutch interiors, with their semi-
darkness, suffused by the witchery of sunlight.
Sometimes he set out two or more rooms in per-
spective, the vista of which was drawn and lit
up with extraordinary skill.

Hood, John Bell, American soldier: b.
Owingsville, Ky., 29 June 183 1; d. New Or-
leans, La., 30 Aug. 1879. He ^was graduated at
West Point in 1853, and bore a commission in
the United States Army till 1861 when he joined
the army of secession. The part he took in the
Virginia campaign gained for him the rank of
major-general, and at Gettysburg his division
made a gallant record in its position at the ex-
treme right of the Confederate line. He took
part in the battle of Chickamauga on 10-20 Sept
1863, having come to Tennessee to the support
of General Bragg. When General Tohnston was
endeavoring in the spring of 1864 to impede
Sherman's advance on Atlanta, Hood was a
lieutenant-general in his army and his corps o»

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25 May 1864, was attacked by Hooker at New
Hope Church, He succeeded Johnston the fol-
lowing July in the command of the Army of
^Tennessee, fought the battle of Peach Creek
'with Sherman 20 July 1864, but was compelled
to retire behind the fortifications of Atlanta.
After the battle of Jonesboro he retired from
Atlanta, which was entered by Sherman. His
attack on the forces under Schpfieid at Frank-
lin being repulsed, he proceeded to Nashville,
where he met General Thomas. Thomas ad-
vanced from his entrenchments on 15 December,
and a two-days' battle ensued. Federal prep-
aration had been carefully and deliberately
made. A general attack on the afternoon of
16 December caused the entire Confederate line
to give way. Soon Hood's army was in full
retreat toward Franklin, the larger part of it
€ in great confusion,* according to Hood's offi-
cial report. After a nine-days' pursuit by the
Federals, the remnant of the Confederates, now
largely disintegrated, crossed the Tennessee*
Hood, at his request, was relieved of his com-
mand. Subsequent to the war he was a com-
mission merchant at New Orleans. He wrote
< Advance and Retreat: Personal Experiences
in the United States and Confederate States
Armies > (1880), and articles for < Battles and
Leaders of the Civil War* (1887). * Consult
these works; see also Nashville, Campaign
and Battle of.

Hood, Robin, English outlaw: said to have,
been b. 1160 and d. 1247. According to the pop-
ular account, with his followers, he inhabited
Sherwood Forest, in Nottinghamshire, and also
the woodlands of Barnsdale in the adjoining
West Riding. They supported themselves by
levying toll on the wealthy, and more especially
on ecclesiastics, and by hunting the deer. The
principal members of his band were his lieuten-
ant Little John, his chaplain Friar Tuck, Wil-
liam Scadlock, George-a-Greene, Much the mil-
ler's son, and Maid Marian. His skill with
the long-bow and quarter-staff was celebrated in
tradition. What basis of fact there is for the
story of Robin Hood is doubtful. Grimm main-
tained that he was one with the Teutonic god
Woden. Other theories suppose him to have
been a rebel yeoman in Lancaster's rebellion
under Edward II.; a Saxon chief who defied
the Normans; and a fugitive follower of Sir
Simon de Montfort after the battle of Evesham.
He figures prominently in Scott's novel c Ivan-
hoe^ and in ( The Foresters,* a drama by Ten-
nyson. The earliest known mention of him is
in ( The Vision of Piers Plowman, } version B.
(about 1377), in which Sloth says he knows
*rymes of Robin Hood.* <The Gest of Robin
Hood ) (assigned to 1400), almost epic in length,
consisting of 456 four-line stanzas, is the oldest
extant ballad on this theme. Others of the
more important ballads are ( Robin Hood and
the Monk,* < Robin Hood and Guy of Gisborne,*
and ( Robin Hood's Death. * The remaining
ballads are, in general, of inferior merit. It

Online LibraryWilfrid RichmondThe Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 → online text (page 177 of 185)