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The Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 10 online

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not infrequently follows a fit of coughing. It
has recently been discovered that the cause of
the complaint is a poison acting as an irritant
on the pneumogastric nerve. Hooping-cough
is contagious, and most commonly attacks chil-
dren, generally but once in their lives. The
first symptoms are a difficulty of breathing, and
other slight febrile affections, which are suc-
ceeded by hoarseness, cough, and difficulty of
expectoration. After a fortnight or more the
cough becomes convulsive, and is attended by
the hoop. In four or five weeks the expectora-
tion becomes loose, and the fits of coughing
gradually diminish in frequency and duration.
Hooping-cough is seldom fatal to adults, but is
most fatal in the first year of childhood. Bron-
chitis and pneumonia are the most serious com-

Hoopoe, hoo'pd, a peculiar bird of the Old
World, which takes both its vernacular and sci-
entific name (Upupa) from its whooping cry.
It is of the group Coccygomorpha (q.v.) and
represents a family (Upupidce), many species
of which inhabit southern Asia and Africa,
while one (U. epops) is a well known migrant
in Europe. It is about 12 inches long, is brown
above and white beneath, with black, white-
barred wings, and a very large cinnamon-red
black-tipped crest and a long, sharp, curved bill.
It seeks its food on the ground, nests in holes in
trees, crannies in walls, etc., and has many curi-
ous traits and habits which have caused the
bird tp take a prominent place in the folk-lore

of all countries. The African hoopoes belong
to the genus Irrisor, and are called wood-hoo-
poes. They have brilliant plumage, but no crest.
They go about in noisy flocks, and have much
the appearance and habits of woodpeckers.

Hoorn, horn, or Hoorne, hdr'ne, or Horn,
or Homes, 6rn, Count of (Philip II., De
Montmorency-Nivelle) ; Flemish soldier and
statesman: b. about 1520; d. Brussels 5 June
1568. His father was a descendant of the French
family of Montmorency, and on the mother's
side he was related to Lamoral Egmont, with
whose fate his own was linked. His mother
becoming a widow when he was about eight,
was married again to John, Count van Horn,
one of the wealthiest nobles of the Netherlands,
who, left his estates to his wife's children on
condition that they should assume his name.
Philip was thus at the outset of his career one
of the most influential of his order, and received
from Charles V. and Philip II. important truste
and distinctions. He accompanied Philip II.
to Spain, where he is supposed to have received
information of the designs of the Spanish court
against the Netherlands, and to have communi-
cated them to the Prince of Orange. Returning
to the Netherlands he joined Orange and Eg-
mont in resisting the aggressive policy of Philip ;
yet continued loyal to the crown. He was,
however, suspected by the Spanish court, and
upon the arrival of Alva in Brussels was en-
ticed with Egmont to that city, and arrested in
September 1567, on a charge of high treason.
Ceaseless but vain efforts were made to obtain
for him a fair trial, and appeals for clemency
on his behalf were made by potentates in all
parts of the Continent. He was executed with'
Egmont in June 1568.

Hoosac (hoo'sak) Mountain, the name
given to a spur of the Green Mountains (q.v.)
which is in the northwestern part of Massachu-
setts on the east side of the valley of the Hoo-
sac River. The whole length is about 16 milen.
The mountain is noted for its beautiful scenery.

Hoosac Tunnel, in the towns of Adams
and Florida, in Berkshire County, in Massa-
chusetts, and piercing the Hoosac Mountain. It
is on what is now known as the Boston and
Maine railroad, the route from Boston to Troy,
N. Y., by way of Greenfield. From the west
entrance of the tunnel to Troy is 54 miles ; from
the east entrance to Boston, 137 miles. The
tunnel is nearly five miles in length, the longest
tunnel in the United States. Before the general
introduction of railroads, and, as early as 1825,
the project was broached of making a canal
across Massachusetts from Boston to the Hud-
son River. This plan was abandoned when rail-
roads were built across the State. In 185 1 the
tunnel question had advanced so far that sur-
veys of various routes were made and some ex-
periments were begun. The work of tunneling:
began in 1856 and was completed in 1873. For
so long a tunnel the ventilation is good owing
to the shaft, 1028 feet, sunk near the centre.
The width is sufficient for two tracks. The
total cost, including 39 miles of adjoining rail-
road, was about $13,000,000.

Hoo'sic Falls, N. Y., village in Rensselaer
County; on the Hoosac River and on the Bos-
ton & M. railroad; about 38 miles northeast
of Albany. The first permanent settlement was

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made in 16B8, and the first charter was received
in 1827. The charter has been revised and the
last revision was in 1890. The village has ex-
cellent water-power. The chief manufactures
are agricultural implements, paper and paper-
making machinery, shirts, cotton and woolen
goods, and flour. The government of the village
is vested in a president who holds office three
years, and a board of trustees. Pop. (1890)
7,014; (1900) &071; (1910) 5.533.

Hooder (hoo'zher) Schoolmaster, The, a
story by Edward Eggleston (q.v.) published in
1875, and the most popular of its author's works.
It is descriptive of the life of the Middle West
in the pioneer days of the early 19th century.

Hoosier State, a popular name for In-
diana. The word is said to be a corruption of
•husher,* formerly a colloquial name for a fight-
er or a bully.

Hop-hornbeam. See Iron-wood.

Hopatcong, hd-pat'kdng, Lake, in Sussex
County, New Jersey; about 33 miles northwest
of Jersey City and 25 miles west of Paterson.
The lake is 725 feet above the sea, and eight
and one-half miles long and three and one-half
miles wide. Its outlet is the Musconetcong
River which flows into the Delaware. Lake
Hopatcong is a favorite summer resort, its
beautiful scenery is one attraction. It is sur-
rounded by hills and low mountains, all well
wooded, and many of the trees are evergreens.

Hope, Anthony. See Hawkins, Anthony

Hope, Ascott R. See Moncweft.

Hone College, in Holland, Mich., a co-
educational institution, founded in 1866. by
Dutch settlers, and under the auspices of the
Reformed Church in America. At the close of
1910 there were connected with the school 20
instructors and 400 students.

Hope Diamond, a famous blue diamond
weighing 44% carats, in possession of the fam-
ily of H. T. Hope, of England, until 1903, when
it was sold to an American.

Hope'dale, the name of a community
founded by Rev. Adin Ballou, in 1841, at Mil-
ford, in Worcester County, Mass. At the be-
ginning there were 28 persons who wished to
lead lives in accordance with high ideals of
Christianity. They formed themselves into a
joint-stock company, purchased a farm of 238
acres, established a settlement, and proceeded
to cultivate the soil, and to manufacture their
own breadstuff s and clothing. At first a board
of trustees were the chief governing power and
had entire control of the industries. Later more
responsibilities were given to the members, and
the industries were, in different ways, appor-
tioned among them. In 1854 there were 200
members ; but the community had become t a
financial failure and dissensions had crept in.
In 1856 they were in debt, and as a joint-stock
company they disbanded; but continued as a
semi-communistic community until about 1862,
when they gave up the industries they had es-
tablished to private individuals, and formed
themselves into Hopedale Parish with their
founder as pastor. Consult: Adin Ballou,
i Hopedale Community^

HopTrins, Alphonso Alvah, American au-
thor and lecturer: b. Burlington Flats, N. Y.,

27 March 1843. He was for three yean nto-
lessor in the American Temperance University;
from 1867-86 was editor of three agricultural
papers successively. Since 1868 he has lec t ured
on temperance and other social and political
subjects; in 1882 he was the prohibition candi-
date for governor of New York. He has writ-
ten < Genddine, a Romance in Verse,* a popo-
lar poem in the style of Owen Meredith's
<Lucille> (1881); <His Prison Bars* (1878);
< Sinner and Saint > (1880); < Wealth and
Waste> (1896); < Ballads of Brotherhood >

Hopkins, Edward, American colonial gov-
ernor: b. England 1600; d. London March
1657. He was a prominent merchant of London,
and came to Boston in 1637, but soon after re-
moved to Hartford, where he was chosen a
magistrate in 1639, and governor of the colony
of Connecticut every other year from 1640 to
1654, alternating with Karnes. He afterward
went back to England, where he was chosen
warden of the English fleet, commissioner of
the admiralty and navy, and member of Parlia-
ment But he never lost his int e r e st in the
colonies, and at his death bequeathed much of
his estate to New England, giving £1000 for
the support of grammar schools in Hartford and
New Haven, which are still famishing, and
4500 which went to Harvard College and the
grammar school at Cambridge.

Hopkins, Edward Washburn, American
philologist: b. Northampton, Mass., 8 Sept
1857. He was graduated from Columbia in
1878, and going to Germany to study took the
degree of Ph.D. at the University of Leipsic
In 1895 he became professor of co mpara t i ve
philology and Sanskrit at Yale. He has written
* Caste in Ancient India* (1881) ; < Manu , s Law-
book> (1884); Religions of India* (1805);
<The Great Epic of India* (1001); and <India
Old and New* (1001).

Hopkins, Esek, first commodore of the
American navy: b. Scituate, R. I., 1718; d. North
Providence, R. I., 26 Feb 1803. In November
1775 he received a commission from the Con-
tinental Congress as commodore and •com-
mander-in-chief 1 of the navy, soon after which
he put to sea with the first squadron sent out
by the colonies. The fleet sailed for the Bahama
islands, and captured the forts at New Provi-
dence, and with them 80 cannon, and a large
quantity of ordnance, stores, and ammunition.
On his return, when off Block Island, the com-
modore took the British schooner Hawke and
the bomb brig Bolton. For this act the president
of congress complimented Hopkins officially.
Commodore, or Admiral Hopkins, as he was
generally called (even by Washington, who so
addressed him in his official letters), performed
other remarkable exploits, though he had great
difficulties to contend with. His name became a
synonym for heroism and for American pa-
triotism. In June 1770, Hopkins was ordered by
Congress to appear before the naval committee
in Philadelphia to reply to charges which had
been preferred against nim for not annoying the
enemy's ships on the southern coast. He was
defended by John Adams, and was acquitted
The unavoidable delays at a later period m get-
ting his ships ready for sea gave another chance
for his enemies to complain; and neglecting a

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citation to appear at Philadelphia, because no
specific charges were made against him, and on
account of his general disgust at the conduct
*f his opponents, he was dismissed the service,
a Jan. 1777. He resided near Providence, and
exerted during a long life a great political in-
fluence in Rhode Island, being often elected to
the general assembly of that State. Consult
Field, <Esek Hopkins> (1898).

Hopkins, John Henry, American Protes-
tant Episcopal bishop: b. Dublin, Ireland, 30
Jan. 1792; d. Rock Point near Burlington, Vt,
9 Jan. 1868. At the age of eight, he was brought
to America, his father settling in Philadelphia.
He became a successful member of the bar in
Pktsburg, where his interest in church work
was so earnest that the vestry of Trinity Church
unanimously elected him rector of the parish
though he was not even a candidate for orders.
He accepted the call, was ordained in 1823, and
remained m Pittsburg until 1831, when he went
to Trinity Church, Boston, as assistant, and
became at the same time professor of systematic
divinity in a theological school. He was con-
secrated bishop of Vermont in 1832 and com-
bined with the episcopate the rectorship of St.
Paul's Church, Burlington. Though at the head
of a small diocese, he exerted a widespread
influence as a learned theologian and a con-
troversialist of uncompromising bravery and
great versatility. He is said to have been the
first to suggest the idea out of which grew
the important Lambeth Conferences of the en-
tire Anglican Communion, and it is unques-
tionably to his prudent and charitable efforts
that the happy reunion of the northern and
southern dioceses after the Civil War was
largely due. Besides controversial works, which
at the time had great effect, he published 'The
Primitive Creed* (1834); 'The Primitive
Church* (1835); 'The American Citizen*
(1857); and 'The Law of Ritualism* (1866).
See ( Life of Bishop Hopkins by One of his
Sons* (1873).

ZHoplrina, Johns, American financier and
philanthropist: b. Anne Arundel County, Md.,
19 May 1795; d. Baltimore 24 Dec. 1873. His
parents, Quakers, gave him a fair education and
the training of a farmer. At 17 he went to
Baltimore, there became a grocer, and in 1822
founded the house of Hopkins & Brothers. He
built up a trade in Maryland, Virginia, and
North Carolina, having practically a monopoly
in his line. His credit and counsel were highly
valued in financial and mercantile affairs. He
retired in 1847 with a large fortune, which he
employed in banking and railway operations.
In 1873 he gave property worth $4,500,000 to
found a free hospital; he presented Baltimore
with a public park, and also gave over $3,000,000
to found the Johns Hopkins University in Balti-

Hopkins, Lemuel, American physician and
political writer: b. Waterbury, Conn., 19 June
1750; d. Hartford, Conn., 14 April 1801. He
practised medicine at Litchfield 1776-84, when
he removed to Hartford, where he sustained a
high reputation, and had an extensive practice
till hi 9 death. He was singular in his appear-
ance, manners, and opinions; a man of talents
and learning: and also a poet He was asso-
ciated with Trumbull, Barlow, Alsop, Theodore

Dwight, and others (called the € Hartford
whs*), in the < Anarchiad, > the < Echo, > Polit-
ical Greenhouse, * the 'Guillotine,* and similar
satirical compositions; and is said to have writ-
ten for Barlow the beautiful and well known
version of the 137th psalm beginning, « Along
the Banks where Babel's Current Flows.*

Hopkins, Margaret Sutton Briscoe, Amer-
ican author: b. Baltimore 7 Dec. 1864. She
married Prof. A. J. Hopkins of Amherst Col-
lege, and has been engaged in literary work
since 1800. She has written under the pen
name of *Marga*et Sutton Briscoe* < Per-
chance to Dream and Other Stories ) (1892);
' Links in a Chain > (1893) ; 'Jimty and Others *
(1898) ; ( The Sixth Sense and Other Stories*

Hopkins, Mark, American college presi-
dent: b. Stockbridge, Mass., 4 Feb. 1802; d.
Williamstown, Mass., 17 June 1887. He was
graduated at Williams College, Mass., in 1824,
and having filled a tutorship in the college two
years received in 1828 the degree of M. D., and
in the same year commenced the practice of
medicine in New York. In 1830 he was re-
called to Williams College to fill the chair of
moral philosophy and rhetoric, and in 1836 be-
came president of the college, a position which
he held till 1872. In addition to his labors as
an instructor, he lectured before the Lowell
Institute of fioston, the Smithsonian Institution,
and various scientific and literary associations.
Presiding over a college which has been called
the cradle of foreign missions, he took an active
part in the deliberations of the American board
of commissioners for foreign missions, of which
he was president from 1857. He published lec-
tures on the Evidences of Christianity * (1846) ;
'Miscellaneous Essays and Discourses* (1847) ;
'Lectures on Moral Science > (1862) ; 'The Law
of Love and Love as Law ) (1869); 'Outline
Study of Man* (1873); 'Scriptural Idea of
Man* (1883); 'Teachings and Counsels > (1884).
See Carter, 'Life of Mark Hopkins* (1892).

Hopkins, Pauline Bradford Mackie, Amer-
ican novelist: b. Fairfield, Corai., 1874. In 1899
she married H. M. Hopkins; she has been in
literary work since 1896. Her works include
'Mademoiselle de Berny, a Story of Valley
Forge* (1897); 'Ye Lyttle Salem Maide, a
Story of Witchcraft (1898); 'A Georgian
Actress, an Historical Romance* (1900).

Hopkins, Samuel, American Congrega-
tional clergyman : b. Waterbury, Conn., 17 Sept.
1721 ; d. Newport, R. I., 20 Dec. 1803. He was
graduated at Yale College in 1741, studied the-
ology under Jonathan Edwards (q.v.), and in
1743 . was ordained at Housatonic, now Great
Barrington, Mass., where he continued until
1769, when he removed to Newport, R. I., and
was pastor there till his death. He possessed
almost incredible powers of application, and is
said to have been sometimes engaged during
18 hours of the day in his studies. He pub-
lished 'Dialogue, Showing it to be the Duty and
Interest of the American States to Emancipate
all their African Slaves * (1776) ; 'System of
Doctrines Contained in Divine Revelation, Ex-
plained and Defended > (1703) ; etc. His theo-
logical opinions gave rise to the famous Hop-
kinsian Controversy. Hopkins differs from or-
thodox Calvinism in his opposition to the doc-

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trines of original sin and of the atonement;
moreover, he put particular stress on the virtue
of altruism and unselfishness, even claiming that
selfishness, of whatever nature, was inherently
and essentially sinful. Consult: West, < Life of
Hopkins> (1805) ; Park, < Memoir > (1852). See
also Mrs. Stowe's novel, ( The Minister's Woo-
ing/ in which Hopkins is the central figure.

Hopkins, Stephen, American statesman; a
signer of the Declaration of Independence: b.
Scituate, R. I., 7 March 1707; d. Providence
13 July 1785. In 1733 at Providence he was
elected a member of the general assembly, and
in 1739 became chief justice of the court of
common pleas. In 1755 he was elected governor
of the State, and remained in office, with the
exception of four years, until 1768. In 1754 he
was appointed a member of the board of com-
missioners assembled at Albany, N. Y., to con-
cert a plan of union for the colonies. In 1765
he was elected chairman of a committee ap-
pointed at a special town meeting held in Provi-
dence to draft instructions to the general as-
sembly on the stamp act. In August 1774, he
was, with Samuel Ward, elected to represent
the State in the general Congress held at Phila-
delphia, and was also chosen in 1775 and 1776.
On the naval committee he was placed next
after John Hancock, the chairman, and greatly
assisted in the formation of a navy. For 50
years he filled some public station ; he was for
many years chancellor of Brown University. In
1765 he commenced a < History of the Planting
and Growth of Providence/ published in the
Providence Gazette/ In the same year he
published c The Rights of the Colonies Ex-
amined/ which was reprinted in London.

Hopkins, Tighe, English author: b. 8 Dec.
1856. He is a frequent contributor to English
and American periodicals and among his nu-
merous works are (, Twixt Love and Duty*
(1886); <For Freedom* (1888); 'Dungeons of
Old Paris* (1898); <An Idler in Old France*
(1889); ( The Man in the Iron Mask* (1001).

Hop'kinson, Francis, American jurist; one
of the signers of the Declaration of Independ-
ence: b. Philadelphia 21 Sept. 1737; d. there
9 May 1 791. He was graduated at the College
of Philadelphia (now the University of Penn-
sylvania), having been the first student who
entered that institution at its opening, and after-
ward studied law. In 1776 he was sent from
New Jersey as one of her representatives in
Congress. During the Revolution he distin-
guished himself by satirical and political writ-
ings, which attained such popularity that it has
been said that few pens effected more than
Hopkinson's in educating the American people
for political independence. He also ridiculed
in prose and verse most of the social follies of
his time. In 1779 he was made judge of the
admiralty of Pennsylvania, which office he held
for ten years, until the organization of the fed-
eral government, when it expired. As soon, how-
ever, as Washington became President of the
United States, he addressed to Hopkinson a let-
ter enclosing a commission as United States dis-
trict judge for Pennsylvania. He was skilled in
painting and music, composing highly popular
airs for his own songs. Of his political writings
the most prominent were: 'The Pretty Story >
(1774); <The Prophecy* (1776); < The Political

Catechism > (1777) • The best known of his
poems are : 'The Battle of the Kegs/ a humor-
ous ballad, and ( The New Roof, a Song for Fed-
eral Mechanics/ The Miscellaneous Essays
and Occasional Writings of Francis Hopkin-
son } were published in 1792.

Hopkinson, Joseph, American jurist and
poet: b. Philadelphia 12 Nov. 1770; d. there 15
Jan. 1842. He was a son of Francis Hopkinson
(q.v.). He was educated at the University of
Pennsylvania, studied law, and began to prac-
tise at Easton, Pa., in 1791, whence he returned
to Philadelphia. From 1815 to i8i9.he was a
member of the House of Representatives from
Philadelphia. He opposed the recharter of the
United States bank, and made a noted speech on
the Seminole war. At the close of 1819 he re-
tired from Congress, declining a re-election.
Having gone to Bordentown to reside, he was
elected to the legislature of New Jersey. In
1828 he was appointed judge of the United
States court for the eastern district of Pennsyl-
vania, an office which had been filled by his
father under Washington. In 1837 he was chair-
man of the judiciary committee of the conven-
tion to revise the constitution of Pennsylvania.
He is, however, best known as the author of
the national song ( Hail Columbia/ written in
1798 for the benefit of an actor named Fox.

Hop'kinsville, Ky., city and county-seat of
Christian County, on the Louisville and Nash-
ville, and the Ohio Valley R.R/s. Here are
Bethel Female and Southern Kentucky col-
leges, Western Kentucky insane asylum, and
manufactures of tobacco, lime, brick, wagons,
and carriages, a national bank and the Hopkfns-
ville high school. The city has an assessed
property valuation of over $2,000,000. Pop.
(1910) 9419.

Hop'per, De Wolf, American actor: b.
New York 1858. He made his first profes-
sional appearance in ( Our Boys' (1878), and
later appeared in ( Hazel Kirke* and other plays.
He studied vocal music for several years and
became a star in comic epera and musical

Hopper, Isaac Tatem, American philan-
thropist : b. Deptford, N. J., 3 Dec. 1771 ; d.
New York 7 May 1852. He was a member of
the Society of Friends, and in the division which
took place in 1827-8, joined the anti-orthodox
or ^Hicksite" branch. In 1829-41 he was di-
rector of a New York shop for the sale of
Hicksite books, in 1841-5 was treasurer and
book-agent of the Anti- Slavery Society, and
from 1845 devoted his efforts to the work of
the New York Prison Association. He was
widely known for his interest in benevolent
objects, especially negro emancipation and the
assistance of discharged prisoners. At Phila-
delphia he was a founder and the secretary of
a society for the employment of the poor, teacher
in a colored school, and otherwise interested in
philanthropic measures. He was an eloquent
speaker. Consult the < Life ) by Child (1853).

Hop'pin, James Mason, American scholar
and author: b. Providence. R. I., 17 Jan. 182a
He was graduated from Yale in 1840, studied law
at the Harvard law school (1841-2), theology at
the Union and Andover seminaries (1843-5) 2°&
the University of Berlin (1847-9), was ordained
to the Congregational ministry in 1850, and was

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pastor at Salem, Mass., in 1850-9. In 1861-79
he was professor of homiletics at Yale, in 1861-3
also pastor of the College church, and from
1879 until his retirement as professor emeritus
in 1899 professor of the history of art. His
publications include < Notes of a Theological
Student* (1854) ; 'Old England: Its Art, Scen-

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