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seems probable that there were what may be
called a Sherwood cycle and a Barnsdale cycle,
respectively. Many proverbs and sayings ex-
ist in connection with Robin Hood. Consult:
Child, 'English and Scottish Ballads> (1883);
Fricke, <Die Robin Hood Balladen> (1883);
and Ritson, ( Robin Hood' (new ed. 1885).

Hood, Samuel, Viscount, British naval
officer: b. Thorncombe, Devonshire, 12 Dec
1724; d. Bath, Somersetshire, 27 Jan. 1816. He
entered the navy in 1740, was promoted lieu-
tenant in 1746, commander in 1754. and post-
captain in 1756. While commanding the Vestal
in 1759 he took the French Bellona after a three-
hours' fight. From 1767 to 1771 he was com-
mander-in-chief in North America. Having
served as commissioner of the Portsmouth dock-
yard in i778r-8o, he was made admiral of the
blue in 1780, and almost immediately was sent
in command of a squadron to reinforce Rodney
on the North American and West Indian sta-
tions. He remained on that duty until the
signing of the peace, and distinguished himself
in several battles. Despatched in 1781 to block-
ade Martinique, he was intercepted by De
Grasse and the French fleet, against which he
fought in April and in July (under Admiral
Graves). Again in the West Indies in 1782,
after an absence along the North American
coast, he outmaneuvered De Grasse in several
minor contests, and later, on 12 April, took an
important part in the victory of Dominica, when .
he led the rear of the British line. In 1784 he
was elected to Parliament for Westminster, and
in 1788 made a lord of the admiralty. He took
command of the British fleet in the Mediterra-
nean in 1793, and occupied Toulon. Hood had
a great reputation as a tactician, and a high
tribute was paid him by Nelson, who had been
one of his subordinate officers. Consult James,
<The Na^al History 6T Great Britain> (1822-4;
new ed. 1837).

Hood, Thomas, English poet and humor-
ist: b. London 23 May 1799; d. there 3 May
1845. In 1821 he became sub-editor of the < Lon-
don Magazine,* and from that time appears to
have resolved on devoting himself entirely to
a literary life. In 1826 he published c Whims
and Oddities.* This was followed by i National
Tales* in prose, and a volume of serious poetry,
which, though favorably received, did not obtain
much popularity. In 1830 he started the < Comic
Annual,* which, during the eight years of its
existence, was made the vehicle of many of
his most remarkable productions. At the same
time his pen was diligently employed on other-
subjects, and he published the powerful poem
called Eugene Aram's Dream,* <Tylney Hall,*
a novel, which, though defective in its plan and
structure, abounds in fine strokes of wit and
humor. His health had begun to fail, and in.
consequence he lived on the Continent 1835-40.
He continued his ( Comic Annual* during his
residence at Coblentz and Ostend, and in 1838
published food's Own.* His continental ex-
periences also furnished materials for his <Up
the Rhine* (1839), a series of imaginary letters
after the manner of Smollett's ( Humphrey
Clinker.* The whimsical cuts inserted in the
work, as well as its combination of good sense
and humor, made it very popular. Shortly after
his return, he undertook the editorship of the
( New Monthly Magazine,* and continued it un-
til 1843. His principal contribution to it was
the famous tragi-comic story in verse of ( Miss
Kilmansegg.* His iast periodical, entitlt:
< Hood's Magazine,* was commenced in 1844,
It contains some of his best productions, though
several of their were written after his health:

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had completely given way, and while he was
propped up by pillows in bed. Hood is unrivaled
as a punster, and seems to have been almost
equal master of the comic and the pathetic
In the latter style his c Song of the Shirt* is
universally known, and as a burst of poetry and
indignation is not surpassed by anything in the
English language.

Hood, Thomas, generally known a9 Tom
Hood, English miscellaneous writer; son of
the preceding: b. at Wanstead, Essex, 19 Jan.
1835; d. Peckham Rye, Surrey, 20 Nov. 1874.
He was educated at Oxford in 1853, with a
view to a clerical career, but edited the ( Lis-
keard Gazette* in 1858-9, and from i860 till
1865 was a clerk in the accountant-general's de-
partment at the War Office. In 1865 he became
editor of the comic oaper called ^un.* His
first separate publication was ( Pen and Pen-
cil Pictures* (1857), and among his subsequent
works are : c The Daughters of King Daher, and
other Poems* (1861); jingles and Jokes for
the Little Folks* (1865) ; ( Captain Masters's
Children* (1865), his best novel; <A Golden
Heart* (1867) ; <The Rules of Rhyme: A Prac-
tical Guide to English Versification (1869), a
work which has gone through two later edi-
tions; ^rom Nowhere to the North Pole*
(1874). From 1867 he produced <Tom Hood's
Comic Annual.* A volume of his < Favourite
Poems,* with a memoir by his sister, Mrs. Bro-
derip, was published in the United States in

Hood of Avalon, Arthur William, Acland
Hood, Baron, English naval officer: b. Som-
ersetshire 14 July 1824; d. Glastonbury 15 Nov.
1901. After service on the coasts of Spain and
of Syria, he was made lieutenant in 1846, and in
1854 commander in recognition of his services
with the naval brigade before Sebastopol. As-
signed to the China station, he participated in
the capture of Canton (December 1857), and in
1858 received the commission of post-captain.
In 1862-6 he was in command of the Pylades of
the North American station, in 1866-9 of the
Excellent and the Royal Naval College at Ports-
mouth, and in 1869-74 director of naval ord-
nance. He was promoted rear-admiral in 1876,
was first sea lord of the admiralty in 1885-9,
and became admiral in 1886. His attitude in
connection with the development of the British
navy was strongly conservative.

Hood, Mount, a peak of the Cascade
Range, in the northern part of Wasco County,
in Oregon. The height is usually given as over
11,225 feet, but the latest explorers claim it is
nearly 12,000 feet. Mount Hood was at one
time an active volcano; the lava is found on
the slopes and some distance from its base.

Hood River, a name applied to a valley,
town, and river in Wasco County, Oregon. The
town is situated on the Columbia River and
on the line of the Oregon Railway & Naviga-
tion Company, 66 miles east of Portland and 22
miles below The Dalles, the county-seat The
Hood River strawberry has acquired a reputa-
tion almost phenomenal, and is distributed over
an immense area of country extending from
Denver and Omaha on the south to Winnipeg
in the province of Manitoba to the north and
^ast The output in 1003 was 150 carloads.
The apple industry is also rapidly assuming

large proportions, grades of superior excellence
are produced, and the highest priced Spitzen-
burgs and Yellow Newtown Pippins found in
the markets of New York and London were
grown in Hood River. The valley proper ex-
tends south from the Columbia River to Mount
Hood, some 20 miles, and is protected and
cradled by the Cascade range of mountains on
the west and a high divide putting out from
Mount Hood on the east. The amount of land
adapted for fruit culture in this unique valley
exceeds 50,000 acres. The river itself drains all
of the north side of Mount Hood, has a large
and constant flow of water, and for the last 10
miles of its course before entering the Columbia
has an average fall of over 60 feet per mile,
affording 10,000 measured horse-power per mile.
There are immense forests of fir and cedar
about the head-waters of this stream, and one
of the largest saw-mills in the State is con-
veniently situated near its confluence with the
Columbia. The climate is a happy mean be-
tween the moist section of western Oregon and
the semi-arid plains of the Columbia. The
scenery is grand in the extreme and yearly at-
tracts the attention of many visitors. The town
is pleasantly situated, overlooking the Columbia
River, is supplied with electric lights, while the
telephone is universally present in both town
and country. It is, however, the superlative
excellence of its fruits that has given Hood
River a reputation almost world-wide. The pop-
ulation of town and valley (1910) is about


E. L. Smith.

Hooded Crow, a crow native in northern
Europe (Corvus comix), so termed in allusion
to markings on the head. Head, wings, and
fore parts are jet black, the rest of the bird ash-
gray; bill and feet are black. It retires to the
southward from its more northerly haunts at the
time of the crow migration. In England it is
known as the gray, dun, or Royston crow. The
hooded crow found in India is similar in gen-
eral appearance, but is a smaller species.

Hooded Seal, a large dark-gray spotted
seal of the North Atlantic, closely related to
the common harbor seal, and named Cystophora
crista ta. It reaches a length of about 10 feet,
and is especially distinguished by a large in-
flatable^ sac upon the face, the expansion of
which is thought to be a defensive device, cal-
culated to terrify enemies. It is occasionally
seen on ice-floes along the Labrador coast.

Hooded Warbler, a fly-catching warbler
(Sylvania tnitrata), common in the southern
United States in summer and making its nest
in low bushes. It is bright yellow except a
solidly black crown, neck and breast, compara-
ble to a hood, leaving the face golden yellow.

Hoodoo. See Mascot.

Hoof, a toe-nail which is large, envelops
the terminal phalange, and is of material as-
sistance in walking, as in the case of horses,
cattle and other ruminants, and in the elephant,
rhinoceros, etc. It is most highly developed
in the horse, where the whole terminal part
of the foot is reduced to a single, well-booted
toe. In split-hoofed or cloven-hoofed animals
there are two toes approximately equal, and
booted with hoofs flat on their inner sides and x
closely appressed. The small non- functional

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toes hanging behind the hock-joint in most
split-hoofed animals are often called <false
hoofs.* Accidents and diseases affect the hoofs
of domestic animals (see Foot-rot, etc.), and re-
quire careful attention, especially in the case
of horses. The soundness of a horse's foot is
plainly preserved by permitting it to grow un-
injured by the rasp and knife, and kept clean
by being washed with cold water; all other ap-
lications are injurious and destroy the tough-
ness of the a horn surface.* Softness and brit-
tleness of the hoof, which are fruitful sources
of cracks and corns, may be remedied by plac-
ing the feet for several hours daily in thick
woolen swabs, kept cool and moist by frequent
applications of cold water, and by encouraging
a more healthy growth of horn by occasional
mild blisters round the coronary band. Cracks
(or sand-cracks) mostly occur among horses
much upon the road, cause lameness, and con-
stitute unsoundness. When serious and recent,
poulticing, thinning away of the crust about the
crack, and perfect rest are essential. After the
earlier heat and tenderness are removed a hot
iron should be drawn at right angles to the
crack, both above and below, so as to separate
the diseased from the sound horn. Waxed
thread or fine wire should be wound round the
hoof, and a sound growth' of horn stimulated
by a blister round the coronet.

Hooft, Pieter Cornelisioon, pe-ter kor-na'-
les-zon hoft, Dutch poet and historian: b.
Amsterdam 26 March 1581; (L The Hague 21
May 1647. He was son of that Cornelius Hooft
who did much to procure Elizabeth's recall of
the incompetent and tyrannical Leicester in
1587. He traveled through France, Italy, and
Germany in 1601, and on his return began with
patriotic ardor to improve and purge the speech
of his mother country. With this aim in view
he translated Tacitus into Dutch, and made that
Latin writer the model of his style, as a histo-
rian. His historical writings are vivid and com-
prehensive. His poems are chiefly in the erotic
vein. He also produced dramas m the form of
pastoral, tragedy, and comedy. In his com-
edies the domestic life of the Netherlands is ad-
mirably portrayed. In the eastle of Morttz,
Prince of Orange, at Muiden, where he lived
as high bailiff, he used to gather round him a
coterie of brilliant men and women, and this
intellectual circle famous as the *Muiderkring*
included the poets Huygens, Vondel, and
Baerle. His principal works are < Hendrik (IV.)
de Grote zijn leven en bedrijf* (1671) ; < Neder-
landsche Historien > (1656) ; the poems < Minne-
liederen* ; ( Afbeeldinglien van Minne ) ; the pas-
toral drama ( Granida } (1605); the tragedies
<Geraerdt van Velzen > (1813) ; and < Baeto >
(161 6); and the comedy < Warenar. >

Hook, Theodore Edward, English novelist
and journalist: b. London 22 Sept 1788; <L
24 Aug. 1841. For some years Hook led a life
of gaiety in London, and became notorious for
practical jokes and similar escapades. In 181 2
he was appointed accountant-general and treas-
urer of the island of Mauritius; but, owing to
his gross carelessness, a large deficiency in the
military chest was discovered, and in 1818 he
was sent home under arrest, but no proceedings
were taken against him. From 1820 to 1841
he was editor of the <John Bull,* and at inter-*
vals froov 1824 f o 1828 published his ( Sayings
Vol. 10 — 43

and Doings, while in 1836 he became editor of
the <New Monthly Magazine.' His other prin-
cipal works are a series of novels, among which
may be mentioned <Love and Pride ) ; <Jack
Brag* ; c Gilbert Gurney > ; <Gurney Married. }

Hooker, huk'er, Edward, American sailor:
b. Farmington, Conn., 1822; d. Brooklyn, N.
Y., 1 May 1903. He followed the sea in the
merchant service until the outbreak of the
Civil War when he joined the United States
navy # as acting master, and served with dis-
tinguished bravery. He was commissioned as
lieutenant-commander in the regular naval ser-
vice in 1884 and full commander two years later,
when he retired.

Hooker, Isabella Beecher, American phi*
lanthropist: b. Litchfield, Conn., 22 Feb. 1822:
d. 25 Jan. 1907. She was a daughter of Dr. Ly%
man Beecher (q.v.) and in 1841 married Joseph
Hooker, a lawyer. She made a special study of
the right of women of the United States to vote ;
was active in various reform movements, and is
known as a public speaker. She wrote Woman-
hood, Its Sanctities and Fidelities. >

Hooker, Joseph, American soldier: b.
Hadley, Mass., 13 Nov. 1814; d. Garden City,
N. Y.,31 Oct. 1879. He was graduated at West
Point m 1837 and received a commission in the
1st artHlery. He served in Florida and on
the northeast frontier 1837-40 and during the
Mexican War was aide to Generals Smith, Har-
mer, Butler and Pillow. He saw much service
in both the northern and southern campaigns,
and resigned from the army in 1853. From that
date to the breaking out of the Civil War he
was successively farmer, engineer and militia
colonel. In 1861 he went to the front as a briga-
dier-general of volunteers. In 1862 he was com-
missioned major-general of volunteers and was
present at the battle of Williamsburg, Va., and
was subsequently conspicuous in the Peninsular
campaign and in the battles of Bristoe Station
and Chantilly. He also took part in the Mary-
land campaign, and in September of 1862 was
Two m
the Fif
burg cc
1863 he
show, i
had ch
feat of
was lai
want o'
of his 1

In :
the An

crans at Chattanooga and distinguished him-
self on 24 November in the so-called ^Battle
among the Clouds* on Lookout Mountain. He
was brevetted major-general in the regular army
in 1865, and a paralytic stroke forced him to re-
tire from active service wkh that rank in 1868,

An equestrian statue of General Joseph Hook-
er by the sculptor French, was unveiled on Bea-
con Hill, Boston, 25 June 1903, with imposing
ceremonies. The day was made a State holiday.

Hooker, Sit Joseph Dalton, English bota-
nist ; son of Sir William Jackson Hooker (q.V.)

Digitized by



b. Halesworth, Suffolk, 30 June 1817. He was
educated at the University of Glasgow, accom-
panied Sir James Clark Ross's Antarctic expe-
dition of 1839-43 as assistant-surgeon and nat-
uralist, and in 1847 published an account of its
botanical results in two volumes, entitled ( The
Botany of the Antarctic Voyage of H.M. Dis-
covery Ships Erebus and Terror in the years
i839-43. ) He went to India in 1847, in order
to investigate the botany of part of the Hima-
layan region, and in 1854, three years after his
return issued his Himalayan Journals, or Notes
of a Naturalist in Bengal, the Sikkim and Nepal
Himalayas, the Khasia Mountains,* etc. In his
work on the ( Rhododendrons of the Sikkim
Himalaya* (1849), he first introduced to the no-
tice of European gardeners many splendid and
now familiar species of these favorite shrubs. In
1871 he set sail for Morocco, and in May of that
year he and his companions reached the sum-
mits of the Great Atlas, which till then had
never been trodden by any European foot A
record of this journey is contained in the work
written with John Ball, journal of a Tour in
Morocco and the Great Atlas* (1879)- He
traveled in the Rocky Mountains and California
in 1877. In 1855 was appointed assistant to his
father in the directorship of Kew Gardens, and
on his father's death in 1865, succeeded him as
director. He retired in 1885. He was presi-
dent of the Royal Society during the five years
1873-8. Among his other works are: in-
troductory Essay to the Flora of New Zealand*
O853); introductory Essay to the Flora of
indica* (1855) ; ( Flora Novae Zealandae*
(1853-5); 'Flora of Tasmania* (1856-60);
< The Flora of Australia: its Origin, Affinities,
Distribution, etc.* (1859) ; ( Genera Plantarum*
(1862-83), with George Bentham, an epoch-
making revision of the natural system of classi-
fication; <The Student's Flora of the British
Islands ) (1870; new ed. 1883), an excellent and
popular work; <The Distribution of the North
American Flora > (1878) ; and the great < Flora
of British India > ( 1875-97) •

Hooker, Richard, English theologian: b.
Heavitree, near Exeter, March 1554; d. Bishops-
bourne, 2 Nov. 1600. He was educated at Ox-
ford. In 1581 he took orders, and was shortly
after made preacher at St Paul's Cross, in Lon-
don. In 1584 he became rector of Drayton
Beauchamp, Buckinghamshire. The following
year he was appointed by Archbishop Whitgift
Master of # the Temple for life. ^ Here he became
engaged in a controversy with his colleague
Walter Travers, whose sympathies were strongly
puritanical, and to this controversy we owe
his celebrated work ( Of the Laws of Ecclesias-
tical Polity.* The first four books were printed
in 1594. The fifth book of his great work ap-
peared in 1597; the last three in 1600. ( The
Ecclesiastical Polity ) written in defense of the
Church of England, is no less remarkable for
learning and extent of ^ research than for the
richness and purity of its style, which entitles
its author to be regarded as one of the classics
of the Elizabethan age. See Lives by Walton,
and Keble.

Hooker, Thomas, American colonial cler-
gyman: b. Markfield, Leicestershire, England,
probably 7 July 1586; d. Hartford, Conn., 7 July
1647. After being graduated at Cambridge he

took orders, preached in London, and was chosen
lecturer at Chelmsford in 1626. Having been
silenced by Laud for nonconformity, he estab-
lished a grammar school, and about 1630 went
to Holland, where he preached at Delft and Rot-
terdam. In 1633 he came to New England with
Cotton and Stone, and was settled with the lat-
ter at Newtown, now Cambridge, being ordained
by the brethren of the church. In 1636 he re-
moved with about 100 others to what is now
Hartford, Conn., where he and Stone were the
first ministers of the church. He was a re-
markably animated and able preacher, of com-
manding presence and earnest zeal, and he has
been called the Luther of New England. It
was his custom to preach without notes. Some
200 of his sermons were sent to England, where
about half of them were published. His most
celebrated work, <A Survey of the Summe of
Church Discipline, * written with John Cotton,
was published in England (1648). Many of his
works have gone through repeated editions. See
Walker, <Life of Hooker> (1891).

Hooker, Sir William Jackson, English
botanist : b. Norwich 1785 ; d. 12 Aug. 1865. He
applied himself to the study of botany at an
early age, and in search of botanical specimens
visited Scotland and the Scottish islands,
France, Switzerland, and Iceland. His investi-
gations on the British < Jungermannise and
Mosses > drew attention to his attainments, and
he was elected to the chair of botany in the
University of Glasgow, a position he filled for
20 years. In 1836 he was knighted, and in 1841
was appointed director of the Royal Gardens at
Kew, a post which he held up to the time of his
death. Under his management these gardens in-
creased their area from 11 acres to 270. They
are well laid out, and contain hot-houses and
conservatories far superior to anything of the
kind on the Continent, and include museums
filled with objects derived from the vegetable
kingdom, botanical libraries, and a most exten-
sive and excellently arranged herbarium. Among
his works may be mentioned <Tour in Iceland*
(1811); <The British Flora > ; <Flora Boreali-
Americana* ; illustrations of the Genera of
Ferns, Icones Plantarum ) ; British Ferns* ; etc

Hooker, Mount, Canada, a peak in the
Rocky Mountains; 15,690 feet high; near the
eastern boundary of British Columbia.

Hoonoomaun, hoo'noo-man. See Entel-
lus Monkey.

Hoop Ash. The black or water ash (Frax-
inus nigra). See Ash.

Hooper, hup'er, John, English reformer/
and martyr: b. Somersetshire, about 1495; dV
Gloucester 9 Feb. 1555. He embraced the prin-
ciples of the Reformation and in 1539, to avoid
the persecution consequent on refusing to sign
the new articles of faith put forth by Henry
VIII., withdrew to the Continent. On the ac-
cession of Edward VI., in 1547, he went to Lon-
don, and contributed greatly to the progress of
the Reformation. In 1550 he was nominated
bishop of Gloucester. On the accession of
Mary, in 1553, he was one of the first victims
fixed upon, and being imprisoned in the Fleet,
was treated with great severity. In 1555 he
was required formally to recant his opinions.
This he refused to do and was burned at the
stake near his own cathedral His works con-

Digitized by



sist chiefly of a ( Godly Confession and Protesta-
tion of the Christian Faith } ; ( Lectures on the
Creed } ; < Sermons on the Book of Jonah } ; < An-
notations on the Thirteenth Chapter of the

Hooper, William, American patriot: one
of the signers of the Declaration of Independ-
ence: b. Boston, Mass., 17 June 1742; d. Hills-
boro, N. C, October 1790. He was grad-
uated at Harvard College in 1760, studied law
with James Otis in Boston, and removed per-
manently to Wilmington, N. G, in 1767, where
he soon rose to professional eminence and was
noted for his social qualities and hospitality. He
was delegated to the Continental Congress in
I775» and was till his death a leader in the
councils of North Carolina.

Hoopeston, hoops'tdn, 111., city in Vermil-
ion County; on the Lake Erie & W. and the
Chicago & £. I. R.R's. ; about 85 miles south of
Chicago and 48 miles south by east of Kanka-
kee. It is situated in an agricultural region, and
its chief industries are connected with agricul-
tural products. It has large sweet-corn can-
ning establishments, and factories for making
the cans and the canning machinery. There are
manufactured other canned goods, also horsehoe
nails and agricultural implements. Grain and
hay are shipped to the larger markets. The gov-
ernment, in accordance with the charter of 1877,
is vested in a mayor who serves for two years
and in a city council The city owns and oper-
ates the waterworks. "Pop. (1890) 1,911;
(ioro) 4,608.

Hooping-cough, a series of coughs ending
in a long-drawn breath, during which a shrill
whistling sound, the hoop, is produced. Sev-
eral fits of coughing succeed one another, until
some phlegm or mucus is expelled. Vomiting

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